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Ramsay, Robert E. 


Effective direct advertising 


New York 








" business' 


..' V 

, I 


Ramsay, Robert E 1888- 

Eff ective direct advertising ; the principles and practice 
of producing direct advertising for distribution by mail 
or otherwise, by Robert E. Ramsay ... New York, Lon- 
don, D. Appleton and company, t^^. 1922. 

xiii p., 1 1., 640 p. illus. (incl. forms) plates, diagrs. 21* 
"Bibliography and acknowledgments" : p. 591-593. 

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1. Advertising. i. Title. 

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"I keep six honest serving men 
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Their names are What, and Why and When, 
And How, and Where and Who." — Kipling. 




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This volume is the direct product of some fifteen years* 
experience in the use of direct advertising, an experience 
also which covers over six years' work as a member of the 
Board of Governors of the Direct IMail Advertising Asso- 
ciation. I may state that I still serve this organization 
in this capacity. Moreover, the subject matter of this book 
has been acquired partly during some three years of con- 
current effort as editor of two different advertising publi- 
cations, one of which specialized in direct advertising and 
house organs. 

This book, furthermore, is an outgrowth of writing 
more than a hundred business articles of all kinds which 
have appeared at various times in publications that treat 
principally of advertising. 

While many books have been written and published 
upon advertising in its various aspects, just as there have 
appeared several works upon the subjects of printing, en- 
graving, typograph}^ and the like, yet not a single one of 
them has combined all the knowledge which an advertiser, 
whether of large or small proportions, needs to draw upon 
to inspire or teach him to do effective advertising. 

This volume, therefore, attempts to combine in one book 
the essential physical, mental, and mechanical factors as 
well as strategic methods that are involved in the prep- 
aration either of a single piece of direct advertising or of 
an elaborate campaign of many millions of pieces. 

It deals with principles only and, though written simply 
so that these may be grasped readily by the student or be- 
ginner in advertising, I hope it may prove valuable to the 
advanced practitioner who wishes to specialize in direct 
advertising or use the book as a ready reference guide, 


" Iff 





which it may lay claim to being because of its thorough 
index and complete set of cross 'eferenees 

Tn nrdpr to simplify the work both for teaciiin„ dii 
f "cJnfexDer^nced advertisers, it has been subdivide 
IlTvepaT Each part is distinct from the others; all 

'VTo::r:l::iT:tS^ory of direct advertising, and 
aho'lves an'idea of the place direct advertising occupies. 


"'■paTTi;ree discusses the mental factors including analy- 
sis anJ planning, follow-up, and writing direct-advertising 

Tart Four explains all of the mechanical (including 
certain mechanical which are also physical) factors m 

direct-advertising work. rrineioles as set 

Part Five shows the application of the principles as 
down in Parts One to Four inclusive, and touches upon 

Th;'ap1rndic:r tr' :l:,y reference purposes, 
luentl'^t Ud to the fact that the ^-^2^112^: 

enlarred to'auote admitted authority u^^^^^^^^^ 
rather than set forth his own P^^^/^ XTreTrenc^^^ 
finished product might be a^/^^^^;;*t . J S 
textbook. Where ^^'^^^^l^^^^^^^ 
both sides and endeavored to draw a de^ ^ 

from the preponderance of the eviaence, 
would phrase it. 

The book is in no way intended as propaganda for more 
indiscriminate direct advertising, for, as I said in the fore- 
Word to the companion book, Effective House Organs, 
what the advertising world needs in every field is not more 
of any class but better and higher standards in all classes, 
and I shall therefore show the weak as well as the strong 
points of direct advertising. In doing this there is no 
disposition to step on any one's "pet corns" but only a 
desire to make the work constructively helpful to the gen- 
eral advertising world. 

While acknowledgments are made elsewhere (see section 
505) to the splendid cooperation of many who have helped 
to make the book possible, I desire to add special thanks 
here to Mr. Albert Highton, formerly associate editor of the 
New Standard Dictionary, for care in reading and correct- 
ing the original manuscript. 

If this book helps even slightly towards a better under- 
standing and a more effective use of this ** magic of the 
mails" and an improvement in the quality of direct adver- 
tising I shall feel that my efforts have not been in vain. 
At least I venture to hope that the desires of my many 
friends who have requested me to undertake the work have 
been satisfactorily fulfilled. 

Robert E. Ramsay 
HoLYOKE, Mass. 



^ Vll 




I. The History of Direct Advertising 1 

II. The Place of Direct Advertising in Business . . 12 



III. The Classifications of Direct Advertising ... 39 

III. The Classifications of Direct Advertising {con- ^^ 


IV. The List ^A 

V. The Returns 

VI. The Outside ^^^ 

VII. Wteo Should Prepare Direct Advertising? . . .179 



VIII. Planning the Campaign 209 

IX. Planning the Follow-up 244 

X. Writing Direct Advertising . . • 260 


XI. Planning the Physical Forms from a Mechanical 

Standpoint "^^ 

XII. The Typography ^21 

XIII. Pictorial and Color Display 339 












The Engravings and Electrotypes 35S 

The Paper Stock ^71 

The Reproduction •' -^^^ 

Handling the Direct-Advertising Reproduction . 395 

Addressing and Distributing 413 

The Records ^^^ 

The Postal Requirements 444 


XXI. How A Single Piece Has Been Used Effectively . 4(17 
XXII How A Campaign of More than One Piece Has 
Been Used Effectively for Direct Returns 
Without Salesmen 4(55 

XXIII. How DreECT Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 

LY IN Conjunction with Salesmen 4(1 

XXIV. How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effect- 

I^'ELY IN Conjunction with Other Forms, Such 

AS Answering Inquiries, Etc 479 

XXV How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 
ly IN Selling to Wholesalers and Retailers 

AND Their Salesmen 488 

XXVI How Direct Adv-ertising Has Been Used Effective- 
ly in Selling Goods for Wholesalers and Re- 

tailers ^^ 

XXVII. How Wholesalers and Retailers Have Used Direct 

Advertising Effectively 504 

XXVIII How Banks, Trust Companies, and Bond Houses 

Have Used Direct Advertising Effectively . .514 
XXIX. How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 

LY IN Foreign Trade Extension '-•20 

XXX How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 
ly FOR Peculiar Business and for the Accom- 
plishment OF Unusual Purposes ti27 

XXXI. How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 

LY in Appealing to Farmers «>35 

XXXII How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 
ly in Appealing to Professional Men and 

Women ''^^ 

XXXIII How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 

LY IN Appeaung "Personally" to Men .... i»48 



YXXIV How Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effective- 
XXXiV. ^^^ ^^ ^ppg^LiNG "Personally" to Women . . .554 

XXXV HOW Direct Advertising Has Been Used Effect^:- 

LY IN Appealing to Children &«^ 


A Standard Booklet, Catalogue, House 0««^f;^^^^.^^f'' 

AND Portfolio Sizes, Together with Standard Sizes ^^^ 

FOR Forms ^ ^ 

B. Standard Envelope Sizes 

C. Standard Weights, Sizes, and Names of Papers . . . &/& 
D A Typical Market Analysis 

e" a Test Chart or Yardstick for Direct Advt:rtising . . 583 
r. Standard Specifications for Ordering Printing ... 588 

Bibliography and Acknowledgments 591 






wherein you will find only historical 

and general data in regard to this 

particular form of media 



It is the true office of history to represent the events them- 
selves together with the counsels, and to leave the observations 
and conclusions thereupon to the liberty and faculty of every 
man's judgment. — Bacon. 

1. Direct Advertising Used in Early Days of History. 

—About 1000 B. c. an Egyptian landowner wrote on a piece 
of papyrus an advertisement for the return of a runaway 
slave. This, so far as we can trace, is the first example of 
direct advertising. The original was exhumed from the 
ruins of Thebes and can now be seen in the British Museum. 

Though messages were imprinted upon bricks and sent 
direct to the prospect, in Babylonian days, direct advertis- 
ing did not then grow to any extent. The first reference 
to direct advertising about the time of the birth of Christ 
is found in one of Pliny's books in which, according to the 
translation, we read, with reference to a poet : * ' He hired 
a house, built an oratory, hired forms, and dispersed pros- 

Writing was not a common art even among the more 
highly educated in those early days, a fact which naturally 
accounts for the slow development of direct advertising. 

2. Invention of Printing Assisted in Making It Popu- 
lar.— From the invention of movable type by Gutenberg 
(about 1434) to the present time the growth of direct ad- 
vertising has in many ways been concurrent with the 


■r, T^rirititiff and we shall briefly touch upon the 
CS'''hTgfrp^U'' of th. development as a ground- 

work for the possibilities of the future „,. t...„ 

■William Caxton was the pioneer printer of England ha. 
yymiam Westminster Abbey. 

S lIsSTSntefthr^t English handbill a fore- 
fur rof the' 'd^r'' of to-day the onghial of which can 
he seen in the Bodleian library at Oxford, England 

The first American direct advertisement according to 

the Phiiadelphia Public Ledger, was a pampWet publ sh d 

n 1681 by William Penn, the front cover of which s i e- 

^roduced on page 3. Printers' Ink, commenting upon 

producea °f P = J . „o^ archaic language, some 

SrptsageTin^fipamphlet would seem to be a quo- 
tation from a modern land scheme_. 

Following its appearance in Engiana, ^nere 
printed to Stimulate emigration to Pennsylvania, this pam 
Set was almost immediately reprinted in Dutch at Rotter 
dam and in German at Ajusf dam^ 

Good direct advertiser that he was, t^e°° ' , .gg^ 
his first piece with seven other pieces between 1681 and IbW. 
He a£ 11 a small portion of the first pamphlet and pub- 
lished it as a " broadside. " T?„,i„tate Ad- 

America, to the Committee of the Free^ Society of Traders, 

''S pampHet' T^^^^^r comment. It con- 
tailed rXo^ Philadefphia and an adve^--^^^^^^^ 

Unworthy rumors having been spread abroad - ^ngiand 

about Penn^s Woods, in 1687 Penn published another pam- 

^i^t the nurnose of which was to offset these rumors by 

t!S^lT^^oni.l. or endorsements) from ''persons 

of good credit" (to quote from the cover). 


In England there appeared, in 1673, a pamphlet entitled : 
''An Essay to Revive the Ancient Education of Gentle- 
women in Religion, Manners and Tongues," at the end 
of which there was an advertisement for a boarding school. 
This school probably financed the publication of the first 
''service" manual on record, as the advertisement and the 
material appearing in the book were closely allied. 

4. Benjamin Franklin Founded First House Organ. 
—Benjamin Franklin, of course, stands in the forefront 
of early American printers, having been apprenticed to his 
stepbrother James in 1718, later going to Philadelphia, as 
every school child knows, and entering another printing- 

SO»* t 



• M 


Lately Cr<fH(d under theCrcjt Sul 

• t 


T O 

William Penn, &c 

Togetlier ««ith Pn vitedgn and Power* wcef 
^ry to the ntll-govcrmng thereof. 

Ml^pHblidi IbriKf InTynunonorruchutraetmiytr 

iitt^ti CO TranTport ihcmfcltn Of ^cnun 


•XCnVON PtmU . mi iM bf tn/am, dm* 

ITie front cover of the first 
American direct advertising 
booklet issued by William Penn 
in 1681. 

office there. In 1732 he founded Poor Richard's Almanac^ 
the prototype of the modem-day patent medicine almanac. 



This publication was, in effect, the first house organ in this 

"Tt7he^rardat o/oeorge Ill's eldest daughter (about 
17^0) a cu'fous handbill was given -ay in J.ond°n wh.h 
was printed upon both sides and, according to historians 
^fooked like a tract." Its purpose, however, was to sell 
a portable washing mill (machine). ,,.,„„ 

Tn 1825 there was established in London a burial so- 
ciety which d^ributed handbills that rivaled the recen 
TlSorFrank A. Campbell funeral parlor advertisements 
at their best. Listen to one of its arguments : 

A favourable opportunity now offers to any person of 
Mttr sir who would wish to be buried in a genteel man- 
ner by iaT-ng one shilling entrance and twopence per 
week for '^.e b^eneBt of the stock. Members to be free w 

%rlney to be paid at Mr Middleton's a^ the sign of 

"\r^:ra K rs::^ras''f;.r..^tlg .» 

shroud, cap and pi low For use a c- ^^^^^ 

:Ko^es,rtt b^arrS if -eLeding one 




5. The Process of Printing Is Brought to the New 
World.— Strange as it may seem in the light of present his- 
tory all writers agree that the first printing press in the 
New' World was established in the city of Mexico. Penn s 
pieces previously referred to, it will be remembered, were 
printed in England. The date of the establishment is also 
agreed upon as in the sixteenth century, but statements as 
to the exact details differ considerably. . 

One account has it that the first Spanish Viceroy of 
Mexico, Antonio de Mendoza, who went to Mexico in 1535, 
established a printing office some years before 1 Sol. This 
account also bears the statement that Joannes Paulus Bris- 
sensius, or Lombardus, a native of Brescia, Italy, was the 
first printer in America. . 

One of his books, printed in 1549, was for quite a long 
time cited as the first to be printed in America. Still 
another version, deemed more reliable by informed persons, 
is that printing was first established in Mexico by the Span- 
ish missionaries. This statement is supported by the exist- 
ence, in a private library in Madrid, of a book bearing the 
date of 1540 and printed by Juan Cromberger, who died 
in 1544. According to this evidence Cromberger would 
appear to be the first printer in America. 

Accepting either conjecture it is quite certain that the 
printing press was actively employed in Mexico less than 
a century after it was generally known in Europe and 
nearly a century before the first press was introduced into 
the confines of what is now the United States. All this, 
however, is of historical interest only; there is no trace 
of any direct advertising produced by the Mexican printers. 

In 1818 the Columbian press, an invention of one George 
Clymer, of Philadelphia, was taken to Great Britain and 
patentek— an indication that America was interested quite 
early in perfecting the mechanical means of advertising. 

It was not until the close of the Civil War, about 1865, 
that the patent-medicine houses began to flourish and the 
use of direct advertising became anything like general. 
The almanac was the chosen form of such advertisements, a, 


form almost in disuse to-day except among this same class 
of advertisers. 

Charles Francis in his book ''Printing for Profit,' which 
covers fifty years of printing experience, tells us that: 
''When the introduction of photo-engraving brought down 
the price of pictures, they rapidly came into use in the price 
lists, and about 1875 we began the use of the more digni- 
fied term 'catalogue' in addition to price list." 

It is interesting to note that in the year 1888 the printing 
industry was not considered important enough by R. G. 
Dun & Company to make a separate classification of it in 
their annual review. Previously they had included it 
among the list of fourteen "other industries." Now it 
ranks sixth in the United States. 

6. Direct Advertising Is Mentioned in First Issue of 
Printers* Ink.— In the first issue of Printers' Ink, dated 
August 1, 1888, George P. Rowell, founder of the publica- 
tion and America's first advertising agent, in commenting 
on the proceedings of the Arkansas Press Association, said: 
"He printed his letter containing the resolution and certain 
questions founded thereupon and invited replies from sev- 
eral thousand publishers." This procedure was followed 
up, according to Mr. Rowell, with "a second circular." 

in the third issue of the same publication there was a 
reference to a certain Boston newspaper which had pub- 
lished a handbook. This shows the early interdependence 
of direct advertising with other forms. 

In the seventh issue, dated October 15, 1888, we find a 
refe'rence to the Grand Union hotel of New York, as having 
issued "An advertising device, a guide-book of New ^ York 
City. The pamphlet consists of 128 pages and map." 

The first reference to a circular letter is found in the 
fifth issue of Printers' Ink where the Gem Piano and Organ 
Company of Washington, N. J., is referred to as sending 
out a "circular to newspaper publishers in the guise of 
a manuscript letter." This quotation plainly shows that 
the so-called "deception" of form letters was given early 


A few mechanical improvements affecting direct adver- 
tising will be worthy of note : There came^the linotype in 
1884, though it was not used for commercial work until 
1894; the monotype in 1900, and other improvements in 
engraving, binding, folding, and so on. These will be 
treated as subjects in other sections. 

While not all direct advertising is mail-order advertising, 
as we shall see in Chapter II, the rise and growth of the 
mail-order business deserve a paragraph historically be- 
cause in this business great strides were made to improve 
direct advertising from the mental and strategical angles 
while the printers were at work improving it mechanically. 
A nationally known cloak and suit concern in New York 
City began business, for example, with an appropriation of 
$500. To-day it employe nearly four thousand clerks, be- 
sides tailors and other factory hands in four factories 
occupying some twenty acres, and does a business of many 
millions of dollars per annum. 

7. Mail-order Business Built Largely by Direct Adver- 
tising. — The total annual mail-order business of America in 
1917 (we take this year so as to secure an estimate prior to 
the inflated war period) was estimated by a mail-order 
specialist at $1,500,000,000. • 

Thomas G. Patten, postmaster. New York City, in an 
article in the American Magazine (late in 1920), made the 
statement that there were a number of concerns in New 
I York which spend annually more than one million dollars 
for postage alone. Of course not all of these were mail- 
order houses (see Section 13). Seven million letters in 
lone day from a single firm was not a record breaker, he 
said, which gives some idea of the enormous business of the 
United States Post Office Department. 

Another way of arriving at the extensive growth of direct 
j advertising, considering only that part of it which goes by 
mail (for as we shall see in later sections a large portion 
goes to "prospects" in other ways), the statisticians of the 
United States Post Office Department have figured that 
whereas in 1862 the average annual expenditure for postage 



stamps by the inhabitants of the United States was only 25 
cents, to-day it is in excess of $2.50 each. In commenting 
on this tenfold multiplication the New York Times gaid : 
"The percentage of increase is large, but one cannot help 
wondering where the enormous multitude live whose stamp 
bills are less than $2.60, for a multitude of that kind there 
must be in some sequestered corner of the country to keep 
the average so low. Certainly there are not a few people 
who could not get along with writing 130 letters a year, not 
to speak of the sending of an occasional paper and parcel, 
and slighter patronage of the mails would seem to hint at 
illiteracy or misanthropy, or both." 

Considering the mail-order advertiser alone, let us take 
the net sales for a period of ten years ending December 31, 
1919, of one leading company, namely. Sears Roebuck & 
Company, of Chicago, which amounted to $1,214,826,121. 
For the year 1919 alone the net sales of this company were 
$233,982,584, the largest single year's business it had ever 
experienced, being fifty millions ahead of its 1918 total and 
nearly four times larger than its 1910 total. 

8. Over a Billion Dollars a Year Invested in Advertis- 
ing.— A man who has specialized almost exclusively in mail 
selling estimated late in 1920 that 45 per cent of the total 
of American commerce was done through the mails. This, 
of course, may be conjecture, but the fact remains that at 
the Indianapolis convention of the Associated Advertising 
Clubs of the World (1920) the proportion of the total ad- 
vertising investment of the United States was placed at 
$1,284,000,000, of which $300,000,000 was estimated as di- 
rect advertising. 

The chart shown in Fig. 1 illustrates a revision of the 
Associated Clubs' figure to include directories and this indi- 
cates nearly $11 for each man, woman, and child in the 
country, based on latest census figures; or, putting it 
another way, approximately six times the entire gold pro- 
duction of the United States for the past 35 years, or twice 
the total earnings of the Standard Oil Company from 1912 
to 1918 inclusive. 

Chart ShO)\anO the 

v arious forms < /Mverlisin ^ 






\eieotrcc wict 




_ 11,000,000 

. 1^2.000,000 

. 24,OOOX)00 








Fig. 1. — A graphic portrayal of the estimates of tho total amount 
[invested during 1919-20 in all the various forms of advertising The 
Iheavy black lines are proportionate to the sum of money indicated on 

|the right of the chart. 




The tendency of the times is to standardize, to eliminate 
lost motion, to improve methods and their application, so 
that never before was there, from a historical angle solely, 
a more fitting time for deep, constructive study of the 
value of direct advertising. Since later chapters will cover 
the subject in every aspect from idea to execution, it only 
remains for us to note here that from its discovery in the 
dim, distant past to date (1920) there has been a far greater 
improvement in the mechanical preparation of direct adver- 
tising than there has been in the perfection of its mental 
appeal or psychological effect. 

Further proof of this will be found in considering that 
the 1914 census report of the United States government, 
as of 1909, showed a total of 31,445 printing establishments 
in this country. They represented an investment in plants, 
machinery and other equipment of $588,345,708, employed 
388,466 people at an annual wage of $268,086,431, and 
turned out $737,876,087 worth of printing, a part of which, 
of course, included forms, books, and items other than direct 
advertising. In the same year the firms specializing in 
direct advertising could almost be counted on the fingers of 
your two hands. The persons engaged in producing it 
could be numbered only by the hundreds, and but a com- 
paratively small total capitalization was employed. 

It was not until 1920 that any one firm specializing in 
the production of direct advertising assumed such im- 
portance as to justify a mammoth building devoted exclu- 
sively to its use. 

The dawn of better printing must be followed by a dawn 
of better direct advertising, that together they may worth- 
ily share the light of progress. 


3. Judging the future by the past, wherein lies now the largest 
field for development? 

4. Explain in general terms the growth of direct advertising, 
supplementing the text where possible from your own experiences. 

5. In your own words tell why you deem it worth while to 
study the history of direct advertising as a means of improving 
this medium in the future. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. How is the history of the growth of printing intertwined 
with the progress of direct advertising? 

2. In what department of direct advertising has the greatest 
progress been made to date? 





Tour advertising is not a thing apart from your enterprise. 
It is your enterprise; a contagion which you yourself create 
and which, if thoroughly spread, is as enduring as the everlasting 
hills.— Seymour Eaton. 

g. A Preliminary Study of the General Term "Adver- 
tising."— Before we can definitely place direct advertising 
in our minds it may be necessary to clarify the general 
term of ''advertising," a word which m itself has been 
given almost as many definitions as there are advertising 

men and women. j 4. a 

To all too many business men, as well as students and 
others, advertising is a mixture of signs, cards, pictures, 
"cuts " folders, catalogues, type, borders, and an unend- 
ing variety of visible, vocal, audible, physical, and ev«m 
inrangible ways and means of calling some one's attention 
to something. To some advertising seems to be the mam 
reason for the existence of magazines and newspapers, an 
excuse for the reiiular coming of the mailman, or for the 
hiding of a landscape, or an economical method of decorat- 
m^ the interior of street cars, all of which makes it confus- 
ing unless we analyze and classify the various general kinds 

and methods. . . 

Broadly speaking, all forms of advertising divide them- 
selves into two main classes: (1) General PuhUcity, aiad 
(2) Educational Advertising. 

The two extremes may well be illustrated by (1) a 
mammoth painted wall display reading ''Buy Liberty 
Bonds" and (2) a 1000-page book published by one of the 
New York magazines which reproduces m facsimile ll'UU 
letters of inquiry received. Another example of the educa- 


tional advertisement may be noted in a mail-order catalo^e 
which in some cases may reach a thousand pages or more. 

It will be interesting, for a moment, to trace the origin 
of these two general forms and at the same time to compare 
them, yet show their interdependence. 

General publicity signifies making a thing open to the 
knowledge of the general public. Here is an example: 
John Smith starts a hat store on Main street, and he hangs 
out a sign which reads : 

John Smith 
Sells Hats 

He may even omit the word "sells," thus permitting the 
reader to supply that fact by inference. John gets pub- 
licity but little advertising of an educational nature, for it 
is only an explanation of how John makes his living and 
merely parallels statements made in regard to other people 
such as: "John Doe works on the street cars," or "Rich- 
ard Roe is a lawyer." The general public is not especially 
interested in John Smith, nor how he makes his living. 
There are many other men, perhaps in the same town, who 
sell hats. Hats are but one of the many necessities of life 
that we all buy now and then regardless of publicity, though 
advertising of an educational nature may increase the num- 
ber of our purchases; witness the many hats bought by 
women as compared by the number bought by men. Style, 
a form of educational advertising, is the answer. 
. Across the street John Brown opens up a competing hat 
store and he takes the first step from general publicity; he 
adds the argumentative appeal which is the unconscious 
form of trying to educate your reader. Brown 's sign reads : 

John Brown 

Sells Better Hats 

Than Any One Else 

This cannot be classed as purely educational advertis- 
ing; we recall past disappointments. Too often in the past 



have we acted upon outright statements of this nature by 

rmrohasinf^ and been fooled. o. -i-i.' 

Tet till sign has more advertising value than Sn>,th s 
sign and if Brown stays there long enough it may event- 
ual?; by the aid of some other form of advert.smg, such as 
word-of mouth, newspaper, or street-car card, for example, 

Wihetreet there is a third hatter who realizes that, left 
to^urfelves, we will only b.v hats -^^ they are nkeo- 
and who believes that, after all is said, the hat itself is sec 
ondaTy to the service tbat we get from it. The EducaUonal 
sign that John Jones hangs out reads : 

John Jones, 

The Hatter, 

Sells Hats that. 

Look Well, Wear 

Well and Fit Tour 


The public, including you and I are not going to become 
interested in how John Smith '"-^es his living as long a 
he does not bother us; we are not inclined to ^e «J J^J" 
Brown's unsupported statement, but when it is called to ou, 
attention we are interested in a hat that looks well, wear 
wdl and which fits our head-we recall the one which was 
fl hit too tif^lit, for example. . , j „ 

""fo^Zl^Tne.^ sign, though it indicates educational a^^^^^^^^^^^ 
tisin- in its lowest form, strikes a service note, and there, 
fore affords a bond of interest betv/eenns. 

10 Two General Classes of Educational Advertising, 
-Educational advertising, in turn, can be divided into two 

general classes: Direct and General f<^^f''l2cener^\ 
General advertising, not to be confused with General 
Publicity is any form of advertising which, comparatively 
Tpeaki is scattered broadcast that every one may see 
and rea^d John Jones' sign is. in this class though re- 
^trtted only to those who may see it as they P-s ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 
In this same class are advertisements placed m magazines. 



newspapers, and business papers; novelties (when generally 
distributed) ; electric and painted displays, farm paper ad- 
vertising, demonstrating and sampling when general, direc- 
tory advertisements, window and store displays, posters, 
street-car cards, programs and motion-picture- advertising 
of all kinds. Some of these forms are, quite obviously, far 
more general than the others and their worth as advertis- 
ing media for any individual proposition can only be ar- 
rived at when all of the factors are known. Ordinarily 
speaking, the more general the advertising the more general 
must be the possible buyers and users of the product or 
service to be advertised. Any form of general advertising 
may well be adapted for breakfast foods, for example, pro- 
vided they have the necessary distribution. This, however, 
will be discussed later. 

The other subdivision of educational advertising is known 


For a simple example, if John Jones, the Hatter, referred 
to in an earlier paragraph, got out a booklet, "How to 
Choose Hats," and mailed it to those men living in his 
city who might logically be considered his prospects, that 
would be direct advertising of high educational value. 

II. A Definition of Direct Advertising.— Many defini- 
tions have been written, yet the shortest we have found 
reads: ''Direct advertising is the kind that goes direct to 
the class of people who use or can use the product adver- 

The writer's own definition of direct advertising is as 
follows: ''Direct advertising is any form of advertising 
reproduced in quantities, hy or for the advertiser and hy 
him or under his direction, issued direct to definite and 
specific prospects, through the medium of the maiU, can- 
vassers, salesmen, dealers, or otherwise.' ' This differs 
from Mr. MacFarlane's quoted below only in attempting to 
clarify it still further. 

Charles A. MacFarlane, in an advertising book (an ex- 
cellent example of a thorough-going educational advertise- 
ment), ''Principles and Practice of Direct Advertising," 





published in 1915 by one of the paper manufacturers, de- 
fined direct advertising thus: ''Direct advertising as the 
term is now commonly used and understood, is any kind ot 
advertising that is mailed or otherwise sent or given, by or 
for an advertiser, direct to specific firms o^. individuals, 
instead of being published or directed or distributed to the 

public generally." ^ -. , ^ ..• i,- i, 

A very much longer and more involved definition which 
lacks the clarity of the preceding is the one published by 
the Advertising Club of St. Louis: "Direct advertising is 
necessarily class advertising. Its use is conhned to cam- 
paigns where an accurate list of prospects can be secured 
and" where, owing to a diversity in the character of articles 
comprising the line to be exploited, it is desirable, if not 
absolutely necessary, to vary the form of copy for each ; 
where concerns dealing in specialties which are sold to dis- 
tinct classes of trade, for obvious reasons desire to conhne 
their advertising to those classes; where manufacturers, or 
others introducing new articles or lines of goods through 
dealers wish to establish a wide distribution of their prod- 
uct before attempting to create a general demand through 

general advertising." .i 4. .v,-. 

Instances innumerable could be cited to show that this 
definition is too restricting in its operation. For example, 
while direct advertising is primarily the method of reaching 
the classes, rather than the masses, one of the most success- 
ful campaigns ever carried on, according to the firm which 
conducted it, was a direct advertising campaign which in- 
cluded the distribution of a sample of chewing gum to 
every telephone holder in the United States, a total of seven 
millions in the first campaign and eleven millions during 
the ''repeat" some years later. 

12 Not the Medium for Reaching a Mass Blindly.— 
Direct advertising, therefore, is a medium for reaching the 
classes, primarily, and for the masses as well, where the mass 
makes up a class. Or expressing it another way, direct 
advertising is not a medium to reach a mass blindly. 

There are many different classifications of direct adver- 

tising, as will be found in Chapter III, and several different 
methods of reproduction, as will be fully described m Chap- 
ter XVI. It differs from all other forms of advertising m 
that its maker is also its actual or supervising distributor. 
Note that in the foregoing analysis and definitions, ex- 
cepting^ the one criticized, there is no attempt to claim that 
direct advertising is a panacea for all ills or that the user of 
this form cannot also take advantage of a concurrent or 
supplementary newspaper or magazine campaign. This 
point is stressed because at least one definition made by 
an authority in the field suggested by inference that any 
one using direct advertising could not use any form of gen- 
eral advertising. . • , ., J A J 

13. Not All Direct Advertising is Mail-order Adver- 
tising.— Furthermore, it should be emphasized that all di- 
rect advertising is not mail-order advertising, nor is the 
opposite true. In mail-order advertising, as a rule, the 
name of the prospect having been secured, perhaps through 
general publication advertising, the problem is to get that 
prospect to send in his or her order by mail, choosing from 
a cataloj?ue, booklet, or other piece of direct advertising. 
After the order has been received it will be filled by mail, 
express, or freight, as the conditions may require. 

Thus the mail-order advertiser has neither salesmen, re- 
tailers, nor other distributors, excepting, possibly, an occa- 
sional branch shipping plant which may serve the purpose 
of the latter. Mail-order advertisers are large users of di- 
rect advertising, to be sure, since on account of their deal- 
ing directly by mail with their customers it is the only 
form left for the completion of the sale. Yet by far the 
larger portion of the total sum indicated by the chart 
shown in Fig. 1 as being invested in direct advertising was 
contributed bv manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and 
others not in the mail-order business. 

For example, M. F. Harris, advertising manager for 
Armour & Company, Chicago, told the Direct Advertising 
Department of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the 
World, at their St. Louis convention in 1917, how the vari- 


ous forms of advertising 350 different Armour products 
were supplemented by direct advertising. In that year the 
company used 10,000,000 ten-color package inserts, so that 
in purchasing a pail of lard, for instance, the housewife 
received a piece of matter advertising ketchup, pork and 
beans, and other Armour products. Included in this cam- 
paign were 250,000 cookbooks, bearing the title, ''The Busi- 
ness of Being a Housewife," which represented a total cost 
of $30,000. At the same time there were 2,200 salesmen on 
the road for Armour & Company ; actually not a bit of mail- 
order business was done. 

Or take another and more recent example. In connecj- 
tion with a newspaper campaign in more than 700 citi(;s 
during the spring of 1920 the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation, according to an article in Printers' Ink (Febru- 
ary 12, 1020, page 44), used a total of nearly three million 
pieces of printed matter to help sell the Thrift idea. 

In one city, Pittsburgh, for instance, a half million cards 
were printed and distributed to employees of all the indus- 
trial plants and to every school child. 

Several of the larger cities have prepared very elaborate 
pieces of direct advertising. "Plan of Chicago,'' for ex- 
ample, is perhaps the largest and most successful civic 
promotion book ever published in this country. This book, 
which was illustrated by Jules Guerin and most of the il- 
lustrations printed in process, cost $74,000. 

Newark, New Jersey, has a book of this nature which sold 
for $60 a copy. Among other cities using this form of di- 
rect advertising are Minneapolis, St. Louis, Bridgeport, 
Providence, and Rochester. 

Another authority on advertising in general speaks ot 
direct advertising as a more modern word for "circulariz- 
ing " though nothing could be further from the truth. Dr. 
H E Bates, in The Advertising News, well answers this 
argument in these words : ' ' Direct advertising means more 
than circularizing. It does not consist of the mailing of a 
'more or less successful imitation of a typewritten letter. 
It means more than the sending out of what is generally 



called a 'circular' but which ill many instances is * flatness 
personified. Direct advertising is not, in any sense, a per- 
functory proposition. To plan and execute it successfully 
requires brains, plus experience, plus more brains. It is 
an infinitely harder advertising 'stunt' to write a business- 
getting direct advertising letter than it is to write copy for 
mao^azine, newspaper, or other advertising medium. 


Printers' ink must be mixed with brains. 

Since Dr. Bates is an advertising counselor, retained 
by several of the large firms, and recommends all different 
forms of advertising, his remarks will suffice to answer that 
specious argument which is often noted by the beginner m 
direct advertising, be he, or she, a seller or user of it. 

14. Relative Importance to Various Classes of Adver- 
tisers.— Fig. 2 shows the relative importance of direct ad- 
vertising to the various classes of advertisers. The chart 
shown has only been made up after a thorough research of 
the use of direct advertising among every different class 
involved. The upper half of the chart is devoted to a cam- 
paign aimed at users, or consumers, while the lower half 
outlines a campaign aimed at retailers or wholesalers. On 
the lower half, therefore, the mail-order and retailer ad- 
vertisers are not considered. 

To the mail-order advertiser direct advertising is shown 
as approaching 100 per cent— the scale runs from at the 
center to 100 per cent at the base of both upper and lower 
triangles. To the retailer or strictly local advertiser direct 
advertising is essential, a complete survey of which will 
appear in Chapter XXVII. To the class advertiser, by 
which is meant the advertiser doing business with some 
recognized subdivision of the business world, class publica- 
tions would be the chosen medium. For example, Printers' 
Ink is the class publication to reach the advertising man ; 
to reach handlers of electrical goods. Electrical Merchandis- 
ing would be the medium which might be used. To repeat, 
advertisers using these different class publications are 
known in the advertising world as class advertisers. They 
may also be national advertisers, let it be parenthetically 

R^j^tive Importance 





Vital -\t1ail Order Advertiser 
£5v<;pntLil-\Retail ( r Strictly Local 

Important - 

WO^Pbssible Users \/\W Distributioa. 

Mail Order AdvVV Retailer 

7Ae /leoRSSiu/ for 
Direct /fdtertisiMjqf 


4VS cLcsdrchuicbtc 

local Adv. 



Fiff 2 —A graphic presentation of the relative importance of direct 
advertising to all classes of advertisers, both when aimed at users or 
consumers and at retailers or wholesalers. 


Stated To the national advertiser, that is, the advertiser 
usin*' the general magazines, or the newspapers on a na- 
tionS basis, direct advertising, when aimed at users (on the 
assumption that by so doing it is possible to approach the 
100 per cent of possible buyers), is valuable, and as 100 per 
cent distribution is reached, as a general rule direct adver- 
tising becomes less important. 

To be specific, the manufacturer of a nationally adver- 
tised chewing gum with 100 per cent distribution would, 
so far as chewers of the gum were concerned, have little use 
for direct advertising, though jumping to the lower half ot 
the chart under discussion, if that manufacturer wished to 
reach the jobbers distributing the gum, for example, direct 
advertising might be the only method available. 

Taking up the lower triangle we find that the importance 
of direct advertising increases as we approach from the 
strictly local through the class to the national advertiser. 

Out of this study this rule may be formulated: Ihe 
necessity for direct advertising should be greatest with the 
newness of the product and probably will decrease as dis- 
tribution spreads ; this from the angle of the user, of course. 
A hosiery company, for instance, once used nearly 100 per 
cent direct advertising, but as they secured practically uni- 
versal distribution for their product they switched from 
direct advertising to general advertising, as more economi- 
cal. Certain manufacturers of an automobile accessory 
started out the first year with 70 per cent of their appro- 
priation in direct advertising, but as they secured distribu- 
tion they reduced this amount, putting what was so saved 
in general advertising. Other instances could be cited to 

prove this rule. 

A few excerpts taken from the proceedings of the St. 
Louis Associated Clubs' convention will prove the place of 
direct advertising in the national advertising campaign: 
*'I cannot conceive how a national advertising campaign 
could be a success without being associated with direct ad- 
vertising," said E. G. Weir, advertising manager, Beck- 
with Company, Dowagiac, Michigan. "Direct advertising 



has played a part, in practically every successful advertis- 
ing and sales effort we have ever made, said Henry H. 
Wav of Way Sagless Spring Company, Minneapolis. 

15 Percentage of National Advertising Appropriations 
in This Form of Advertising.— In issues of Postage for 
April and May, 1918, pages 8 and 9 and 17 and 30 respec- 
tively is shown the result of a very thorough research the 
author made of a large list of national advertisers Space 
is not available for republishing these data in full; sufhce 
to say, however, that taking a general average of all those 
replying to the questionnaire, and those answering repre- 
sented such firms as Armstrong's Linoleum, Buick Automo- 
bile, Glidden's Varnish, Ilupmobile, II ay nes Automobile 
Morrison-Ricker Gloves, Pyrone, Purina IMiUs, United 
States Cartridge Company and many others, these showed 
an average of 33Mi per cent of their appropriations in 
direct advertising to 66 2/3 in general media. 

Or if the advertisers were divided into two logical 
classes: (1) Selling through retailers where the margin ot 
profit is small, and (2) specialties which permit of a more 
generous margin of profit, it was found that the first class 
almost invariably showed 85 to 90 per cent m general 
advertising and the rest in direct advertising, and the sec- 
ond class, which was subdivided into new and old products, 
showed 50-50 for the old, and 75-25 for the new, m favor 

of direct advertising. ^- • « ;„ 

From the angle of the plaee of direct advertising m 
advertising, we need but quote one more authority, James 
O'Shaughnessy, Executive Secretary of the American As- 
sociation of Advertising Agents, who when speaking before 
the San Francisco convention of the Associated Clubs, said : 
''Few campaigns of advertising of any scope fail to employ 
this class of media known as direct advertising. . . . Every 
medium has its place. The theory that direct advertising 
should be employed in every campaign on every product 
would not be fair to it.- Neither is it fair that direct ad- 
vertising is denied its place in many campaigns. . . . Uirect 
advertising is so large in its importance to the making and 


the preserving of our national prosperity and so vital in 
its service to the industrial and social welfare of the nation 
that it must command the sincere and sympathetic study 
of every one concerned with advertising." 

Another angle of interest in the material presented in 
Fi^ 1 (see page 9), viewed in connection with statements 
ma'de in the foregoing paragraphs, is the recent inquiry 
amon^ 5,000 readers of Mailbag, a montlily journal of di- 
rect advertising. A digest of the results of this investiga- 
tion shows that the readers were on the average investing 
$.37 414 each in all forms of advertising, and an average ot 
$12272 each into direct advertising. Note how compara- 
tively accurately this percentage totals with the figures of 

We may then take for granted the necessity of this form 
of advertising in practically every campaign, though there 
are admitted exceptions. _ 

16 The Ten Advantages of Direct Advertising.— Let 
us now examine the advantages of direct advertising and 
compare it carefully with some other forms of advertising 
media. The ten advantages of direct advertising are well 
illustrated by Fig. 3. Each may be said to be: 

1 Direct.— This follows the ages-old axiom that "a straight 
fine is the shortest distance between two points"— the advertiser 
and the prospect. (More about this will be said in later chap- 

ters. ) 

2. Timely.— Advertising may be timed in many ways, as will 

be fully described in Chapter VIII. 

3. Elastic— Considered from the angle of mechanical or men- 
tal (copy) approach you make the medium and you therefore 
can make it fit your wishes or needs. 

4. Selective.— By this means prospects may be picked out ot 
a crowd. For example, a trust company might want to circular- 
ize all Liberty Bond buyers. 

5. Economical.— This factor, of course, presupposes using di- 
rect advertising for that problem for which it is fitted according 
to the laws of economics. Where mass circulation only is con- 
sidered and desired, this does not hold true. But where the list 
or Hsts are properly prepared waste is reduced to a minimum. 




I \foii: 



S^r/^f/ (/nhnceMuvm iota pom fs 




4m ^^SBLECTWE^^'^^^ 


Fig. 3.— The cartoonist portrays the ten advantages of direct 




fi Personal —Your advertisement in a publication is like 
unto a speecl'in a cro^vd. or on a billboard (poster) a shout 
"nto a multitude, but a letter or other dir<.ct advertismg piece is 

" T^VMiATiLE.-Vcrsatility applied may accomplish much- 
from getting orders direct (mail-order houses employ 't to great 
advlfage) to paving the way for salesmen (manufactunng 
firms selUng specialties are frequent users of it for this purpose), 
as well as many other things in between. , 

8 lNDiviDUAL.-you can (and should) put yourself into a 
piece of direct advertising. As Louis Victor Eyt.nge famous as 
a human-interest letter-writer, says: "You can get mto the 

envelope and seal the flap." i ««„ 

9 ADAPTABLE.-In Other words, a readiness ^ to reach pros- 
T^ects of every age, "from the cradle to the grave." , , , , 

10 rLEKiBLE.-The power by which you may reach the butcher, 
the baker, and the electric-light maker and talk to each m his 
own language. 

17 Results May Be Traced Where Desired.— A possi- 
bility worthy of consideration is that of checking results 
by keying the pieces in various ways, as will be shown later. 
From the strategic angle you may keep your campaign a 
secret if desired. On the other hand, by means of any 
general medium your competitors may learn your plan, 
prices, and methods. A mail-order campaign secures quick 
results bv direct advertising. 

Some or all of these advantages are possessed by the other 
media of advertising, but on account of lack of space we 
must restrict our study to the one form— direct advertising^ 

In this chapter we shall not take up the distribution ot 
direct advertising. Chapter XVIII may be referred to, 
however, for all of the different methods of distribution. 

In the case of practically any form of general advertising 
you can use direct advertising either to precede or supple- 
ment it. Naturally each individual case has to be consid- 
ered on its own merits, but take a manufacturer of filing 
equipment, for example. Fig 4 A indicates the division of 
one year's advertising appropriation of a manufacturer in 
that field and shows how direct advertising, in several dif- 




AwraqeFercentaofe Invested in 

and House Organs b^ Various Classes 




Investlqation of over looo Stores 


Fig. 4. — A portrays the pcroontage invested in various forms of 
advertising by a typical manufacturer. B gives tlie distribution of 
the appropriation of a typical department store. C is arrived at on 
a basis of System's investigation of over 1000 retail stores of all 
classes. See text for details. 


fprent forms (details of the various classifications will be 
ferent ^o™s V ^^ supplement magazine 

adveiisin^ Splaee of magazine advertising you might 
ubSe° newspaper, business paper, or oth" general 

rr^'ri: e dtartment s" re showing the portion which 
£; into direct advertising. Pig. 4 C illustrates the per- 
c'euta" spent in advertising by over 1,000 st.res, accordmg 
to theTnvestigators sent out by System, and the darkened 
nnSons show what might be approximately the pro- 
S n indirect advertising, using as o"r Jas^ o^omP^ 
Ln the amount so invested pro rata by the Hudson store 
XJ inTurn, handles all. of the various items shown sep- 

"';X"e^FunctLs Only Direct Advertising Can Per- 
form -Harry Tipper in his book, "The New Business, 
saT' 'Sed matter (direct advertising) performs 
funciions which can hardly be performed by any other of 
the general forms of advertising." Elsewhere in the same 
book he says: "Because of the fact that 90 per cent of 
the pHnted matter which comes into his (th« prospect s) 
hands daily is intended either to entertam or to in 
form him in respect of human knowledge or senti 
me™, the printed word is accepted mainly without 

"ttttempt will be made in this chapter to detf specific 
results from direct advertising campaigns Part Pive ot 
Zbook, Chapters XXI to XXXV, inclusive, covers prac- 
ticallv every angle of what direct advertising actually has 
done, but it will be interesting before we take up the physi- 
cal, mental, and mechanical factors to glance at Pig. & 
and note the ten important things it can do : 

1. Get orders. The success of the mail-order houses attests 

"2. Supplement publicity and answer inquiries. It is so used 
by advertisers using almost every form of media. See Chapter 


PUpfc tAdverttsingCampaign 

1 Go Get 

2 %6«./Ai(&^ S 

1^ M/asim^fms&tiis 

Pm/e tie ««/ /Sr Sa/esman 

betttfeen Salesman calls 

DisfribllingSffn^hs \ Double mink 

1 Juicif Fruit 

Dr/ye home arguments 

Secan/rg A/eiu^ 

anJBiHiasffig M 
*• {Wholesalers 

^ Neu) Tpmtory 


» I 

^ .-k-- 



Memi suddenly changing Jocal conditions. 


Fig. 5. — The ten important things that a direct-advertising cam- 
paign of one or more pieces can do are depicted by the cartoonist. 




3. Pave the way for salesmen and follow their calls. See 
Chapter XXIII- Where the house organ 

5. I)-t"bu « «amg ^ So used by ^^^^ g y^^ ^^^^^ 
list, as previously ret^ea lo- ^^ ^^ jo consider the ad- 

A b..» org.. »«. 1. »•/* 'I'J,,,. i„ „„. .„ ttrttor, 

main line of the Erie. „^:^;f ^f irood fellowship 

9. Consolidate ^^^^^^^^^.^ U„ -1 advantage' 
'' r 'fTt^'purp^rbv le AddressograpU Company, 
"to' M^et dCy ^l-a^ging local -<i'^'7' ^ ^rV-Tn 

r ^i^:.T:bicb .-gfit^i Lrrartotfrt;:^?U 

with a certain list, or territory. 

Direct advertising is used with great ^^^^^^'^ J^ J^°S 
H In<rerson & Brother to reach the small town neiQ, 
fspeeS the small towns located in sparsely settled coun^ 
Z One of the speakers at the Cleveland convention of 
S Direct Advertising Association emphasized t^^vah^e of 
direct advertising to reach the wide areas of western Can 

"^^o. All Media Are Interdependent, Generally Speaking. 
-To give the clearest idea of the close interdependence of 
all advertising, this short quotation from a firm which pro- 





duces direct advertising only is especially striking, because 
it represents the new day in business in general, the admis- 
sion that the other fellow has a right to exist : 

''Without newspaper or magazine advertising or the bill- 
boards and street-car cards, no business can grow really big. 
This is another way of saying that no business can grow 
big without public confidence. 

"Without direct advertising, no big business is making 
the most of its possibilities, and no small business is mer- 
chandising most economically." 

Evidence to increase public confidence can be seen in 
recent campaigns of mail-order houses in the general pub- 
lications which accept their copy. 

On the other hand, let us record here some specific cases 
where even an organization (Paper Makers' Advertising 
Club) whose business is to make more users of direct ad- 
vertising, admits that this medium is not the one to use : 

*' Where it is impossible to secure a complete and accurate 
mailing list of possible buyers of the product to be adver- 
tised ; 

** Where the selling price of the product is not sufficiently 
large to justify the cost of the necessary postage stamps 
and printing to reach individual customers direct ; 

"Or where the mailing list would run into too many mil- 
lions of names." 

With reference to the last mentioned it should be repeated 
that Wrigley's found it worth while to circularize as many 
as eleven millions of names direct; again, the publication 
(house organ or house magazine) having the largest circula- 
tion in the world is The Metropolitan, which is issued by 
the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company for its policy- 

20. Results Which Have Been Secured by Direct Ad- 
vertising. — A few results will be worthy of space here de- 
spite other detailed references, since they will serve as a 
ba,ckground for the closing portion of this chapter, which, 
necessarily in conformity with our scheme of the book, has 
been historical ; 

One concern with a booklet costing less than $300 pro- 
duced within eight months sales totaling $86,000. 

^An Ohio rubber company, to cite another instance (we 
quote their exact words), prepared "a few folders on toy 
balloons which have helped to increase our production of 
two million a year to sixty million toy balloons a year. 
While we do not attribute the total of this volume to these 
folders we believe they are largely responsible for this 
phenomenal increase inasmuch as they were sent broadcast 
in every section of the country and brought results^ that 
positively incapacitated our manufacturing facilities." 

With a series of three letters one specialist, within sixty 
days, produced 1,000 new accounts with hardware dealers. 

The same man with another series of three letters sold a 
tract of timberland for $5,250 which in its bulk purchase 
had cost the buyer less than $500. 

A well-known shoe company says this of direct advertis- 
ing: "We have tried about every form of advertising that 
the best known advertising men of the country could sug- 
gest. We have used every known method to determine 
which kind of advertising is most effective, and our tests 
have proved that direct appeals (folders and booklets sent 
direct to men who buy shoes) bring the best results." 

Another firm which kept such an accurate record of 
costs (for details of how to keep costs, see Chapter XIX) 
that they literally charged up the time of the bookkeeper in 
keeping the records, thus embracing every single item of 
expense both intimately and remotely connected with the 
campaign, showed total net profits just a little short of 
$16,000 on a total cost of $1,015. This was a sales cost of 
15 per cent ; upon inquiry it developed that their sales cost 
by previous efforts had ])een 30 per cent. Since their previ- 
ous efforts had been general advertising this is not exactly 
a fair comparison, for some of the effect and impression 
of the display advertising certainly helped the direct-adver- 
tising campaign, yet the results speak for themselves. 

"Our selling cost with direct advertising is 79 per cent 
cheaper than with any other form of advertising or selling," 






writes P. F. Bryant, sales and advertising manager of the 
Babson Statistical Organization, Wellesley Hills, Massa- 
chusetts, in Direct Advertising, Vol. 6, No. 2, adding, ''Di- 
rect advertising produces more than half of our business. 
It produces more business than our 24 salesmen produce. 
It shows the lowest cost per sale." 

Martin L. Pierce, merchandising manager, Hoover Suc- 
tion Sweeper Company, in addressing the Detroit conven- 
tion told how direct advertising might be used to appeal 
effectively to all classes when he said : ' * The effectiveness 
of direct advertising used by the Hoover Company is defi- 
nitely set forth because of its universal appeal. It has been 
used with equal effectiveness by central stations, furniture 
stores, hardware stores, department stores, and electric 
shops.' Sales are being built up as a result of its use in 
every state in the Union, in Canada, and in England. All 
types of prospects have been secured in approximately the 
same percentage in cities, towns and open country; from 
the rich and the poor; from the cultured and uncultured ; 
from business and professional men on the one hand and 
from shop hands and day laborers on the other." 

As a final summation of the value of direct advertising 
we know of nothing better than the following taken from 
the issue of Advertising & Selling for December, 1914: 
''Direct advertising meets the four conditions of salesman- 
ship: attention, interest, desire, action. Attention is no 
problem in direct advertising. Every message is seen by th(; 
pair of eyes it is addressed to. If your circulation is 20,- 
000, you can bank on 20,000 readers. (Note: Read follow- 
ing paragraphs on this point.— The Author.) Interest 
is°not hard, because you are not cramped for space, and 
because a message which resembles a letter commands some 
reading. DEsraE may be aroused, because you can use pic- 
tures freely, and on a large scale, also color without pro- 
hibitive cost, and because you have room to explain everj^ 
advantage and meet all objections. Action : you are not 
restricted to a flimsy coupon as in space advertising, but 
may enclose a postal card or self -addressed envelope." 

And that brings us to the final element : what is known 
as the "Waste-Basket Bogey." 

21 The "Waste-basket Bogey" and Its Relation to 
Direct Advertising.— Wherever direct advertising is dis- 
cussed you meet this: "Doesn't all direct adverti^ng go 
into the waste-basket?" or this: "Why, at our office we 
<Tet piles of mail ; you ought to see the boy coming m on 
Monday morning ! Very little of it is read." 

Of course not all direct advertising is read. Inevitably 
some part of it goes into the waste-basket. The best-pullmg 
full pao-e, in colors and in a preferred position, m a certain 
weekly'with two million circulation pulled a little under 
25,000 replies, or just a little over 1 per cent returns 
Do not misunderstand ; that was not the only result effected 
by that advertisement; in the writer's opinion it was well 
worth its cost even had it not pulled a single reply. The 
instance is cited here to refute an argument that is foolish 
but which every new user of direct advertising has to meet, 
the "waste-basket bogey." 

Not every salesman sees every prospect at every call. 
Some are out of town, some ill, some refuse to see him. 
The train is late, a connection is missed, there are many ele- 
ments which may cause the salesman not to get a hearing, 
and even if he secures a. hearing it is not always a favorable 
one, regardless of whether he gets an order or not. 

There is no potential difference between a piece of direct 
advertising which goes into the waste-basket unopened, un- 
read, and the advertising pages of magazine, newspaper, or 
business journal which remain unread. We all know from 
personal experience that frequently we do not find time to 
read or even to glance at every page of every periodical we 
buy, subscribe for, or have given to us. Yet one difference 
may be suggested : the physical act of throwing a direct ad- 
vertising piece into the waste-basket makes more impression 
when compared with an omission in reading the page of a 
periodical. This physical difference doubtless accounts for 
the persistent reference to "waste" in direct advertising 
without commenting on the same wastes in other forms. 




Incredible as it may seem, t\\:o big New York newspapers 
have at different times attacked editorially direct advertis- 
ing for its ''wastefulness." Think of the utter futility of 
their attitude when you see every day page after page of 
''boiler plate" or "special features" wasting precious 
newsprint in the very same newspapers! Think of the 
ridiculous argument that one New York daily puts forth 
to the effect that direct advertising should be sent only 
upon request, when this newspaper itself loads the paper 
so full of UNREQUESTED advertising that it makes one's arm 
tired to carry it! 

No one reads all the advertisements in every periodical 
he gets, nor does he read all the direct-advertising material 
he receives. Yet assuredly the businesses which have been 
built entirely by mail prove the efficacy of this form of 
advertising. Moreover, on practically every campaign 
which has been fairly tested direct advertising has far out- 
pulled every other form of advertising, as judged by num- 
ber of inquiries, by sales or on other bases. 

What has been said, however, is not to be taken to mean 
that we have reached the zenith of our power in direct ad- 
vertising. Only a minor portion of the 100 per cent latent 
power in gasoline is ever transmitted to the rear wheels of 
an automobile, we are told. Correspondingly, but a small 
portion of the latent power in almost any form of advertis- 
ing has as yet been applied to the driving-wheels of busi- 
ness. We have much room for improvement, and the aim 
of the remainder of this book, now that the historical angles 
have been disposed of, is to help you, the reader, to improve 
and make more effective your direct-advertising effort. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Give your own definition of advertising in general, as you 

understand it. 

2. What are the two general forms of advertising, and defiae 

each? • . . . 

3. Compose examples of the various divisions and subdivisions 

of advertising referred to in the text. 

4 Give the author's definition of direct advertising. 

5 Is all direct advertising what is known as mail-order ad- 
vertising? Cite examples of mail-order advertisers. 

6 In not over 300 words tell the relative importance of direct 
adv'ertising to the broad, general classifications of advertisers. 

7 In your own words tell why direct advertising is not as a 
general rule the medium for reaching the masses, and cite any 
Dossible exceptions you can think of. -. t • 

8 Name the ten advantages of the media under discussion. 

9' Someone has said "All direct advertising goes into the waste- 
basket," while another queries: "Then who fishes it out and 
answers it r What is your idea on the subject? 
10. Considering any problem facing you specifically, after tel - 
ing what the problem is, explain, in general terms whether you 
think direct advertising could or could not be used advantageously 
and why. 



In which von will find not only a dictionary tabulation of 
the physical kinds and classifications but the general ap- 
plications of those classes. ^ ^ ^ e 

This part also covers the List as the most important ot 
physical factors, as well as Returns and Results, the Out- 
side which the Prospect sees and, finally, the individual or 
firm preparing direct advertising. 

Note to Reader 
Throughout this book wherever there is a reference to sizes 
of booklets, etc., the first dimension given is m every case the 
width and the second dimension the depth. For example, a b x J 
book is six inches wide and nine inches deep bound at the lett on 
the nine-inch side. 



Order is Heaven's first law, and this confest, 
Some are, and must he, greater than the rest. 

22. Difficult to Define Advertising Terms Exactly^ 
Even such a well posted publication ^s Printers Ink ad- 
mits in a recent issue (1920) that it is almost impossible to 
define advertising terms. One of its subscribers having 
asked for an exact definition of the word ''broadside, the 
magazine replied in part: -Where a business is grow^ 
ing and expanding and pushing out into new channels of 
service as rapidly as advertising is, it would be difficult to 
standardize its nomenclature. To possess terms capable ot 
exact definition, a business would have to be static or re- 
duced to a basis of an exact science. For this reason, tbe 
terms used in nearly every business are subject to variab e 

definitions The word 'broadside' is a good example 

of the elasticity in the meaning of advertising terms. 
Originally 'broadside,' as used in the printing sense, was 
a large sheet of paper with printing of some kind on it . . 
To-day it is used to describe the announcements which are 
sent to the trade by advertisers." 

23. Present-Day Definitions Will Help to Clarify Situa- 
tion.— Despite the obstacles mentioned in the preceding 
section, every one realizes that even an approximately ac- 
curate set of definitions for general use would help to 
clarify the situation. Beginners in the use of direct ad- 
vertising, if fairly certain of using the right word to de- 
scribe a piece of direct advertising, would be more likely 
to use this form of advertising since it is quite natural that 




Order is Heaven's first law, and this confest, 
Some are, and must be, greater than the resL ^^ 

22. Difficult to Define Advertising Terms Exactly^ 
Even such a well posted puMieation ^s Printers Ink ad- 
n^Its in a recent issue (1920) that it is almost impossible to 
die advertising terms. One of its ^^^^^^^^ 
asked for an exact definition of the word broadside, the 
magazine replied in pal: -Where a business is grow^ 
ing and expanding and pushing out into new channe s of 
service as rapidly as advertising is, it would be difficult to 
standardize its nomenclature. To possess terms capable ot 
exact definition, a business would have to be static or re- 
duced to a basis of an exact science. For tliis reason, tlie 
terms used in nearly every business are subject to variable 

definitions The word 'broadside' is a good example 

of the elasticity in the meaning of advertising terms. 
Originally 'broadside,' as used in the printing sense, was 
a large sheet of paper with printing of some kind on it. . . . 
To-day it is used to describe the announcements which are 
sent to the trade by advertisers." 

23. Present-Day Definitions Will Help to Clarify Situa- 
tion.— Despite the obstacles mentioned in the preceding 
section, every one realizes that even an approximately ac- 
curate set of definitions for general use would help to 
clarify the situation. Beginners in the use of direct ad- 
vertising, if fairly certain of using the right word to de- 
scribe a piece of direct advertising, would be more likely 
to use this form of advertising since it is quite natural that 





no one likes to mispronounce a name or word, or otherwise 
bring unfavorable attention upon himself. It will be the 
object of this chapter, as we set forth the different physical 
forms of direct advertising, to give a fairly exact definition 
and as far as possible take the naming of the various forms 
of direct advertising out of the class of the old lady and 
her pies, one of which she marked "T. M.'^ for '' 'Tis 
Mince," and the other, made of apples, '*T. M." for 

'' 'Tain't Mince." 

24. Two General Forms of All Direct Advertising.— 
There are two general forms of all direct advertising con- 
sidered from the standpoint of their physical differences 
and variations. One general class is conventional and, 
practically speaking, standardized, while the other general 
class first mentioned we shall consider, in order. Letters, 
Letterheads, Books and Booklets, Catalogues, Portfolios, 
Bulletins, and House Organs or House Magazines, while 
under the second mentioned class we shall consider Mail- 
ing Cards, Circulars, Inclosures, Broadsides, Folders, Blot- 
ters, Poster Stamps, Novelties or Specialties of several 
kinds, including Photographs, Rulers, Calendars, Menus, 
and other forms of printed direct advertising novelties. 
Since there is no absolute line of demarcation it must be 
admitted at the outset that frequently pieces are hard to 
classify definitely. Fig. 6 shows these various classifica- 
tions in graphic form and will be helpful in considering the 
proper form to use in planning a campaign. 

Generally speaking, the conventional or standardized 
pieces require an envelope or other container in which to 
mail them to the prospect, or to serve as a protection for 
the piece itself prior to delivery other than by mail. The 
auto-contained, or unconventional, pieces usually are capa- 
ble of delivery without a special envelope, as by addressing 
them on the face in the case of the folder, or as in the case 
of the inclosure designed to go along with some other form 
of direct advertising; as, for example, the sales letter, and 
will not therefore require a special container. This par- 


Qonve/iilonoA Ou^ Conhlmt 



, Fr/nteci 

l^ /vorel 


A a «• {Personal 

A Letters ^^^^ 

B Catalojs [; 

C Booklets 
D Bulletins 
E ft)rlfolios 
F Almanacs 
C House Organs 

H MailinO Cards 
I blotters 
J Encbsures 
K Coupons 
L fecka^ Inserts 
M Broadsides 
N Poster Stamps 

O Folders . 
P Photographs 


StandarxJ 2 Government 5 No^l 

9/73/^ zed 


Fig. G.-The materia medica of <iirect advertising \\ hat to pre^^^ 
^r bP for anv speoitic problem can be determined only after diagnos 
" the 'complaint''-analyzing the aims, appeals and prospects. 







ticular feature will be treated at length in Chapter VI. 

25. The Letter the Basic Form of All Direct Advertis- 
ing.— As we found in Chapter I the letter, a written or 
printed message sent direct from the man who wants to sell 
to the man the former thinks will want to buy, is the basic 
and original form of direct advertising. The letter (ex- 
cepting, of course, the routine letter) is the form upon 
which all other physical forms of direct advertising have 
been built and, generally speaking, the more nearly the 
appeal of direct advertising follows the plan and outline 
of a personal individual-to-individual letter the more nearly 
will it be successful. The ''New Standard Dictionary" 
lefines letter, in the sense it is used here, as, **a written 
or printed communication.'' 

Charles Henry Mackintosh, before the Chicago Associa- 
tion of Commerce, in the spring of 1920, gave an excellent 
summarization of the preparation of an effective letter. He 
suggested that effective letters had ten points and each of 
these points was divided into three main parts: ** (1) The 
things that precede the writing of the letter— the plan; 
(2) the things that go into the letter— the text; and (3) 
the form of the letter. ' ' 

Under Plan, he listed knowledge of the subject, knowl- 
edge of the object, and knowledge of the prospect ; covering, 
in order, what one must know about the product or service 
you are writing about; what you must know about what 
you wish to accomplish with the letter ; and what you must 
know about the person or persons to whom you are writing 

Under Text, he listed five questions which the writer of a 
letter should ask about it : * ' Is it complete ? Is it logical 'i 
Is it concise? Is it forcible? Is it sincere?" 

Under Form, he listed two questions : ' ' Is it neat ? Is it: 


In a general way what Mr. Mackintosh, a specialist in 
letters, says about an effective letter is t,rue of all other 
forms we shall take up, since a letter is the basic form of all 
direct advertising. 

The functions of letters may be classified as follows : 

-I Qnn troods ideas, or services. 

1. Sell gooas, me , literature or salesmen. 

I ^fer^nti^e; trsroiele for data, infonnation, 

or goods, ideas, or service. 
5 Collect money. 
I ffeViSr?a)U" purely for good-wiU building pur- 

8. Confirm verbal understandmgs. 

A T etters Are of Many Kinds.-It is not usual to class 

^hereby any o^^ofmajJ^ffe'\ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^. 

leterkead le comUned mtk -ovel-leasast fodn, 
die-cutting, additwn of page^, '« ^htch event ii Ucomes 
Uno.n ly'many different -^tS^d" Vi a ized'Se/ 

the person speaking; as: Sf«!,L^"^'^f^'l Letter Multi- 
head Multipage Letterhead, Four-page Saks Leter^^ 

tTleUer, ^eepting only strictly pei^ona eommunjea- 
tions such as love letters, etc., is Practical y ajales '^tter 
Even an adjustment letter, a etter hat i« f te^npt ng to 
placate a customer for delay m ^el-ry o; t^^^^^^^^^ 
financial discrepancy or difficulty, when properiy w 


in reality, a sales letter, for its object is directly, or in- 
directly, the making of sales. Since there are, however, 
several volumes on the wide subject of letters in general 
and sales letters in particular, which are readily obtainable, 
we need but deal in this work with the fundamentals which 
connect this form of advertising with the problems before 


27. Analysis and Function of a Sales Letter.— I have 

something to sell which I have reason to believe you would 
want to buy if you knew about it. Upon that condition is 
built every successful sales letter, and upon the same prin- 
ciples that- you build your successful sales letter do you 
build— with as little loss as possible of the element of per- 
sonal appeal— every successful piece of direct advertising. 
What would be the natural thing under the circumstances 
just referred to, if you and I— speaking acquaintances- 
were located next door to each other in the same office 
building ? I would step into your office and tell you what 
I had to offer, and if you evinced interest I would name 
prices and terms. You would probably ask to see a sample 
or find out the brand, if an advertised line, and so on. The 
sale would probably be completed right then and there. As 
I watched your face I could gauge my talk accordingly ; if 
the telephone rang I could stop while you were busy at 
the wire and after you had rung off resume the con- 
versation. The sales letter, however, has not all of these 
advantages; it must do all its work without the writer's 
brains at hand to help when it is delivered, and it is there- 
fore harder to write than to deliver the sales message. 

The first step in the sales letter is to ''get in step" with 
the reader. Do not antagonize him if you can possibly 
avoid it. Having secured the agreement of your reader 
with your first thought, lead him to the next and have hini 
a"-ree with that and your succeediwg statements until you 
have successfully led him through interest and desire up to 
action. In the ordinary letter you work but with words, usu- 
ally typewritten or processed to imitate typewriting. In the 
multi-page letters and sales letterheads you have pictures 



and color at your command. Sometimes pictures are scat- 
tered through the typewriting on a form letter, though this 
is not the rule, and, generally, is not to be desired 

Summed up, then, a sales letter is a message about a prod- 
uct or service written hy the seller and delivered direct to 
Ze luyer. The big feature that differentiates it from pub^ 
lieation, electric sign, painted wall and similar forms o 
advertising is its personal appeal-it is direct from the 
writer to the reader with practically no extraneous mat- 
ter to divert attention as in the case of other forms of ad- 
vertising All other forms of direct advertising are but the 
sales letter illustrated, emphasized by color contrasts, made 
more emphatic by mechanical devices such as folds, bind- 
ings, mailing covers, and so on. In Chapter X we take up 
minutely the writing of all direct advertising, and that 
should be referred to in connection with this section. 

Especial attention should, at this point, be called to the 
fact that a sales message may be sent to more than one 
person and still be personal. For example, m 1918, a 
sales message" to every soldier of the American Expedi- 
tionary Forces written by King George of England, repro- 
duced in facsimile, and handed to each soldier, was in effect 
as personal as though the King had written the same note 
to each of the million men individually. With the preced- 
ing facts in mind, and also keeping before us the general 
function of a letter which is to convey a messasre— usually 
brief as compared with books, booklets, portfolios, and other 
forms of direct advertising— we believe the basic ground- 
work of all forms of direct advertising will be easily ar- 
rived at in the sections following. See Sections 137 ana 

28. Sizes of Letterheads.— The regulation— we might 
almost say standardized— size for a business letterhead sheet 
is 81/2 inches wide by 11 inches in height. Multi-page let- 
terheads are almost invariably multiples of this size. Oc- 
casionally what is known as the "Monarch" size of letter- 
head is used, which measures 7 inches wide by 10% inches 
high. This matter of size is mentioned here because it 



emphasizes why some forms of direct advertising are called 
"conventional" or "standardized." Custom has made it 
proper to use these two sizes, although the size first men- 
tioned is used almost entirely. Letter-filing cabinets and 
folders are made to accommodate the 8i/^ x 11 size. More 
than 90 per cent of all the letterheads reaching the writer's 
desk in a period of many years measured 8^4 x 11, with 
the remaining 10 per cent almost entirely divided between 
the "Monarch" and the half -sheet letterhead — 8l^x5% 

29. Other Forms Not So Well Standardized.— With 
reference to Section 28 let no one think that all the other 
forms which we have listed in Section 24 are as well stan- 
dardized and as strictly "conventional" as the letter and 
letterhead. We are considering the letter and the letter- 
head together because they are so closely intertwined as to 
make this plan preferable. It is also a fact that the make- 
up of the letter itself upon the letterhead, as to location of 
date, salutation, body, signature, method of running the 
type as to location, place for heading, advertisements, etc., 
is almost as thoroughly standardized and conventional as 
the size of the letterhead itself. 

In Appendix A you will find listed the twenty-two stand- 
ard sizes of booklets, folders, and circulars which will cut 
without waste from regular sizes of* papers as they have 
been standardized by the leading paper manufacturers. 
Appendix B gives you the standardized sizes of commercial 
and government envelopes, while Appendix C shows the 
standardized sizes and weights of all kinds of papers. 
These so-called standardized pieces, referred to in Section 
24, are standardized by custom only ; that is, it is usual for 
a booklet to be not quite so wide as it is high, and so on. 
Occasionally custom may be disregarded, though, as a rule, 
it is better to follow the usual conventions. 

30. Relation of Letterhead to Letters. — Letterheads are 
the physical form for carrying letters after they have been 
written. The sizes are as set forth in Section 28, almost 
exclusively, but the ways in which the letterhead may be 

Fig. 7.— Variations of the ordinary form of letterheads, 
together with one printed four-page letterhead. See text for 



Fi„, 8. The series idea is often desirable in the use of fourpafie 

letterheads. How two firms have adopted this idea is illustrated 

n.=pd for "direct" advertising purposes are legion. Pig. 
? at the left shows two letterheads of Fitzpatrick Brothers. 
One has down the left-hand margin four of their products 
?elduced in hlue and red in the original. Note how 
much more advertising value this letterhead has as com- 
Tred with the other one. To the right of the Pitz- 
natrick letterheads we find two single sheet illustrated let- 
terheads (reverse blank in both cases). One of them is 
what is known as a "half-tone" letterhead p.cturnig the 
cash-carrier of the Lamson Company; the other is a special 
design, "Flash Your Rush Orders to Us," made to enhance 
the value of a special circularizing with tins "form let- 
ter The Lamson Company uses the letterhead for its regu- 
lar correspondence and usual sales letters, while in the case 
of the Central Refining Company (note that name and ad- 
dress, usually "conventionally" placed at the top of the 
sheet, is here shown very small in the lower left-hand cor- 
ner) this "stunt" letterhead is a means to drive home the 
argument of the sales letter itself. At the top of Fig. 
7 we find the front and at the bottom two inside pages (last 
page blank) of a 9 x 12, four-page, illustrated sales letter- 
head with a tip-on return postal card. These examples show 
the usual uses of special forms of letterheads to put 
over" special sales messages. 

The letterhead of the Direct Mail Advertising Associa- 
tion, also shown on this plate, is what is known as a 
"Monarch" size (see Section 28). In this case the Associa- 
tion sells its next annual convention by carrying a line or 
two about it on the bottom of all letterheads used for several 
weeks prior to the convention. As for the relation of the 
kinds of paper used to the message, see Section 317 

31. The Series Idea in LetterheadsJ-Pig. 8 illustrates 
the several pages of two of a series of four-page illustrated 
sales letters being sent out by the California Almond Grow- 
ers' Exchange. Each carries with it the mam heading m 
gold, "Golden Chain of Co-6peration," and in each in- 
stance note there is an ellipse— suggesting the chain— but 
the illustration within the ellipse in one instance shows a 



little girl with a basket of almonds, and in the other instance 
bears the photograph of a window display. In one the 
entire four pages were used (not illustrated), while in the 
other only the first and third pages were used (not illus- 
trated), leaving the second and fourth blank. By use of 
the same general type of letterhead and illustration frame 
the reader is taught subconsciously in this instance. 

You need not use the same frame for your illustration 
to execute physically the series idea. From the lower part 
of Fig. 8 you will note, for instance, the first page of two 
different four-page letterheads issued by an electric ven- 
tilating company. They secure a ' ' family ' ' resemblance by 
using the same colors and general physical make-up. There 
is also shown one of these letterheads opened up, pages 2 
and 3 being utilized while page 4 is left blank, except for a 
copyright line, this reproduction being made by permis- 
sion. Another firm ''gets over" the ''family" idea by the 
unvarying use of the same colored paper ; in the instance 
in mind, a bright golden-rod bond paper is used. In this 
connection see Section 319. Physically, the series idea can 
often be used to advantage. 

32. Special-fold and Die-cut Letterheads.— Fig. 9 il- 
lustrates how special folds and die-cut letterheads may be 
used. The Demuth letterheads have a flap 3 inches deep 
at the top, which lifted in one specimen is reproduced in 
colors, with a suggestion of a poster background, a speci- 
men of the concern's poster, or billboard. The letterhead 
of Thomas Dreier shows the four-page letterhead opening 
like a calendar rather than like a book; in other words, 
the second page is reached by lifting the first one up 
rather than by turning it over like the leaf of a book. 
Die-cutting a letterhead is merely the cutting out, by 
means of a specially made die, of some part of the letterhead 
for display purposes. This cut-out part subtly suggests to 
the reader that there is something underneath and appeals 
to his curiosity. See Section 264. See also Section 139 for 


33. Variations of the Physical Form of Letters by 

Fig. 9. — These represent just a few of the special folds possible; 
others are illustrated on Fig. 70. The Dreier letterhead is on a 
deckle-edged (note the frayed deckle edge) book paper. The others 
are on coated papers to take the half-tones. 

rig. 10.— A. The first page of a notehead-size letterhead. Pages 
2 and 3 are blank, but page 4 carries a printed description of the 
booklet advertised in the letter. See Section 269 in text for ref- 
erence to card illustrated alcove. 

Fig. 11.— Four methods of reproducing form letters are illustrated 
above. B. Either typewritten, or multiple- typewritten. C. Printed 
from printer's regular type. D. Multigraphed and filled-in. E. Printed 
from imitation typewriter type. See text for further details. 




Changing the Method of Reproduction.— While in our 
plan we do not take up the subject of reproduction until 
we reach Chapter XVI, still there are some variations in 
physical form of letters caused by variations in methods of 
reproduction. Fig. 10 A illustrates a note-size letterhead, 
made by folding once an 81/2 x 11 sheet making a 51/2 x 8 
letterhead. The heading is in black only, and there is no 
date or salutation other than ''Good Morning" spaced and 
centered. There is a facsimile pen-written signature, ap- 
parently in this case reproduced by the process of zinc 
etching. For details see Section 306. This is an example 
of what is known as a general ''circular letter." Page 4, 
not illustrated, is a full page of type, broken up neatly into 
little blocks, of course describing the premium book offered. 

Fig. 11 B is a regular 8^/2 x 11 letterhead, and it has 
every appearance of having been personally written; it 
has in lieu of the date, "Fine, Thank You," the paragraph 
marks are in red, the rest is in black ink. The signature is 
in purple and written by the dictator or some one able to 
duplicate his signature. Fig 11 B is shown particularly to 
emphasize the point made in Section 27, for it is not one 
whit more personal than the messages contained in Fig. 10 A 
and Fig. HE. It may even have been produced on an 
automaric typewriter. See Section 328, Chapter XVI, for 
details. Fig. 11 E is 6 x 9 in size, because it was sent out 
clipped to the front of a book of that size. It is printed 
throughout at one impression in a purple ink. No date, it 
starts off "Dear Reader," and since its theme is the cremat- 
ing of bodies it is surely a personal message. 

Fig. 11 D, 61/4 X 9 inches in size, is what is known as a 
multigraphed letter (see Section 329), and has been filled in 
with a name and address, though not so accurately as to de- 
ceive any one. Fig. 11 C illustrates the "Monarch" size of 
letterhead and a straight printed letter thereon. For other 
folds see Section 262. 

34. Letterheads Should Fold to Fit Envelopes.— In 
planning to use any size or form of letterhead it should be 
confined to a size that when properly folded w411 fit neatly 



into a standard size of commercial or government envelope. 
In this connection see Appendix B. 

35. While Primary, Form Letters Not Bulk of Direct 
Advertising.— While form, or processed, or circular letters 
are primary, and the easiest to prepare from the physical 
standpoint, they do not constitute the bulk of direct ad- 
vertising, in the present day, according to reliable authori- 
ties. Homer J. Buckley, past president of the Direct Mail 
Advertising Association, estimated in 1911 that 52 per 
cent of all letters mailed in the United States were "form" 
letters. Their continued and enormous use and misuse have 
caused them to fall into disuse somewhat in later years 
and various printed forms now appear to be in the lead. 
Even in 1920 one of the leading national advertisers, also 
a heavy direct advertiser (The Fabrikoid Company), ad- 
mitted that more direct inquiries were secured from a 
form letter with a sample than from any other form of ad- 
vertising. This experience has been confirmed by many 


36. Importance of Physical Form of the Letter.— Louis 
Victor Eytinge, in an advertising booklet for the Mortimer 
Company of Canada, gives an excellent example of how im- 
portant is the physical form of a letterhead. He tells of 
a great American publishing house which increased its mail 
sales in one line by an improved letterhead, changing from 
a type " dry-as-dust " to a handsome illustrated letterhead 
in several colors. In the same booklet he cites another in- 
stance where he designed a special letterhead for a manu- 
facturer of school slates at a cost of $108 and the first 
month 's business following the use of the new design pro- 
duced returns greater by $12,000 than during any previous 
thirty-day period. See also Sections 302 and 332. 

37. The Use of the Extra Pages on a Multi-page Let- 
terhead.— While the examples shown have indicated the 
uses for the extra pages of the multi-page letterheads, and 
in some cases six pages and eight pages have been used 
though four is the rule, let us emphasize some of the 
most frequent uses. The multi-page letterhead is used to 





permit longer sales talk, the use of illustrations and also 
makes it possible to put over two or more associated ideas 
in the same letter. For example, a certain desk manufac- 
turer issues a four-page letter monthly. On one page he 
reproduces some of his desks, on the inside pages he gives 
his dealers suggestions how to feature them, and on another 
page he reproduces a specimen advertisement. 

Take the Almond Growers' letterhead shown on Fig. ». 
In one case the letter is too long for one page and is com- 
pleted on the second page, the facing or third page is a 
large illustration of advertisements, window display ma- 
terial, cards, etc., which are available, the fourth page 
showing the ribbons used on each bag of their almonds. 
The use of extra pages eliminates the necessity of a sep- 
arate inclosure, which may be lost; it permits your printed 
circular to retain the general size and shape of a standard 
letterhead, and on the inner pages you may feature speci- 
mens of your work if you are a printer, engraver, ar st 
or direct-advertising specialist, or special items m your line 
or unusual opportunities if you are a real-estate man, and 

^"^ One firm of refrigerator manufacturers, for instance, had 
a series of four-page letterheads, each featuring some par- 
ticular industry: in writing regular letters to a butcher a 
eUerhead was used illustrating refrigerators for butchers, 
onTages 2 and 3 (page 4 is usually left blank) ; m wntmg 
a florist, another design, and so on 

This plan has one disadvantage, it should be noted: some- 

times rec^ular mail is cast aside by a ^^\^^''f f^''^''^l^^^^ 
may think it is an advertising or circular letter. Schoo 
use the inside pages to picture some of their successful 
graduates; paint companies to picture buildings painted 
with their products; manufacturers to picture the making 
or inspection of their manufactured goods, and so on. One 
Chamber of Commerce uses the four-page If erhead to 
prove its strategic geographical location. Chanties use 
such letterheads to reach their prospects, and book pub- 
lishers have long used them to push the hardest of all sell- 

ing propositions— books. Their possibilities are almost un- 
limited and but for lack of space many more users and 

uses might be cited. ^ ^^r . 

38. Books and Booklets.— Calkins and Holden in Mod- 
ern Advertising" say: ''A booklet is usually popular in 
style and non-technical, often a talk about the good points 
of an article advertised, while a catalogue is a trade list, 
giving technical descriptions, and serves as a book of ref- 
erence." The work quoted from was first published in 
1905 and revised and republished in 1912. 

To-day, quite frequently, we find the most abstruse prob- 
lems taken up in books or booklets and we find catalogues 
(detailed in sections 43 to 47 inclusive) devoting more 
and more space to material that will make them "books of 
reference." Thus do times change. 

By consensus of opinion nowadays a book is usually con- 
sidered as a hound pamphlet with a stiff or semi-stiff cover; 
if, however, the cover is of paper, or of a light-weight 
fimsy hoard, then it is usual to refer to it as a booklet. 
Sometimes a booklet is also an envelope inclosure or a pack- 
age insert. The words "book" and "booklet" are used 
almost interchangeably by modern advertising men and 
women and there is really little to be gained by splitting 
hairs over the distinction. 

A booklet usually contains at least eight pages and is 
bound like a book. By that is meant its pages open up 
book-fashion by reason of a staple, stitch, touch of glue, or 
other method of attaching the sheets at the left in the 
center of each sheet. (Note— a sheet is two leaves in the 
book itself; for example, in an eight-page book, pages one 
and two and seven and eight, binding them with a pin in 
the center, amateur-style, for demonstration purposes, are 
the same sheet of paper; more of these technical details 
will be found in Section 345— as contradistinguished from 
the ordinary newspaper, for example, the sheets of which 
are not bound and will fly away as you turn the pages if 
you are not careful to hold the left-hand edge. These are 
hair-line distinctions and subject to broad interpretation. 


Many Bibles are bound with a flimsy cover, yet most as- 
suredly they are always referred to as '^ books." The Wil- 
liam Penn *' pamphlet" (the ancient title for "booklet, 
apparently) referred to in Chapter 1, page 3, was either 
a booklet or an envelope inclosure according to its size, 
method of distribution, and style of binding. 

**The booklet," says F. R. Morison, ''is the golden mean 
between the circular (mailing card, see Section 63) and 
the catalogue. All three have their place : but greater than 
either the catalogue or the circular is the booklet." 

The reason Mr. Morison argues thus is that the catalogue 
is usually a bulky list filled with descriptive matter, while 
the circular gets attention in an almost undignified manner, 
in many cases, without having space for the necessary de- 
tails or minute * ' reason-why ' ' copy. The greater length of 
the booklet copy permits the booklet to proceed to the 
finish of the story, whatever it may be. Or putting it an- 
other way, the difference between a booklet and a cata- 
lo^^ue is that the booklet is usually an extended advertise- 
ment of a single article, line, or service, while the catalogue 
is an assembling of many such advertisements, as a rule. 

39. Kinds of Books and Booklets.— There are many 
different kinds of books and booklets, some of which are 
of very little direct-advertising value, as, for instance, the 
yearbooks published by many different organizations. The 
purpose of these yearbooks is to pass information to the 
members and quite often to serve as a background for 
further membership campaigns ; in this latter instance they 
are most certainly direct advertisements. ''Humanizing a 
Great Industry," illustrated on Fig. 12, is an example ot 
how one of the great Chicago packers utilizes the booklet 
idea. This booklet is 51/2 x 8I/2 inches in size, 32 pages 
and cover; it is a "human interest" story of Armour & 
Company, written by Kate J. Adams, sociologist and news- 
paper writer. It contains no fewer than 46 different illus- 
trations. Its purpose is to show what the firm of Armour 
& Company is doing for Armour employees— to sell Ar- 
mour's as a place to work, in other words. 

Fig. 12. — Several sizes and stvles of hooklets are illustrated 
here. See text for details. "A Message from Marietta" printed 
on white paper was tipped on the cover stock of the booklet. 



i,j., |;i_ii,p booklets iieie piLLuied are aimed at men. womon. 
and Hiildren: the motor-car book is intended to reach the men. the 
piano l)ookU^t the women, and the lionie booklet l)oth men an< 
women. '"The Home :Ma<«net" is dire<-te<l at vimnp men and 
throujih them their parents. See text for details. 

Another Chicago packing concern, Swift & Company, 
issues a yearbook which is advertised quite freely in publi- 
cation advertisements. It shows in an interesting way the 
moneys received, cost of doing business, and similar finan- 
cial matters, the purpose of this latter booklet being to 
demonstrate to the public that Swift & Company are not 

The almanac, if not the parent of the yearbook, is a 
form of it. Originally adopted by patent-medicine com- 
panies, and still used by them to-day, it has waned in popu- 
larity until it is now rarely seen. 

Fig. 14 illustrates a cover and a specimen page of an 
almanac used for many years by one manufacturer of fer- 
tilizers sold to farmers. Printers' Ink, for January 28, 
1915, contained a very full account of the successful use 
by a plow manufacturer of the yearbook or ''sublimated 
almanac" as it has been termed. The firm represented 
by the latter issued 100,000 of these yearbooks, or almanacs, 
and since it has been in business for ninety years and 
settled upon this one form of advertising as the most ef- 
fective, the almanac is, according to Printers' Ink, a 
vehicle worthy of careful thought in planning a new 

Programs are booklets akin to yearbooks, the cover of 
the Program of the 28th Annual Convention of the Na- 
tional League of Commission Merchants, illustrated on Fig. 
12 (size 614 X 91/j inches), is an example of this type. The 
"ragged" appearing edge is what is called a ** deckle" 
edge, as we shall see in Chapter XV. In this particular 
program advertising space was sold so that it almost falls 
into the class of theater program or directory advertising, 
but is included here to bring out all these different angles. 

"Thrift," the "teeny" book on Fig. 12, measures but 1^2 
X 2 inches in size. It has 20 pages and cover, and was 
published by Henry L. Doherty & Company, a New York 
bond house. This particular booklet pictured was received 
in response to an inquiry sent in upon reading a newspaper 
advertisement. The inquirer felt he had hardly received 




Fi*r 14— The F. S. Royster Guano Company finds the almanac 
an effective method of buildinj? and retaining the good will of 
farmers. In addition to the cover a typical inside page is shown. 
Note the use of testimonials. The almanac is "personalized by 
running testimonials from users of the company s product. Where 
it is possible, testimonials are printed, which are given by users 
of the product in the territory where the almanacs are distrib- 
uted. Also note space for imprinting dealer's name on the front. 

enough for the two cents he invested, so that this represents 
saving too much on the booklet. 

Next in size on the same illustration is **The Morning 
Mail" (size 21^x3) which contains eight pages including 
the cover. It is a miniature reproduction, sq far as the 
cover goes, of a monthly house organ (see Section 56) pub- 
lished by a firm of direct-advertising specialists. It wa^ 
distributed at the Indianapolis annual convention of the 



Associated Advertising Clubs of the World to stimulate in- 
terest in this particular firm, located in Indianapolis. 
Visitors were invited to call at the office of this concern for 
a full-sized edition of the house organ. 

'*A Message from Marietta" (see Fig. 12) is actually a 
book. It is 3 X 5% inches in size, but it has a stiff board 
cover and is bound up in regular book form. It combines 
a New Year's greeting with a selling message and contains 

only a few pages. ..,,,, ^ i 

''Selling Secrets" (see Fig. 12) is another *'baby book- 
let, measuring only 31/8 x 4% inches. It contains 16 pages, 
including the cover; its object is to teach salesmen m 
grocery stores and the like how to sell a certain brand of 


**The Digest and the Dealer" we include on Fig. 12 tor 
it represents the typical * Enclosure size" booklet. It is 
3%6x6i4 in size. (Note: the variation of a sixteenth of 
an inch or even a quarter of an inch in size is due to the 
width of the trim— the uneven edges cut off l)y the printer 
just before the books are completed for delivery to cus- 
tomer.) There are 12 pages and a separate cover. A book- 
let of this style will slip into what is known as a number 
6 or a 6% envelope (see Appendix B) and is ordinarily 
light enough not to need additional postage. 

Some firms are using what is known as a number 10 
envelope; where they do, the booklet ''Camp Vail," shown 
on Fig. 12, may be inclosed since it measures 3% x 9 inches. 

Occasionally a booklet is given an unusual appeal physi- 
cally by die-cutting it. 'Tut the Postman on your Pay- 
roll" is an example of this. Not including the postman's 
head, which is cut out, the booklet measures S% x 7%. We 
shall discuss the subject of die-cutting in Section 264. 

Fig. 13 illustrates several of the larger forms of book- 
lets. A brief description will suffice: 

"Hudson Motor Cars" (size 1% x 91^ with an overhang- 
ing cover— note the deckle edge again— the inside pages 
measuring 71/2x9) is part yearbook, part catalogue, and 
part booklet. 


**The Interior of Your Home/' published by the South- 
ern Pine Association, is an elaborate booklet. It not only 
has the overhanging cover like the Hudson booklet, but has 
what is known as an end leaf of transparent paper. This 
booklet (size of cover 83^ x lOVs, inside pages 8y8xl0 
inches) is designed to sell the recipient upon the idea of 
owning his own home and, secondly, to have it built of wood 
with a wooden interior and, of course, this concern's prod- 
uct. The booklet is sumptuously illustrated, printed in 
colors and usually mailed out to those who reply to the 
firm's publication advertisements. 

*'The Home Magnet," 9x12 inches, 32 pages and cover, 
is published by the Brunswick-Balke-CoUender Company 
and its purpose is to sell billiard tables for home use. 

''Windsor Pianos and Player Pianos," 8i/8 x ll^A, is the 
specific booklet and catalogue (combined) on this subject 
published by Montgomery Ward & Company, the. mail-order 
house, as a supplement to their regular big catalogue. It 
has 32 pages, is illustrated in colors throughout, pictures 
the wood finishes of the pianos in their original colors, for 
example. The^ cover is embossed and has a tip-on of the 

music room scene. 

The pieces illustrated on Fig. 15 are books (under the 
definition set down in Section 38) for they are all bound m 
stiff covers— two in boards, two in cloth, one in imitation 

leather. • • -a 

''From Ox Cart to Aeroplane" has an interesting idea 
behind it ; it is a book issued by a firm of hardware dealers 
who had been in business 100 years. Its size is b% x 81/4 
inches and it contains 50 pages. 

"The Optimism Book for Offices" (size 51/2 x 8) contains 
64 pages and cover. This will be referred to again in Chap- 
ter XV. ^ ^ , 

"Millingham's Cat-Fooler" by Ellis Parker Butler, 
author of ''Pigs is Pigs," has every appearance of a book- 
let that would be found in the book store for sale at a 
price. It is in reality the advertising booklet of a rubber 
hose concern. The original measures about 4x6 inches 

Fi<r. 15. — These stiff covered books which are being published to- 
day for advertisinrj purposes show a wide range of appeal. Even 
the Ellis Parker Butler book is a piece of direct advertising! 

Y\„ 16— Several diti'erent styles oi catalogues are illustrated 
],ere Thev raime from the famous Tiffany Blue Book to the loose- 

leaf portfolio form of the Addressojrra^h Company. Th 
fihown the use of the "Miniature Edition" for general di 

There is also 

See text for details. 



and contains 24 pages and stiff board covers. It is illus- 
trated throughout with cartoons. 

''The Story of Silk" was published by Cheney Brothers 
and aside from references to their business it is in reality 
the story of silk making from ancient to modern times. 
Original measures 61^ x 8i/4 inches. It contains 64 pages 
and cover, the latter being cloth over board. 

''DuPont Products," size 5x8, is bound in one of that 
firm's products known as Fabrikoid, an imitation leather. 
The DuPonts having at the time this book was originally 
published (1917) acquired several different business inter- 
ests, this book was intended to inform the public of the 
various concerns which the DuPonts controlled, including 
not only the powder plants, but this imitation leather plant, 
a chemical company, a celluloid company, and a paint com- 
pany. We include the book at this late date to show that it 
was quite evidently a part of a preconceived plan to lead up 
to a discontinuance of the other brands— Arlington, Harri- 
son's, and so on— and to substitute "DuPont" in due course 
of time. (While this is being written [early in 1920] the 
old brand names are being dropped.) 

Many other kinds of books and booklets might be illus- 
trated, of course, but our purpose here is only to suggest the 
many different kinds. Keen, direct advertisers are discov- 
ering new fields for books and booklets almost daily. 
Though not illustrated here, we would like to refer to two 
unique books received by the writer. One measured ap- 
proximately 81/2 X 11 inches in size, and contained a little in 
excess of one thousand pages, therefore being about 3% 
inches thick across the back binding. It was entitled: 
''1000 Answers to 1 Question" and reproduced in facsimile 
as many original letters received by one popular science 
magazine asking questions of the editor. It had for its pur- 
pose selling advertising men upon the use of the magazine 
for their advertising campaigns, and we understand was 
put out at a cost of about $20,000. 

** Discovering New Facts About Paper," the other, 
also comes in the portfolio classr (see Section 48) for it 



measures 11x14 inches and has 32 pages. It has a stiff 
board binding, with a small tip-on giving the title. It has 
for its purpose the ''selling" to paper buyers of an exten- 
sive research and development laboratory installed by one 
of the world's largest makers of fine papers, which was in 
itself an innovation in the paper industry. The book was 
written by Waldemar Kaempffert and illustrated by Ver- 
non Howe Bailey. 

40. Function of Books and Booklets. — The function of 
books and booklets is to deliver an extended selling message. 
Even in the case of the small or ''baby" booklets the mes- 
sage is extensive considering the size of the booklet in which 
it appears. They are almost universally used and their 
use approaches the "story form" of advertising which ap- 
peals- to every one from childhood to old age. The booklet 
is the primary educational form of direct advertising and 
many properly written books find their way into public li- 
braries as reliable handbooks on certain subjects. 

41. Sizes of Books and Booklets. — There is no limit to 
the size for the book or booklet, of course, but in working out 
either it will pay any one to follow a size which will cut 
without waste from standard sheets of paper stocks, body 
and cover both. In this connection see the Appendices. 

42. Results from Use of Booklets.— While results will 
be taken up separately (see Chapter V, and Part Five of 
this book), "Making Letters Pay System" contains the re- 
port of a test which showed that a letter inclosing a booklet 
pulled 7 per cent better results than the letter alone. The 
booklet itself seldom furnishes a complete campaign as in 
the case of some of the physical forms of direct advertising 
and, therefore, its direct results are hard to trace. See also 
Section 140. 

43. Catalogues. — Section 38 gave you an idea of what 
the catalogue is, but for clarity let us define it as : A loose- 
leaf or hound volume giving a list of articles or services, 
usually together- with illustrations and rather complete tech- 
nical descriptions. Sometimes ^ cataloprue contains refer- 
ence data so as to make it more valuable, and when price 



conditions are normal it is usual to include the prices m a 
catalogue, though in recent years it has been more general 
to put the prices in a separate price list. 

The catalogue is one of the oldest forms of direct adver- 
tisinff Printers^ Ink, November 11, 1920, made this com- 
ment upon the subject: "The birth of the commercial 
catalogue is shrouded in the obscurity of antiquity. Judg- 
ing from the discoveries of arch^ologists in their excava- 
tions, it would seem as though the ancients were familiar 
with the catalogue idea,. The word, itself, is of Greek 
derivation and means literally Ho choose down The 
principle of listing things in catalogue fashion for sale and 
for other purposes was employed by the ancients. 

Henry Sampson's "History of Advertising" mentions a 
tradesman named Jonathan Holder, a haberdasher of Lon- 
don, who in 1679 issued a printed list of articles kept m 

stock by him." ^^^^ -, -, ^i? 

Montgomery Ward & Company in 1872 produced one of 
the first modern-day mail-order catalogues. It was of less 
than one hundred pages, about 31/2 x 7 inches Several 
other American firms, following the Civil War, began to 
take up the catalogue idea. Butler Brothers initiated 
wholesaling by mail with their catalogue m 1878. 

To use a homely example, the catalogue is the manutac- 
turer's, wholesaler's, or retailer's time-table of what he 
has to offer as compared with the handsomely printed vaca- 
tion booklet which the railroad will mail you next summer. 

44. Kinds of Catalogues.— Generally speaking, cata- 
logues are divided into two classes— bound and loose-leaf. 
In the first class they are like books and booklets; m the 
latter class they more nearly resemWe' bulletins, to be de- 
scribed in Section 53. The loose-leaf catalogue, theoret- 
ically speaking, .may be revised without reprinting, but 
loose sheets all too often are not inserted in the catalogue 
by the holder, with the result that the loose-leaf catalogue 
is. thrown away because it is not up to date. A variation of 
this latter form is the mailing out of filing folders with the 
loose sheets inserted. 





Printers^ Ink, March 29, 1917, describes one of these 
file-folder, loose-leaf catalogues published by a metal 
molding concern; this will be further referred to in Sec- 
tion 54. 

Fig. 16 illustrates several varieties of catalogues. Those 
for the Addressograph and Sweet's Chocolates are both 
loose-leaf in make-up. 

''Victor Records, 1920," is the catalogue of the Victor 
Talking Machine Company. The original measures Si/^x 
71/4 and it is five-eighths of an inch thick. 

The small book, bound in flexible leather without any 
wording on it, front or back, is the famous Tiffany Blue 
Book. This is the catalogue of Tiffany & Company, New 
York City, and you will find it advertised on the first page 
facing cover of almost every magazine you may pick up. 
It measures 4 x 4% and contains 128 pages and cover. 

Note particularly the use of the Miniature or Pocket 
Edition in connection with the ' ' Book of Better Business, ' ' 
which is an instance of a catalogue which has valuable refer- 
ence data in addition to the technical details of the line of 
steel office furniture and filing equipment. The full sized 
edition is bound in cloth and the pocket size in paper. The 
former is 81/2x11 in size and the latter 5x6%6 inches. 

''Sweet's Chocolates" is unusual inasmuch as it violates 
the conventional method as to size and arrangement. It 
measures 71/. inches wide and 4% high, the publisher 
doubtless using these proportions because they suited the 
shape of candy boxes better than the usual higher-than- 
wide proportions. 

45. Function of Catalogues. — The accepted dictionary 
definition of "catalogue" really describes its function better 
than it describes the book as used commercially to-day ; that 
is, "to list (catalogue) items." Most catalogues are in- 
tended to inform recipients as to models, styles, brands, 
and technical details and descriptions. While sometimes 
"selling" copy is put into them, usually they are somewhat 
like the order-taking salesman: they say to the reader: 
"We make 'umpty-steen' models, as listed herein, the 

measurements of which are thus by thus, and in case you 
want to order the proper code word is Soandso." 

Occasionally the catalogue is primarily for the educa- 
tion of the distributor, and only indirectly for use in sell- 
ing users or consumers. A brush manufacturer {Printers' 
Ink Monthhj, October, 1920) uses his catalogue as a sales 
manual to educate his house-to-house canvassers. 

The more "educating" that the catalogue has to do, the 
more nearly does it approach the book and booklet class. 
E. A. Bowman & Company (see Printers' Ink, August 2, 
1917) furnish an instance of a manufacturing concern 
making its catalogue so much of a salesman as to educate 
dealers and increase sales materially. 

Occasionally catalogues are split up into sections in order 
to permit broader distribution and revive interest, or to 
save money. The mail-order houses— and the catalogue 
is the backbone of the mail-order house campaign in every 
instance— frequently use this means. A man writes in for 
the mail-order house catalogue and says he is interested in 
tombstones, for example. Instead of sending him a mam- 
moth catalogue of 1,000 pages or more containing every- 
thing, which might confuse him, a special "tombstone" 
catalogue is sent him. Or working it the other way, after 
the house has mailed to a man, or woman, a complete cata- 
logue, it mails out in the early spring a "White Goods''^ 
catalogue to sell spring items, or "Tools and Garden Seeds" 
catalogue, and so on. See also Section 194 and Fig. 66. 
46. Sizes of Catalogues.— While sizes of catalogues 
which can be printed are governed by the same rules apply- 
ing to books and booklets (see Appendix A), at least two 
important organizations have adopted standardized sizes 
for their use. The American Institute of Architects has 
standardized upon the 8I/2 x 11 size, while the National As- 
sociation of Purchasing Agents has standardized on 71/2 x 
10%, recommending that, where a smaller size of catalogue 
is necessary, it be approximately one-half that size, or 5i/4 x 
71/2 inches. This latter association at one time fathered 
the idea of three "standardized" sizes; viz: 6x9, 71/2 x 



1 w 

10% and 8x11 but are now trying to get down to one 

47. Results from Use of Catalogues. — The enor- 
mous business done by mail-order houses, whose catalogues 
represent their sole salesmen, speaks for the results which 
may be secured from using a catalogue. Apropos, the fol- 
lowing quotation from the general manager of the Victor 
Talking Machine Company is interesting : ' * I still remem- 
ber the reply I made to my old San Francisco employers 
and partners thirty years ago when my expenditures on 
illustrated catalogues were in question and my confidence in 
results was asked. I said : ' If I had but $10,000 to go into 
business with, I'd p,ut $5,000 into merchandise and $5,000 
into a catalogue to sell it'; and that 'went' as it goes to- 
day, only my experience now proves I 'm right — then, I only 
guessed that I was." See also Section 141. 

48. Portfolios. — The New Standard Dictionary defines 
the word ' ' portfolio " as : * * A portable case of two or more 
leaves, for holding drawings, engravings, etc." From an 
advertising standpoint the *'etc." at the end of the defini- 
tion is about all that interests us. In the advertising and 
selling world the word ''portfolio" has come to mean both 
bound and loose-leaf super-books or super-booklets. They 
are virtually, then, enlarged books or booklets, and are usu- 
ally for limited distribution. 

Some portfolios are nothing more nor less than a series 
of typewritten (or multigraphed or mimeographed) sheets 
fitted into a handy and convenient binder. For example, 
in the technical field where strong reason-why arguments 
must be advanced, sometimes an enlarged selling argument 
is typewritten on sheets of paper and these sheets put into 
a cloth, leather, or paper cover making what might be 
termed a "prospectus" or "portfolio." The value of the 
individual order usually decides the quality of the cover 
or binder to be used. Now and then these sheets are placed 
in a regular standardized ring, or other binder, thus mak- 
ing the work almost a book. 



49. Three Kinds of Portfolios. — In general, there are 
three main kinds of portfolios: (1) Portfolios selling an 
advertising campaign to salesmen and dealers, or both; (2) 
Portfolios for the purpose of educating salesmen or dealers, 
aside from the advertising; and (3) Portfolios for reach- 
ing special but very limited lists of prospective customers. 

Fig. 17 illustrates the covers (very greatly reduced) 
of a few representative portfolios. 

'* Letters on Wood Finishing" is a portfolio of data for 
the use of architects, issued by a paint and varnish manu- 
facturer. It is loose-leaf in form and each portfolio can 
be made up as required. Note this is not a catalogue since 
it does not feature the firm's product at all; it is strictly 
service data for the architect. The size is approximately 
81/^ X 11, the accepted standard for architects. 

"Coffee Advertising" is a portfolio of reproductions of 
advertisements prepared by a certain advertising agency 
for one of its clients and was probably intended to be shown 
to dealers. The size, opened, is 11 x 16 inches. 

"A Bigger Business on McGraw Tires" is a portfolio 
issued for the purpose of selling dealers on a McGraw 
advertising campaign. It reproduces in full size certain ad- 
vertisements and is typical of many such portfolios. Some 
of them tip in actual samples of certain pieces, proofs, and 
so on ; others reproduce them by engravings (see Chapter 
XIV). In the original the McGraw portfolio was 11 x 14. 

"The Spring Advertising Drive" makes use of size to 
create an impression upon dealers. It is 17 x 22 inches in 
size and, in addition to showing reproductions of advertise- 
ments this clothing manufacturer will run, gives the com- 
plete publication advertising schedule of dates of appear- 
ance and publications used. The color pages to be used 
are reproduced in full color and many other features of the 
advertising campaign are illustrated. 

The Apperson automobile is sold largely through port- 
folios. One of these is bound in leather and costs about 
$10; it is used in dealers' show rooms for a real display 
to prospects ; still another, bound in leather and carried by 


the manufacturer's own salesmen, is made up of photo- 
CTaphs mounted upon tasteful backgrounds. This cost $8, 
reports an article in Advertising & Selling, December 13, 
1920. See also Section 461. 

50. Functions of Portfolios.— Taking up the functions 
of the three different kinds of portfolios in the order men- 
tioned in Section 49, the portfolio to sell the advertising 
campaign to salesmen and dealers usually has little other 
selling value than that. The General Electric Company m 
1920 according to Vriniers' Ink, March 18, 1920, desired to 
put on a 100-day campaign from April 12th to August 7th 
to sell electric fans. The function of this portfolio was to 
coordinate the efforts of dealers with the company's public 
ity announcements. It was 111/2 x 19 inches in size and in 
mechanical make-up the portfolio was unusual as the pages 
were printed in sheet form like posters and stapled to- 
gether at the top (similar to ''Coffee Advertising" shown 
on Fig. 17). The top sheet gave the key to the arrange- 
ment which was in stepped formation, top sheet shortest 
and so on, and the seven colors of the rainbow designated 
the seven features of the campaign. These features were : 

1 Publications.— The letters and folders sent to the dealer 
for distribution through the mail and over the counter to his 

customers. , , »xt 1 • ;i^^ 

2. Window Display.— The dealer is told "Your show window 

is the front page of your business." 

3 Exterior.— Refers to the signs furnished for use on tiie 
dealer's delivery car or truck; street-car cards; shdes in motion- 
picture houses; and personal demonstrations in homes and ot- 

"T Electrical Store.— The dealer is urged to arrange "A well- 
equipped fan department in his store with comfortable chairs, 
whirling fans, and an abundance of fan literature." 

5. Newspaper Advertising.— Refers to local newspaper ad- 
vertising for the dealer. 1 t^ii * •« 

6. The national magazine advertising of the General bleetric 

Company. , :,. ^ u ^ 

7. Newspaper advertising by the company's distributors. 

_ Fig. 17.— Portfolios mioht be termed "broadside" books. Orig- 
inally the ones illustrated above were intended for grocers, 
clothiers, architects and "arages. See text for details. 

y:„ 18— The hiilletin in direct advertising has not been over- 
worked a< vet. and presents splendid possibilities. Bulletins are 
inexpensive' and admit of close personalization. 



Where the portfolio is only to sell a limited number of 
salesmen, it is frequently made up by hand and mounted 
after the style of an album of camera pictures. 

The function of the portfolio for the purpose of educating 
salesmen or dealers is very important and, if fully de- 
scribed, would cover almost a book in itself. 

Ray Giles, in Printers' Ink, May 16, 1918, covered this 
ground in some detail, saying, in part: *'The contents of 
any salesman's manual or portfolio fall under two general 
heads: These are: Instruction Matter and Exhibition 
Matter." He found from an analysis of many sales that 
the five reasons why the prospect refuses to buy are : '' (1) 
Price (2) Profit. (3) Performance— ('Your stuff isn't 
in it with Roe's'). (4) Personal— CI buy from Baker be- 
cause he is a member of my lodge'). (5) Punctuality- 
regarding deliveries." 

If your instructions answer these five '*P's" you have ed- 
ucated salesman or dealer and the portfolio will be a success. 

Under the exhibition matter, which compares with what 
has been previously described in this section and Section 49, 
Mr. Giles puts: '' (1) Proofs of advertisements. (2) Cir- 
culation data. (3) Window trims. (4) Dealer helps. 
(5) Testimonials. (6) Photographs of merchandise, assum- 
ing, of course, that the merchandise itself can not be carried 
conveniently. (7) Photographs of plant and processes of 
manufacture. (8) Photographs of successful installations. 
(9) General 'trade' information; this may include news- 
paper or trade paper items or articles showing the possi- 
bilities in a given field which will stir up the salesman or 
the dealer to whom he will show them." 

The function of a portfolio designed on this basis is to 
answer every objection that the dealer can possibly offer, 
and from the salesman's standpoint ''Knowledge is power. ' 
Portfolios for reaching prospects direct are identical in 
function with the preceding except that window trims and 
dealer helps are omitted ; even the advertising data may be 
sufficient to sell him. 
Summed up, the function of all portfolios is education. 


ri Sizes of Portfolios—Mr. Giles in the article pre- 

• ^ , !LIIa to ur^es tlie SVo x 11 size, but where port- 

]lii ZSyi^^^^ Upose of iMPBESS^KO the dealer 

or salesman it is'usual to limit them only by the -eof^^^^^^^ 

sheet of paper upon which they are printed (see Appen 

■^'t^ Results from Use of Portfolios.-As these are like 

/ofenX inclosure use, .here not presented ^n^ 
form or upon cardboard, comprise what the advertis 
IZJrldLoios as a bulletin. Usually it contams four 

""Tne large adding machine company, is a notable modern 

PXDonent of this form of advertising. 

"'mie not their only method "^ a^vertsing on^ of the 

Company, Fort Wayne J: , November 4, 1920, was 

thtr%i:roTbulSf One bulletin, for instance, tells 

how to pla^ drive-in filling stations. Another covers th 
how to plan Q illustrates a number of 

StTons ^i I id ir new ones. Mr. Cole makes this s,g- 
Scantltatement: "The whole scheme rests on the ef- 
fectiveness of the bulletins." between a 
A i,„iiotin therefore, seems to be a cross oeiweeu 
A bulletin, tne'^"'';^' , „ j^ ^^ g^act as to data 

the whole line like a catalogue, ^or is it as general 
booklet. See also Section 461. ^ 

CA Bulletins Are Educational in Nature.— 1 he buiieim 
is eLS^l y a means of issuing educational literature. 
" F ri8 illustrates two of the Burroughs ^ullet-s and 
two of the Vacuum Oil Company bulletins The Bur 
rouc^hs bulletins contain four pages only, while one of h 
Vrcul Oil Company bulletins contains eight pages, the 



other one sixteen pages, and both are stapled (see Section 
267). But the Vacuum Oil bulletins have no covers; such 
construction violates the principles of book-making for the 
i reading matter starts on the second page so that they are, to 
all intents and purposes, bulletins. 

The Burroughs Company has a unique policy in regard 
to its bulletins. See Section 403 for details. 

''Orange Aid," for example, is the story of how a Cali- 
fornia firm successfully used an adding machine. If an 
inquiry from California has to be answered the Burroughs 
Company sends the inquirer a piece of advertising that 
represents what a "neighbor" says. 

''The House the Bunns Built" is a story of what an add- 
ing machine did for a firm of wholesale grocers in Illinois. 
This bulletin works two ways; it can be used, geographi- 
cally, in Illinois and also among the grocery trade. 

Long-Bell Lumber Company issues a series of plan 
bulletins, punched to fit ring binders, as shown on 
Fig. 18. 

The National Metal Moulding Company issues its cata- 
logue in bulletin form, publishing eleven bulletins ranging 
in size from one to one hundred pages, each separate bulle- 
tin inserted loose-leaf in a filing folder suitable for filing in 
an 81/^ X 11 filing case. On the right end of the top mar- 
gin of each file folder is printed the company's name and on 
the left end the name of the special bulletin it contains: 
"Locknuts and Bushings," "Non-Metallic Flexible Con- 
duit," "Rigid Steel Conduit," and so on (see Fig. 18). 

In commenting on this unusual idea. Printers' Ink, March 
29, 1917, said : "It would seem that many other manufac- 
turers might borrow the idea to their own advantage and 
to the convenience of their customers." It lacks dignity 
and lacks impressiveness, which may probably account for 
the failure of the idea to become over popular, though it is 
very sound otherwise. 

55. Sizes of Bulletins. — All of the bulletins which have 
been described were 814 x 11 in size, though they could be 
almost any size ; yet if small enough to go in the ordinary 



envelopes they would come under the heading of envelope 


56. House Organs.— House organs, also called house 
magazines, corporation magazines, plant publications, and 
many other similar names, have been treated exhaustively 
by the author of this work in '^ Effective House Organs," a 
361-page work, issued by the publishers of this volume. 
This is mentioned to show by comparison the neces- 
sarily brief reference which can be giyen to the subject 

In that book the author defines the house organ as ''Any 
periodical publication issued by a person, firm, organiza- 
tion or corporation for distribution among any particular 
class of people, either for promoting goodwill, increas- 
ing sales, inducing better efforts, or developing greater re- 
turns on any form of investment/' 

57. There Are Four General Kinds of House Organs. 
—The four general classifications are: (1) House organs 
for salesmen or agents, also called ''sales bulletins"; (2) 
House organs for dealers, also called "trade" organs; (3) 
House organs for users or prospects; and (4) House organs 
for employees, also called ''employees' papers," "internal 
house organs," "plant publications," and so on. These 
four classes are illustrated by Fig. 19. 

"The Sunstrand Keyboard," 9x12 inches, 16 pages, is 
published by an adding machine company in the interests 
of its salesmen and service organization. 

"Tick Talk" represents a house organ for retail dealers. 
Published by Westclox, it is SVs x 6% inches in size. 
It contains sixteen pages and cover. "The Red Crown" is 
a good example of a house organ for wholesale dealers, being 
published by Acme Packing Company of Chicago. Size, 
534 I 8% inches, sixteen pages. 

"The Morning Mail" is a splendid example of a house 
organ for consumers, users or prospects. It is published by 
the Direct Advertising Corporation of Indianapolis. Size, 
81/^ X 11, 16 pages and cover. 

The Kodak Magazine" is the house organ for the em- 


Fior. li), — 1 i,e i(j^jj. elassos of house or<jaiis are represontod by 
^''♦'^«' jiyc ])ul)li('ati()iis. "Tlio Kcd Crown" «roos to wlidlcsalers, 
and '"Tick Talk" to retailors, Uotli nia<,^iziiu's are in tlie same 



plmjees of the Eastman Kodak Company. Size, 6% x 10^ 
48 pages and cover. 

58. Functions of House Organs. — The functions of all 
house organs are to build loyalty, establish esprit de corps, 
and maintain morale. A few of the house organs to users 
or prospects, and fewer of those to dealers, actually try to 
sell goods, though, admittedly, this is not the main func- 
tion of the house-organ form of advertising. All of them 
touch upon education in a more or less general way, and 
the purpose of the salesmen's bulletins is largely to estab- 
lish friendly rivalry. Sometimes this same function is ac- 
complished in the house organ for employees, factory, or 
office by addition of contests for promptness, or accuracy, 
or other desirable features. The wise editor looks upon 
all house organs as a means of selling something indirectly ; 
that is, selling the house as a place to work, in the em- 
ployees' papers; selling the sales force to itself and its 
product over to them again, in the sales' bulletins; selling 
the prospect the product, in the user or consumer publica- 
tions ; and selling the dealer both on the product and being 
a better dealer, in the dealers' house organs. 

59. Sizes of House Organs. — The sizes of house organs 
are governed by two things; first, consideration of those who 
are to read them and where they are to be read ; and, sec- 
ondly, in accordance with the standard booklet sizes as 
shown in Appendix A. For if the house organ is to be car- 
ried by a salesman or other person and read in spare mo- 
ments it must be pocket size. 

60. Continuity Strong Point of House Organs. — The 
strength — and if stopped the weakness — of the house organ 
IS that it more nearly approaches other forms of advertis- 
ing considered from the standpoint of continuity. Seldom 
is a single issue of any house organ planned ; usually it is 
a *' continuous performance," or surely issued for a year or 
more at least, and in this particular it is more valuable than 
are other forms of direct advertising which all too fre- 
quently are bought as individual items without the idea of 
continuity being maintained. 




6i. Results from House Organs.— Where the house 
organ is properly planned and edited the results have been 
highly gratifying in every field mentioned in Section 57. 
For detailed results you are referred to ''Effective House 
Organs." This physical form should be used when a long 
campaign of education is needed or when there are either 
many sales ideas to put over or, strange to say, when your 
product has practically no selling point. In the latter case 
you sell your house instead of your product and so get out 
of the class of competition. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Why is it difficult to define exactly various advertising terms? 

2. Describe in your own words the two general forms of all 
direct advertising. 

3. What is a letter? What kinds of letters are there? Why is 
this the basic form of all direct advertising? 

4. Give an example of a form of direct advertising that is prac- 
tically standardized. 

5. Describe the interrelation of letters and letterheads. 

6. How may the physical aspects of a letter be changed? 

7. For what use, taken from angle of your own experience, 
would you use a booklet in your business? Why? 

8. Name as many different kind of books and booklets as you 
can think of. Do not restrict your names to those mentioned in 
the text; there are many more. 

9. Why would the miniature booklet appeal to you as a form 
"more intimate" than the regular full-sized edition? 

10. Differentiate the catalogue from all other forms of direct 

11. Lay out a portfolio for selling to a set of salesmen some 
product with which you are familiar. 

12. Would you have this reproduced in sufficient quantities to 
send to the prospects? If not, why? 

13. Can you think of any business which might use to advantage 
the bulletin, as described in the text? 

14. Define a house organ and name the four main classifications. 

15. Wherein does the house organ have an advantage over other 
forms of direct advertising, as a rule? Should this be so, do you 





The earth was made so various, that the mind 

Of desultory man, studious of change, 

And pleased with novelty^ might be indulged. 


62. In Section 24 we divided all of the physical forms of 
direct advertising into two general forms or classifications. 
Chapter III, first half, Sections 22 to 61 inclusive, took up 
all those physical forms known as Conventional, or Stand- 
ardized. In the second half of the chapter which we are 
now reading we shall take up the remainder of the physical 
forms which were denominated as Auto-contained, or Un- 

63. Mailing Cards and Circulars. — By the term mailing 
card, and circular, we have reference to any comparatively 
small-sized piece of cardboard or paper, often too large 
for an envelope inclosure and yet not calling for a diffi- 
cult folding operation like the folder defined in Section 

This definition leaves much to be desired, for the larger 
mailing circulars are termed broadsides ; still, it will serv^e 
to emphasize the slightly different physical aspects of vari- 
ous types of the auto-contained or unconventional pieces. 
These are really two distinct types, one the flat, unfolded 
mailing card; the other the piece of cardboard or paper 
which is folded once or twice, but leaving most of the inner 
pages blank and without attempt to build a folder of it as 
referred to elsewhere. 

Circulars are frequently distributed by hand, in which 
event they are often called ''dodgers" (see Section 357). 

73 . 



Fiff 20a.— This line engraving shows the simpler forms of direct ad- 
vertising. See also Fig. 20b. A. On a regular government postal carj. 
B Using the regular government double postal card. L. ine aave< 
tiser makes his own double postal card. D. Inside folds of a four-tow 
card. See text for further details . 


64. Several Kinds of Mailing Cards and Circulars. — 

Fig. A of Fig. 20a represents the very simplest form of 
mailing card. It is actually printed in this case upon a 
regular government postal card, in itself a saving of the cost 
of "the cardboard stock. Fig. B represents the two leading 
sides of a regular double or reply government postal card. 
Again there has been no cost for stock ; this particular card 
was used by a well-known New York publishing house. One 
side is addressed to the prospect and the other addressed to 
the publishing house. Fig. C represents a variation of this 
same double-card idea, but in this case the publisher of the 
card has used his own stock and the mailing and reply sides 
(not illustrated) require a postage stamp for mailing in 
each case. The size of this double-reply card, folded to 
mailing size, is 6 x 4 inches. Note that in case of Fig. B 
the mailer sends along a prepaid reply card, while in the 
case of Fig. C the person who replies will have to furnish 

the stamp. 

Leaving the regular postal card size, or thereabouts, the 
simplest form of mailing card is represented on Fig. 20 B 
the reverse side of which (not illustrated) is blank except 
for the mailing address. This card size, 5 x 8, is apparently 
a reprint of the Cross company's advertisement in some 
trade publication. 

Fig. D represents what is known as a four-fold mailing 
card, showing the inside of it opened up with the arrow- 
pointing to the "Free Examination Order Card." It is 
interesting to note that the four folds not illustrated, 
printed on the back of the four folds shown, in order are : 
(1) Address card to the writer, in the upper left-hand 
corner of which there appears in this formation : 


Now answered for you by 
America's Business Giants. 



Fig. cob. — The above line engraving 

illustrates announcement 

r: general publicity tvpes of direct advertising. E. Printed on 
cardboard; was mailed without cover. F. The formal style, 
original is engraved. G. Printed on paper; it had a second sheet 
and was mailed folded. H. Unusual in appeal and distribution 
(see text for details). 


(2) A very small half-tone reproduction of the front cover 
and binding edge of the book advertised with this in a rule 
box in the corner of the fold : 

445 Pages, 6x9, Illustrated 

Attractively bound in blue cloth 

Price $3.00 net 


See Free Examination Offer. 

(3) A list of the fifty business leaders whose biographies 
are included in the book advertised, with a few lines of sell- 
ing talk. (4) The return address of the publishing house 
with space for stamp. Note that this fold is so arranged 
that it is directly opposite ''Free Examination Order 
Card'' so that when the prospect tears it off and mails it 
the card is already addressed. Each fold of this card 
measures 51/2 x 31/9. 

The New York Globe Card is typical of what might be 
termed the Announcement mailing card, the original of 
whicli was engraved (see Section 334). The original 
measured 51/2 x 41/4. This mailing card, unlike any of those 
on Fig. 20a required a special envelope to mail it and is 
therefore not really auto-contained. 

The Jaquish is another type of the announcement mail- 
ing Jiircular. In this case the circular is on a paper 
stock, folded once to about half standard letter size; i.e., 
"note" size. There is little of selling value in this 
announcement, which requires an envelope for mailing pur- 
poses as with the Globe announcement. 

Fig. 20b illustrates other styles of mailing cards and 
mailing circulars. The card, *'Miss Hazel Irene Collins," 
in the original 4% x 314 inches, was handed out to every 
dining-room guest at the Seelbach Hotel for some little 
time prior to Miss Collins' return, in an endeavor to build 
up patronage. This is unusual, for it appeals to a promis- 
ing clientele; namely, hotel patrons. Very few hotels do 
aught to increase their dining-room patronage and, in these 
prohibition days they are finding it all the more necessary. 



What the 

RsMlen of the Weekly _^.^.>_ 

Say about the AimxMnder HamiHon InKitute 

n«.i^ M .^M 






Fig. 21 — This line engraving illustrates the simpler forms of 
folders. A. Outside fold of which B is the inside. C. How trade- 
paper advertisements are reproduced in series as folders. D. A 
simple yet ingenious method of folding. See text for details. 

Fig. 21 A represents the outside fold, as received, size 
SVie X 4% of a three-fold mailing circular, auto-contained. 
Fig. 21 B represents the inside of it after the three folds 
have been opened up. Two folds of this piece are blank. It 
is extremely simple, containing only a half dozen lines of 
type in addition to the reproduction of an advertisement 
culled from a series of advertising pages; it is sent out by 

a magazine in an endeavor to sell its advertising pages to 


The calendar-card, Fig. 87, is a regular sensitized postal 
card upon which has been placed a picture of a dish of 
almonds; the artist has touched into the background and 
foreground advertising messages, a monthly calendar, and 
so on. This would probably be mailed to dealers and large 
distributors with a written message on the face-side. 

The two two-fold mailing circulars, printed on heavy 
paper and mailed under their own covers with no other 
printing thereon are reproductions of trade-paper adver- 
tisements, reprinted in this form and mailed to the maga- 
zine's prospective list. The folded piece, for mailing, is 
51/8 X 81/8. (See Fig. 21 D). 

''The Freight Traffic Red Book," Fig. 21 C, is a simple- 
folded piece though this illustration has made it appear 
like a complicated folder. The face of the original 
measures 6% x 9i/4. Actually it is a sheet of paper 24% 
inches wide by 9I/4 inches deep. This is folded exactly 
1214 inches from the left edg^— 121/2 from the right edge. 
This leaves the top fold i/4 inch shorter than the under 
fold, thus suggesting to the person who opens it that there 
is something underneath. Then another, 314 inches wide in 
each case, is made at the left and at the right ; i.e., a fold 
314 inches from the right edge and from the left edge, fold- 
ing both top and bottom sheets. This leaves the slit down 
the center of the zinc etching of the book printed in red 
upon the front-folds, which, in turn, piques curiosity and 
takes the reader inside. This was accomplished quite easily 
by using an extra electrotype which was cut into two pieces. 
One half was printed on one end of the long sheet and the 
other half on the other end. This piece might almost as 
readily be classed as a folder, though folders are almost 
invariably auto-contained while this "Red Book" folder 
requires an envelope for mailing purposes. 

Almost sufficiently important to enjoy a classification 
of their own are Salesmen's Advance Cards. Such pieces 
of direct advertising are used by a large number of firms, 



but as yet only few have realized the full direct-advertising 
value of these cards. In one instance an unselfish firm got 
out a series of sixteen cards advertising other important 

firms in their city. 

A firm manufacturing filing equipment gets up a verj^ 
lengthy series of cards. On the back of the card is shown 
apparently the interior of a theater with a half-tone illus- 
tration in black on space that would be the curtain of the 
movie. One of these insert illustrations shows the firm's 
assembly room, another its printing department, a third its 
automatic presses, a fourth a steel press, a fifth a rubbing 
room, a sixth the giant shears, a seventh the metal cabinets 
being welded, and so on. On the front of the card, on the 
left third, as permitted by postal rules, is a space for the 
name of the salesman who is en route to see the party ad- 
dressed, and under his name a list of reminders of the 
firm 's products, so the addressee may check up his possible 
needs. Also on this side there is a notation, such as this : 
''No. 4 of Series B— Look for Complete Set." The adver- 
tising manager of the firm, W. C. Freeman, writes regard- 
ing this plan: ''The serial idea counters this impulse to 
cast aside the cards without giving them the right consid- 
eration, and we feel that the scheme is worthy of greater 

development." ■, o. i a 

Fig. 22 illustrates several advance cards, bee also Sec- 
tion 92. ^ 

All too often one standard advance card is used; the 
trade" gets used to this and becomes oblivious to its appeal. 

Variations of cards are secured by picturing new mod- 
els, new terms, occasionally as sample-carriers. Those par- 
ticularly interested in salesman's advance cards are re- 
ferred to Printers' Ink, June 8, 1916, page 61. 

65. Functions of Mailing Cards and Mailing Circulars. 
—These two classes might well be termed the bulletin- 
board type of direct advertising, though, as in the case of 
the top cards of Fig. 20a, sometimes they are filled with 
type and made to produce selling messages and actually 
bring in orders. Generally speaking, the functions of this 

iW' ioshcnvv-, 

u ,iu>!iv ^<A points 

^^^^^Hf _^^^ r *^ " jj/ff \p^ 

zJ sHoe. 

1 ' '■ 



aAWM* t*PthA D£'«'tAM C-C 







'/ _ _ 

y /<//)( //> ^te voc on or a£oi/f 

\vil/i I'/ii new Oprma liiit </ 


9^ wx^vimv u^ 


^m fi&^ STYLE 5H< 

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,x^, :c.„...„:,u.■No^.^ B0^^*l-<9;vU 



A;,< vl^-'w :u >*''U^■ 1*?**'»1 ,li»cM(l 

V'v^. 22. — Just a low salcsmcirs advance cards used in the shoe 
industry. In each case where the entire reverse side is covered 
hy a picture, the ohverse side has been used to announce name and 
<iate of arrival of salesman. 



type of direct advertising are for announcements and 
bulletins of various kinds. 

Another function of the mailing card, apparently little 
appreciated as yet, is its use in ' ' teaser ' ' campaigns. ( Fig. 
51). A *' teaser" campaign is one where interest is 
aroused by an appeal to curiosity. In one community cam- 
paign, for example, the main slogan was ''Suppose Nobody 
Cared?'* The title of the main booklet was the same. 
Four days before the booklet, educational in nature, was 
mailed, the list of names received a postal card of the teaser 
variety with a large "Suppose" thereon ; the next day came 
a second with "Suppose Nobody," and, finally, a third on 
tlie third day with "Suppose Nobody Cared"; thus selling 
the booklet ahead of its arrival (see Sections 183 and 186). 

66. Sizes of Mailing Cards and Mailing Circulars Lim- 
ited Only by Mailing Conditions. — As has been indicated 
by measurements shown in Section 64, mailing cards and 
mailing circulars are limited practically only by mailing 
conditions. Those printed upon cardboard, especially if it 
is very heavy and therefore likely to break when bent, 
should not exceed 7x9 inches or thereabouts, for postmen 
in cities are prone to fold them to slip them more easily 
into mail-chutes provided in the average office door. 

67. If Used in Series, Should Be Changed. — If you use 
mailing cards or mailing circulars in a series of mailings it 
is well to change color, size, or make-up. The System cards 
on Fig. 21 D have different colored backgrounds in each case. 

68. Direct Results Not Usually Aimed for in Use of 
Mailing Cards and Circulars. — As a rule it is not usual to 
try for direct returns or direct results in the use of mailing 
cards and circulars; they are the "billboard" type of direct 
advertising, if we may so term them. An examination of 
I''igs. 20a and 20b will show how these forms of direct 
advertising are generally used. All on Fig. 20a, except the 
San Francisco Call card however, illustrate how they may 
he used for direct returns, or results. In selling the annual 
report of an association of which the waiter is a member, a 
raost careful study was made of keyed returns as all selling 




was done by mail. It was found that more actual sales per 
dollar spent could be secured by a simple two-fold card, 
similar to top card of Fig. 20a, than by any other form. 
In that campaign many other forms of direct and trade 
paper advertising were used. Aside from these double- 
size or double-double size, or an occasional triple-size card, 
you will find that the mailing card and circular are gen- 
erally used for announcement purposes and not for direct 
returns. See also Section 142. 

69. Envelope Inclosures.— Envelope inclosures^ are fre- 
quently referred to by advertisers as '* stuff ers," and all 
too often they are literally "stuffers" and not miniature 
sales messages. This classification will be found to over- 
lap others, especially small booklets and blotters, and is 
similar in many wavs to package inserts treated m Section 
75 but this overlapping, the writer believes, is more than 
likely the main reason for the desultory way m which a 
powerful method of direct advertising is used and abused. 
We shall define an envelope inclosure as a leaflet of two, 
though usually at least four or more pages, as a rule with- 
out a special cover, used as an inclosure with regular mail- 
either letters, invoices, statements, form letter mailings, 
house organs, catalogues or other special mailings (see Fig. 


70. There Are Planned, as Well as "Hit-or-Miss" 
Inclosures.— The bulk of the inclosures used at the present 
time one must admit, seem aimed more at ** getting your 
money's worth from the two-cent stamp you use to mail 
first-class letters" than to accomplish any set plan. By 
that we mean that all too many inclosures are designed 
merely for the purpose of getting the full legal limit as to 
weic'ht of a letter as allowed by the United States Govern- 
ment By far the larger portion of first-class mail, it has 
been estimated, does not attain the total weight allowed for 
tVo cents But there are planned inclosures as well as the 
''hit-or-miss" variety, and the future will see more of them 

than in the past. i. • i ,,.00 

Fig. 23 illustrates several different kinds of inclosures 



used by leading firms, and Fig. 25 also illustrates some 
of the simpler forms and shows how even the apparently 
simple inclosures may have a definite plan behind them. 
Details of these illustrations will be found in succeeding sec- 



Super Cora 




Fig. 23.— Additional envelope inclosures and package inserts are illus- 
traned here. See also Figs. 24 to 28, inclusive. Details of these illustra- 
tions will be found in the text. 



71. Inclosures Can Perform Three Main Functions.— 
The three main functions of inclosures are: (1) Supple- 
menting some other form of advertising, either a personal 
sales message or a printed one such as a catalogue, house 
organ, sales letterhead, and so on; (2) Educational work 
foreign to the mahi message with which it is inclosed; 
(3) Announcements of various kinds, such as changes in 
telephone numbers, additions to your products, and so on. 
Above all, the main function of the inclosure is to per- 
mit the use of a briefer main sales message. It is admitted 
by all that the briefer a sales letter is the greater chance it 
has of being read, and while some few letter-writers claim 
that the inclosure with a letter diverts the recipient's atten- 
tion from the letter itself, especially where a direct refer- 
ence is made in the letter, say to a certain page, or m some 
such way directly to the inclosure, the majority believe it 
good strategy to use the brief letter and an inclosure. 

On this same angle of strategy, it is admitted by house- 
organ experts that the publication itself is a splendid 
builder of goodwill but a poor producer of inquiries unless 
you use a display advertisement with a coupon as part of it ; 
even then, if your house organ is treasured or filed, the re- 
cipient does not wish to destroy its pages. By using an 
envelope inclosure with a ''come-back" as a part of it direct 
inquiries may be pulled from a house-organ mailing. This 
inclosure may or may not have any reference to what is 
treated in the house organ itself, of course. 

Fig. 23 A, original in two colors, red and black on a white 
card," is an example of how the inclosure may be used 
strategically to sell the buyer, almost unconsciously, on 
paying a price a bit higher perhaps than he first had m 
mind. A variation of this is a similar inclosure, not illus- 
trated, which directly attacks the problem with this, under 
a heading ''Oh Yes!"; 

It's a big temptation to give the order to the Lowest Bidder. 
The best way to get over that habit is to keep on doing it. 
Every fellow who stays in business long enough to practice 
it, cures himself. 



This latter inclosure was used by a firm of printers and 
sent out with their regular mail accompanied by letters giv- 
ing quotations. 

Fig. 26 illustrates, greatly reduced, a series of three in- 
closures used, somewhat generally, to improve postal con- 
ditions in the United States early in 1920. Note that they 
are in a series. Any of these might be inclosed with any 
form of message and so they fall into the class of "educa- 
tional" work referred to in an earlier paragraph. 

Fig. 23 D is an unusual inclosure. The inclosure itself 
frankly admits it, too. "A food recipe in a business man's 
mail — " as a heading is descriptive of the inclosure. A 
California packing company adopted this unusual plan of 
getting a wider interest in its goods, by the use of inclosures 
with its mail to business men. 

Fig. 23 B illustrates both sides of a two-page inclosure for 
a large tire company. A similar one might be used either 
to supplement a regular or form-letter or similar sales mes- 
sage, or be inclosed at random in your regular mail. 

Fig. 23 C, used to supplement a mailing to sell the stock 
of the company referred to, was not only unusual but 
could be used for supplemental publicity as an announce- 

Fig. 23 E illustrates how a book publishing house in mail- 
ing circulars about one book used a simple inclosure about 
some other book. The original of this was on brown paper, 
printed both sides; the unillustrated side merely gave 
the chapter-headings of the book, "Industrial Housing," 
and in the lower right-hand comer in each case you will find 
the word ' ' Over. ' ' 

The front fold only is illustrated in Fig. 24, a rather 
unique inclosure issued by a firm of direct-advertising spe- 
cialists. The original measures 4i/^ inches in width by 6 
inches in depth and had therefore to be folded in the center 
to be inclosed with a regular letter, though when mailed 
with the company's house organ such folding became un- 

Fig, 25 illustrates several more inclosures, some of them 






// iijar more difficult to bt simple than to be complicated. — RusfUN 

The greatest learning it seen in the greatest plainness. — Wilkins 

The least degree of ambiguity which leaves the mind in suspense as to 
the meaning ought to be avoided with the greatest care. — Blair 

'Obscurity in writing is commonly an argument oj darkness in. the 
mind. — WiLKiNS 

I HAVE in my library a book written to explain 
small-boat sailing to men who do not under- 
stand that art, from which I cull the following 

"Reeve the fall right handed." 

"Slack the main sheet." 

"Reef rather than luff continuously." 

"Establish your position accurately by bear- 


"Make the end of yourgantline fast to the ring." 
"Pull on your topping lifts and get reef cringle 

down to boom." 

"Make fast your reef earing at the tack, haul 

out the clew earing and tie up the reef points." 

Fig. 24. — An "editorial form" of inclosure. Only .the first page 
is illustrated, the second page continues the story without break, 
and the third page completes it with firm's signature at the end. 


unique in shape and size. The "Have Another One" is a 
die-cut imitation of a pancake, four pages, advertising a 
pancake flour. 

The two Collier's inclosures are greatly reduced repro- 
ductions of the front covers of that publication. These 
two inclosures were used by the publishers' subscription 
agencies in two ways, one with a special mailing on Col- 
lier's alone, and the other as a piece of supplemental pub- 
licity with a catalogue and folder describing a long list of 
publications. These inclosures in both cases have space on 
the last fold for signing a name *'on the dotted line" and 
making an order out of them. 

* ' Profits in Berkshires ' ' was used both by the association 
publishing the inclosure and also by members who inclosed 
these little messages with their regular mail — a method 
perhaps entirely foreign to the breeding of Berkshires. 

''Look at the Cylinder" aims to sell a new roller to the 
Remington typewriter user into whose hands it falls. Each 
was sent out with the regular mail, in the "hit-or-miss" 
distribution plan. It was also mailed with the firm's 
house organ as well as to a list of users of old machines. 

''Kelvinator in Place of Ice" is what is known as No. 10 
inclosure and fits into a No. 10 envelope. It was used to 
supplement a sales letter answering an inquiry as to this 
new form of ice box. 

''Success & Co." might almost be listed as a novelty; it 
is an imitation pay-roll envelope containing still another 
inclosure ; the purpose of the inner inclosure is to obtain an 
inquiry for a correspondence course in efficiency. 

The three-fold inclosure with James ^L Cox on one side 
and Warren G. Harding on the other is what is known as a 
syndicated direct-advertising inclosure (see Section 195). 
The three inside folds not shown give the presidential vote 
from the year 1824 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1916. The 
blank on the third fold is intended for the insertion of your 
own estimate. 

The Swissalu and Lucas Velvo-Tone Finish inclosures 
are unusual in shape. These are slipped over the top edge 


of a letter replying to an inquirj^ and may either have 
reference to the inquiry itself or be used merely to pro- 
mote interest in something foreign to the inquiry. 

The very long inclosure (original 3% inches, wide, 17% 
deep) was printed on one side only and when mailed was 
folded in the middle. Its function was to interest the 
stores receiving it on the selling possibilities of a line of 
rugs. It was accompanied with other mail matter. Such 
a piece might be included with an invoice, for example, 
thus reemphasizing what the salesman had told the cus- 
tomer when he bought the goods. 

An example of the pure announcement type of inclosure 
is the Rogers & Company's notification of its change of tele- 
phone, printed one side only, shown on Fig. 25. 

72. Two Principal Sizes of Inclosures.— While naturally 
an inclosure can be of almost any size, as you have noted 
in the sections immediately preceding this, yet as a general 
rule the majority of the inclosures used fall into two prin- 
cipal classes : the No. 6% inclosure, designed to be used in 
an envelope of that size, and the No. 10 inclosure for an en- 
velope of that size. See Appendix B for specifications of 
these envelopes. Many of those used in the 634 are made 
smaller so as to permit their use in an envelope already 
near the limit when the letter itself or main mailing piece is 
inclosed. Not many inclosures are of unusual size or 
shape ; even those on Fig. 25 required considerable search 
among a large number of inclosures. In Section 262, which 
deals with the mechanical angles of direct-advertising 
pieces, you will find other examples of unusual folds. 

73.' Where Used Regularly Inclosures Should Be 
Changed Often.— If you are using envelope inclosures as 
general announcements with your regular mail and you 
write the same addressee very frequently it is necessary to 
change the style of inclosure quite often or you waste all 
your efforts. For example, you might have, say ^OU 
customers, and write these over and over again during the 
course of a business month. If you start to use an inclosure 
on January 1st every one of your regular correspondents has 

Fig-. 25. — Even the telegraph company uses envelope inclosures. 
^ote how the Western I'nion, by using the inclosures shown above, 
nelps to sell its service to those who get messages. See text for 

Stir Up Your Local 
Business Organizations 


ject to 

Gfel your Chamber of Commerce, Roteuy Club 
and other local business orgamizations interested 
and secure their co-operation. Have them get. all 
members to use on their outgoing letters stickers 

-^iS^z^imnging all possible pressure to bear on 

-siCvide prompt and ef&cient 

>^^SE note tv 
'^e date tiT, 7 ^"^«^°Pe 

"■-^UiPf _^ .service. r ^^ ^^era to ^^.. 


you are 




• service. r ° ""^m to -u-^. 



"^e ,, ."•'e L 

^ic'y '*- 




•-J -».!''* 





^; 'o ^4 


Fig. 26. — The person who has just bought your product is the 
one to whom you should address your advertisements, especially 
if you have other forms of products to sell. Tliis illustration 
shows how several national firms use these little dvnamos in direct 



Fig. 27. — No name appears on these inclosures. They were part of a concen- 
trated campaign to better the maH service of the United States Post Office De- 




seen that same inelosure several times, with a result that he 
almost automatically fires it into the waste-basket the mo- 
ment your letter is opened. On the other hand, if you 
deal with concerns to whom you write only very infre- 
quently, you might advantageously use the same inelosure 

for a long time. 

74. Inelosure Not Used for Direct Returns, as a Rule. 
—The functions for which inclosures are used, as described 
in Section 71, preclude much in the way of direct results, 
except where inclosed with catalogues (see Fig. 66) . Where 
used as package inserts (see Section 75), of course direct 
results are easily traced. See also Section 143. 

The manager of a mail-order sales department of a prom- 
inent New York watch company recently testified that by 
mailing, with a special proposition offered with a four-page 
sales letterhead, a separate inelosure on an entirely differ- 
ent proposition, he got back enough returns from this sep- 
arate inelosure to pay for the cost of the mailing, thus mak- 
ing that much "velvet." 

This leads up to the question whether there should be 
more than one inelosure in a letter or in a house organ. 
No general rule can be laid down, of course, but a careful 
analysis of many campaigns would lead one to believe 
that the preceding instance was an exception to the general 
rule. Apropos, Flint McNaughton in 'intensive Selling" 
says: "A number of inclosures in one envelope confuses 
the reader. He sees at once that the envelope contains a 
promiscuous advertisement and a large percentage of these 
inclosures go directly into the discard. . . . This 'stuffing' 
\ of envelopes has done much to cast the real selling value of 
inclosures in bad repute." 

Still it must be admitted that William Wrigley, Jr., 
started his gum-selling business with a mailing of as many 
different inclosures offering premiums as he could get into a 
one-cent letter. He appealed to the postmaster, small- 
town express agent and similar "business men" in those 
days, of course ; nevertheless, to a high-grade business house 



the rule of a single inelosure to a letter may well be ad- 
hered to. 

A California furniture house planned a series of inclo- 
sures which produced traceable business. This concern got 
up an inelosure that looked like a certificate; in fact, it 
was a credit certificate, permitting the recipients— all were 
former customers to whom credit would be extended but 
who for some unknown reason were no longer customers 
of the store — to call and buy on credit without the necessity 
of interviewing the credit manager and formally reopening 
their account. The designer of this system reported at the 
San Francisco meeting of the Direct Mail Advertising 
Association in 1918: "I sent out about 1200 of those 
letters and we made over 100 direct sales of pretty 
good size. ' ' 

An installment collection manager, according to a writer 
in Mailhag, August, 1920, page 155, made use of an inelo- 
sure for the improvement of collections. He found that 
many customers forgot the due dates of their installments. 
This necessitated collection letters; moreover, once a cus- 
tomer got behind he stayed behind, as a rule. This collec- 
tion man now incloses a small celluloid card, the back of 
which carries a yearly calendar and the due dates of each 
of that recipient's installments are printed in red ink. The 
letter explains the calendar. While this device is practi- 
cally a novelty (see Section 97), still as used in this in- 
stance it is a result-getting envelope inelosure. 

Maximum results accrue only from inclosures when they 
are planned to accomplish a certain purpose in the general 
advertising campaign. 

75. Package Inserts. — When you stop to consider the 
person who has already bought your product and the po- 
tential possibilities you have to keep him buying more of 
that same product, as well as any other products made by 
your firm, as compared with the less determinate possibili- 
ties of selling a new customer, you get an idea of the im- 
portance of package inserts. 

George C. Frolich, United Drug Company, in addressing 





the Detroit convention, for example, said that one year 
when he was manager of the department they sold 20,000,- 
000 pamphlets to their dealers for distribution in packages 
of merchandise which went out of the store. 

Package inserts may be defined as slips, cards, or other 
inclosures placed within the original package, aimed at the 
dealer or consumer or hoth, as the case may he. 

76. Unlimited Possibilities for Package Inserts.— There 
is, practically speaking, no limit to the use of package in- 
serts, and you will find them used by many national adver- 
tisers. Fig. 26 illustrates several package inserts, but 
hundreds of other examples might have been used for illus- 
tration purposes. Here, for instance, is a package insert 
used with a tube of Lysol shaving cream. One side tells 
me how to get a good shave ; on the other side I find a whole 
** family" of products advertised, including a soap, disin- 
fectant, etc. 

Or, here is an insert wrapped around a can of Lyon's 
tooth powder. On its reverse side we find complete direc- 
tions in four foreign languages for using the powder— does 
it take much imagination to determine what tooth powder 
will gain in use among foreign-speaking peoples once they 
learn of Lyon 's, if other manufacturers do not follow suit ? 

Even such a prosaic product as a glass fruit- jar has a 
package insert. The inclosure before the writer gives some 
directions for canning vegetables. 

Again, here is a shaving cream of unusual kind, and the 
insert describes how to open the tube and how to use it. 

Such a well-known, national advertiser as the National 
Biscuit Company is a heavy user of package inserts, as the 
several exhibits on Fig. 26 show. In the box of Nabiscos 
we find an insert advertising Fig Newtons, while the pack- 
age of Fig Newtons probably brought us the insert on 
Unity Iced Jumbles, and so on. 

Nearly all packages of cigarettes carry inserts. Only two 
are shown. One is merely the claim-all slogan, *'The Ut- 
most in Cigarettes," followed by the manufacturer's name 
and the words, very small, "this package guaranteed"; 

the other tells you what to do if the cigarettes are not sat- 
isfactory and serves as a guarantee slip. 

Most candies likewise carry an insert, the one of Page & 

Shaw is illustrated. , . xt v i 

The Bond Bread insert pictured was used m New York 
City, and was placed within the waxed paper wrapper ; on 
the back of it we find a very brief but interesting history of 
this brand of bread from its inception in New York City 
to its second birthday. A piece of good business strategy 
is involved here. We understand that -prior to putting 
this brand of bread on the market it had been considered 
a necessary part of merchandising bakers' breads to bring 
out a new brand about once a year and depend for its sale 

Liquid Petrolatum Merck 

This i9 used in place of purgativei. 
Lubricates the intestines. Tasteless. 

Carbon Tetrachloride Merck 

Non-explosive compound for clean- 
ing clothes, gloves, removing grease 
spots, etc. Good fire extinguUherl 


Disinfectant, Antiseptic Wash, ana 


JZrfjtm this tiUpfnr a free cnpvpf H}}^ 

trxUed "Handv Book on SanUatwn. 

Be sure to ask your druggist for tKe above 
ia original package* bearing our labeU 


A 042 (°^^ 

New York 

**You can 
depend on 

Ask your Druggist f orrr 

Phosphate of Soda Merck 

Milk Sugar Merck 

Barley Flour Merck 

Boric Acid Merck 

Bicarbonate of Soda Merck 

Hydrogen Peroxide Merck 

Zinc Stearate, Scented, Merck 
Poothing, fragrant powder. Prevent* 
chafing. Not affected by moisture. 
Mail this slip for a free samjie, 


V\a 28— In the above illustration both sides of a diminutive Pac^age in- 
sert! whiJh "gets over'' a big story in small space, are reproduced, full s.ze. 

mainly on the novelty of the name. This mode of reselling 
the bread, once a year with a package insert, successfully 
strikes at the root of one trouble in the bread business 

The lono- slip insert is wrapped around a stick ot Wil- 
liams' shaving stick soap. It bears a complete set ot 
directions how to utilize more of your shaving stick by 
means of a new form of refill stick. 

Fig 28 illustrates, full size, the front and back ot a 
package insert used by a firm manufacturing a line of drug 
products. Note how a free book is offered on this slip, 



small as it is. Fig. 23 F illustrates a simple package insert 
of the guarantee type. On the reverse there is no printing, 
but figures stamped on it by a numbering machine probably 
give the manufacturers a key to the time of production of 
the contents of this particular box; perhaps they indicated 
the packer's number or other information of significance. 

77. Seven Main Functions Accomplished by Package 
Inserts. — There are in all seven main classifications of pack- 
age inserts: (1) Inserts directed to get reorders for the 
same goods; (2) inserts that are to introduce others in the 
same '^family" or allied products, as in Fig. 26, for exam- 
ple; (3) inserts giving instructions or directions as to use; 
(4) inserts to secure names of new prospects. This plan, 
which has been used by many firms to good advantage, asks 
the buyer to suggest names of other possible buyers ; some- 
times a novelty based on the firm's product is offered for the 
return of the names; (5) inserts which aim purely for gen- 
eral publicity such as the one, ''Utmost in Cigarettes," 
on Fig. 26 ; (6) inserts which are in the form of a guarantee 
to the purchaser, as well as inspection labels and inserts 
including the guarantee such as Fig. 26; and (7) inserts 
which suggest new uses for an old product, to increase sales 

78. Results Can Be Traced Where Direct Inquiries Are 
Asked For. — Where direct inquiries are asked for results 
may be traced to package inserts, but where the inserts are 
purely of a general publicity or educational nature, as 
noted, for instance, in the miniature booklets, ''The Story of 
Writing," "How Steel Pens are Made," and others illus- 
trated on Fig. 26, no direct results can be expected. These 
booklets ("How Steel Pens are Made" measure lVix2 
inches only and contain but 12 pages) are inserted within 
a box of pens and go direct to the buyers of pens. The 
Esterbrook company comments on them in this manner: 
"In addition to being a unique method of arousing interest, 
inasmuch as they provide the recipient with a knowledge 
of the product in question, they are also, in their way, ef- 
fective sales producers." 



Gail Murphy in a talk before the Cleveland convention 
of the Direct Mail Advertising Association, commenting 
on package inserts, said : "The manufacturer who makes a 
good product and neglects to take this opportunity (of us- 
ing package inserts) to sell the buyer more thoroughly on it, 
is overlooking one of the greatest forms of direct advertis- 

The Royal Baking Powder Company, according to an 
article in Printers' Ink, May 1, 1913, page 4, drew, by use 
of a small circular package insert offering a special recipe 
book which is not advertised elsewhere, "hundreds of let- 
ters a day from all over the country. ' ' 

Perhaps the most unusual result-getting package insert is 
really a package-wrapper. Procter & Gamble put an extra 
wrapper around their Crisco cans in addition to the label. 
They Utilize the Inside of This Wrapper for Advertis- 
ing Purposes. The outside of the wrapper is almost a 
duplicate of the regular label on the can itself, except that 
there is displayed in two places this injunction : 


See Inside of this Wrapper." 

The housewife on opening it up finds some helpful general 
directions for using Crisco and a large return slip offering 
four different books on cooking. This wrapper not only 
utilizes the space that would otherwise be wasted, but also 
gets before the user of the product a selling message at 
practically no cost. 

Premium wrappers and premium inserts are, of course, 
complete checks on the result-getting values of package in- 
serts. The package inserts aimed at dealers, unless they 
bear directions as to display or protection, are usually 
premium inserts. 

As an excellent example of the latter class, see Printers' 
Ink, October 8, 1914, page 31, describing the marvelous 
success of selling what was once a new Wrigley product — 
"Doublemint." A dealer bought a box of Spearmint and 
found within it a coupon form of package insert advertis- 





ing the new Doublemint variety, and offering, within a 
certain time limit, one box of the new brand provided 
the dealer bought one or more boxes of Spearmint. These 
inserts were redeemed from the jobbers by the manufac- 
turer, of course. This method was tantamount to giving 
away a free box of Doublemint, but made the dealer ap- 
preciate and push the new brand by placing a value upon 
the package insert. The jobber got his regular profit even 
on the free box, it should be added. But note how shrewdly 
the gum company made the entire campaign self-sup- 
porting; since an additional order for Spearmint, the 
regular and well-known brand, was required to get the free 


The Kolynos Company, New Haven, Conn., manufactur- 
ers of a dental cream, inclose a postal card with every 
sample of cream they send out. This card provides spaces 
for the names and addresses of seven friends who, in the 
opinion of the recipient of the sample, would like a sample 
of this dental cream. L. A. Jenkins, of the Kolynos Com- 
pany, commenting on this package-insert idea, said: *'As 
a result thousands of these packages (samples) are mailed 
out monthly; it forms an excellent method of advertising." 

It should be added that results are not usually so good 
where attempts have been made to use inserts in products 
which do not go to the consumers in original packages or 
where the goods have to be repacked by jobbers or other 
distributors. In these cases the inserts frequently get ' 'lost 
in the shuffle. " 

79. Much more might be said, even in this general physi- 
cal classification, about package inserts, for the field is al- 
most unlimited and new methods of distributing are being 
developed almost daily. Printers' Ink, April 10, 1919, 
page 48, tells how in a campaign to increase the consump- 
tion of milk in New England an ingenious paper device was 
gotten out and placed over the neck of every bottle of milk 
sold by the dealers who subscribed to the campaign. ''On 
one side," reports the article referred to, "the use of milk 
as a diet was urged by the Massachusetts Board of Food 

Administration. On the other side were printed some 
easily prepared recipes containing milk." 

When we begin to get direct advertising via the tops of 
our morning's milk, when morning newspapers take extra 
copies and stick thereon a piece of "direct advertising"— 
a small separate slip that is— telling us: "No, I did not 
blow on to your porch, I came as a sample," and so on, 
what may we expect next in the way of package inserts? 

80. Package Inserts Differ from Envelope Inclosures. 
—Attention should be called to the fact that package inserts 
usually go only to people who have already bought some 
of your goods, though occasionally they are inserted with 
"samples"; envelope inclosures go to prospects as well as 
regular users and, therefore, while package inserts are akin 
to envelope inclosures they are not identical with them and 
should be planned separately, for reasons to be set forth at 
length in Chapters VIII and X. 

81. Broadsides. — As we saw in Section 22, it is quite 
hard to define absolutely any particular physical form of 
direct advertising, and it is even harder to define the broad- 
side. For all general purposes, however, we may character- 
ize broadsides as printed sheets 25 x 38, or down to half that 
size, folded down for mailing purposes to about 5 x 10y2, 
9 X 12, or 10 X 6 inches, mailed either under their own cover 
{literally auto-contained) or in a special envelope. 

The placing of the broadside within the campaign is 
worthy of note. It is usual to send out the broadside 
either as the opening gun— the first piece — or the "mop 
up" or last piece. In the first case it is used for its size 
—to dominate the prospect. In the latter instance it is 
often used as a "review" piece, that is, the entire cam- 
paign is reviewed on the final and parting shot. 

Where the campaign calls for but one piece a broadside 
can sometimes be used advantageously though usually a let- 
ter is preferable for a single-piece campaign. 

82. How Broadsides Differ from Other Physical Forms. 
—Broadsides differ from other physical forms of direct ad- 
vertising primarily in size. They are really only large 



mailing cards or circulars; sometimes they are of a heavy- 
stock like a cover paper, or of a heavy weight of coated 
paper. They differ from folders only in that their folding 

is always simple, no *' stunts" or *' trick" folds being 
used in broadsides. 

Years ago when paper was almost a glut on the market 
broadsides filled the mails ; during the war when paper was 
scarce, they were not used very often. 

Fig. 29 shows some typical broadsides, though because 
of their huge size It is almost impossible to picture them 

Take the broadside bearing the large *'X" and ''What 
Does It Mean to You ? " on the front. As that reaches the 
prospect it measures 9i/^ x 6i/4 inches. I open it ; I now 
face a sheet 9i/^ x 12% inches. In this case only the upper 
half bears any printing, and I read: "X, it means the 
biggest crowds that ever jammed their way into your 
theatre!" The lower fold is entirely blank. I turn the 
fold naturally (in this connection see Section 263), and I 
now face a sheet 191/4 inches wide by 121/2. It is composed 
of four parts — made by the creases — folds — on the upper 
left-hand space; I gaze at a big persian-orange '*X" ap- 
proximately 5 inches square, while at the lower right hand 
in large type I read: "It means you'll stand head and 
shoulders over every other theatre in town as long as 'X' is 

I turn the fold again, naturally, and now face a sheet 
191/4 inches wide by 25 inches deep, composed of eight of 
those folded-creased spaces, on the upper four of which 
there is a still bigger persian-orange *'X," this time ap- 
proximately 10 inches square, and the lower four of which 
we see — each succeeding line in a larger type than the pre- 
ceding. **It means a new record of attendance at your 
theatre. It means banner profits, increased good will, sat- 
isfied patrons. In other words — it means the biggest pic- 
ture of the year!'' The italic lines were in persian orange. 

Once more I turn the fold, this time having, however, to 

Fig. 20. — Tho l)r()adsides pictured have been fjreatly reduced be- 
cause of limited space. See text for details. 





Pig :jo. — Folders are not so popular to-day as they were when 
Tncle Sam let you run wild on tlie front cover and permitted you 
to mail irrefruiar-sliaped pieces without envelopes. A few auto- 
eontained and conventional foUlers are shown here. 

make an unnatural turn so as to have the full wide-opened' 
25 X 38 sheet before me, with the message on the narrow 
width, and I read a regular movie-poster in regard to 
''Madame X," illustrated with one oval half-tone 15x20 
inches in size, and a square finished half-tone with black 
border of 22 x 9 inches in size. 

This is a regular, full-sized broadside. The piece you see 
finally opened is composed of 16 of those spaces made by 
the folds (creases) referred to in earlier paragraphs. 

''Just Two Sizes" -when fully opened up measures 
21 X 14 inches and by some might not be classed as a broad- 
side at all. 

''The Lid is Off ! " opens up to 18 x 241/2. 

''Into your Hands" opens up to 351/2 x 231/2, which means 
it is a 38 X 25 sheet opening on the broad way but has been 
cut down in trimming. 

"—and now you buy the Group" opens up to 17 1/2 x 
211/2 inches and is printed upon a cover stock. This is the 
only one on Fig. 29 which required a separate mailing en- 

83. Function of the Broadside Is to "Put Over" the 
Idea of Bigness.— The fundamental idea behind the broad- 
side is always bigness, for the purpose of making an im- 
pression. Take the examples illustrated on Fig. 29; the 
"Madam X" broadside goes to movie-house owners and is 
aimed to induce them to book the picture. It wants to sug- 
gest BIG profits through big crowds and uses the idea of 
actual BIGNESS to do it. 

The skate broadside is mailed to dealers and tries to sell 
a BIG idea— that with two sizes of this firm's skates all sizes 
of shoes can be fitted. 

"The Lid is Off !" went to dealers in footwear and sim- 
ilar products of the United States Rubber Company, im- 
mediately following the armistice. It has an added value : 
inclosed with it were stickers for putting up the sheet, 
finally opened, in the dealer's window so that the message 
that rubber goods were again available might be passed on 
to the consumer. 


"Into your Hands" went to dealers in automobile acces- 
sories, also to jobbers; it told of the policy of tlie firm's ad- 
vertising and sales campaign ; inside there was attached with 
a seal sticker a return postal card. 

The magazine broadside was mailed to advertising man- 
agers and aimed to sell an entire group of publications. It 
partook of the billboard type of advertising. 

In practically every one of these cases the list was com- 
paratively small and yet broadsides, especially those a 
half-sheet in size (half of 25x38- either way), have been 
used with telling effect upon consumers and users. 

84. The Use of Broadsides and Results from Their 
Use.— The usual use for broadsides, therefore, is upon the 
small list, dealers, or picked lists of big possible users. The 
Pyrene Company used a smashing broadside, full of red, 
upon a list of high-rated manufacturing firms some years 
ao-o. A firm manufacturing steel desks put over the idea of 
their beauty by using a half-sheet broadside almost all of 
the wide-opened fold of which was taken up with a mam- 
moth half-tone reproduction in color of the desk itself. 

The results come from impressions rather than from re- 
turns, and while the broadside may well be used as an ef- 
fective piece in a campaign it is seldom used in a series. 
The man who tries to emphasize every word by shoutmg 
soon becomes a pest instead of a joy to listen to, as you 

know. . , 

85. Folders.— Under the classification we have imposed 

upon ourselves, folders are to be defined as mailing pieces 
calling for unusual folds or ''stunts/' especially those which 
require special dies. They are as a rule mailed under their 
own cover; i.e., ''auto-contained"; though since the recent 
governmental ruling (see Section 379) fewer auto-contamed 
folders are being used because their strong features are 
their covers and the Post Office Department has almost 
banned pictorial covers. aj ^ 

86. Folders Are the "Clever" Pieces of Direct Adver- 
tising, as a Rule.— While there are some exceptions, as we 
have Classified the various physical forms of direct advertis- 



inff folders are the "clever" pieces; therein lie both their 
strength and weakness, for their very cleverness may some- 
times militate against their effectiveness. The reader may 
remember the cleverness, take the folder home to amuse the 
children, yet fail to get your sales message or buy any of 

your products. ... 21 x 

Fig. 30 illustrates, as well as is possible with a flat re- 

nroduction, a few folders. 

The projecting tip on the one headed ''The Future in- 
serts in a slit at the point indicated, and when the folder has 
been folded at points A-A and B-B and the tip inserted 
in the slit on the opposite edge of B-B, serves as a means 
of holding together for mailing purposes the folder itselt 
There are many methods of making the folder inclose itselt 
without the aid of a sticker or clip, some of which are pat- 
ented ; the one shown is of the simplest type. ^ 

''Uncover Bigger Profits" was a favorite form m those 
days when there were no postal restrictions as to size and 
shape. In this connection see Section 379. 

''Here's Something New" is a very elaborate folder. 
The billiard table and the three figures are actually on a 
separate piece from the background of the room and pasted 
on what represents a floor. When properly opened the tig- 
ures and table are a quarter of an inch from the back wall. 

''Soil Culture" represents the simpler use of the die m 
making folders. That circle is die-cut and permits, as you 
see, that much of a half-tone reproduction of a field with a 
harrow at work. Except for this die work m connection 
with several folds this piece might as well have been classi- 
fied as a mailing card or circular. ^^ 

"Cold Weather Need Not Stop Your Building is an ex- 
ample of a folder which requires an envelope for mailing. 
The thermometer is die-cut and the tongue part of it in- 
serted in a slit in the building picture as indicated. By 
its use is driven home the idea of building m freezing 
weather. (See Section 144 for results.) 

87. Unusual Si^es and Shapes Used in Folder Form.— 


While booklets, broadsides, envelope inclosures and other 
such physical forms of direct advertising must follow con- 
ventional and standardized sizes and shapes, as a rule the 
folder is not so restricted; it is limited by mailing and 
printing and folding possibilities and the size of the paper 
or cardboard to be used. 

In Section 262 we shall take up briefly the matter of 
folding, but let it be said here that there are almost un- 
limited ways in which a sheet of cardboard or paper can be 
folded up so as to produce ingenious and often surprising 
effects. Summing up the situation, almost any fold which 
is not clumsy is a good one. 

88. Blotters.— The useful as well as ornamental type of 
direct advertising, yet one that practically no one buys, 
withal, an advertising piece that practically every one uses, 
is the BLOTTER. From our childhood days when we drew 
all of the ink out of the inkwell in the school desk by the 
aid of a blotter we have known it as a piece of ahsorhent 
paper. But in our mature or advertising days we find 
physically there are two kinds of blotters, one with an 
enameled top surface, for good printing results, use of 
half-tones, color plates, and so on, and the other the old- 
time, entirely absorbent blotter. 

To complete our definitions we shall characterize a blotter 
as any piece of blotting paper, with or without an enameled 
surface, used for direct advertising purposes singly or in 
series, as a house organ or for direct mailings. 

There are three different kinds of blotters considered from 
the physical form: (1) Single pieces, various sizes; (2) sev- 
eral pieces fastened together with a celluloid or other 
** cover " ; and (3) large desk blotters, not as popular as they 
once were. Either or all of these forms may have the calen- 
dar features, one or more months, incorporated with them. 

Sloan and Mooney in ''Advertising a Technical Product" 
tell of an effective blotter campaign which utilized a double 
No. 10 blotter, with the recipient's name printed thereon. 
This is a form of personalizing (see Section 192). 

89. The Blotter Has Utility Value.— As indicated m 

Fig. 31.— One thing we seldom buy is a blotter. Properly 
planned blotters can be made to do a lot of work in a direct ad- 
vertising campaign. 



Section 88, blotters have utility value, and there are but few 
people who do not depend upon advertising blotters for 

their supply. 

Fig. 31 illustrates several different kinds of blotters. 
Tanki, Packers, and Lettergram are of regular blotting 
paper, both sides of which can be used for absorbing pur- 
poses ; while all of the rest have an enameled surface. The 
Almond blotter, with which is combined a calendar, it will 
be noted, and the Gatchel & Manning blotters are in several 
colors. On the original of the latter those tomatoes show 
up in actual color. 

The Vandercook blotter (Fig. 32 A) bears both an inch 
and a pica rule to add to its usefulness. 

The little '*57 per cent" blotter (Fig. 33) is of unusual 
size and shape. As a rule, blotters are of a size to fit either 



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The VandcrcooK Press Has Moved 

'.Ik V«nd<rcaeli ^tm 

prott prvM and othvr mschinn and biola, h«a 
t* a rw tmnon wtth crvai))' t wc r — J f pac 

II52-456 N. Ashland Avc^ Chicato 


E crai Ma'Mjrrm-wK. wxwv rm-r ^ f ■ rKiKJu - i raKJCB-. r :rrij 

i lililil iT ililrlil i liTilii J iilii m iilititil iTi lilililili T i li lilililiTiB 

Fig. 32.— Other blotter appeals are illustrated in this line engrav- 
ing. A. How the utilitarian appeal may be increased even in the case 
of the blotter — two different kinds of rules are made a part of this 
piece, one an inch rule, and the other a pica or nonpareil scale. 
B. Observe the utilization of the series idea in blotters. Both 
originals are printed on same kind of stock— gray. Note how the 
trade-mark is "played up." 

a 614 or 63/4 envelope or a No. 10 envelope. The two 
blotters, one with the heading ''Preparedness" (Fig. 32 B) 
and the other without a heading, belong to a series issued 


by a particular printing house. As a matter of fact, 
blotters are frequently issued in series. 




of All News Stand 

copies of the August 

issues sold in the 


*' Reader Interest 


shows on the neivs stana 


Fig. 33. — Here is reproduced in the same size 
as the original one of many blotters gotten out 
by the Metropolitan magazine. 

go. Blotters Are Also Used for House Organs.— While 
we treat of house organs from an editorial standpoint m 
Section 57, there are many different physical classifications 
of house organs, as will be found fully treated in a com- 
panion book by the author of this volume ("Effective House 
Organs"). It is interesting to note that the form differ- 
ing principally from the physical aspect is the blotter 

house organ, two examples of which are shown on Fig. 31. 
One, '* Lettergram," is on regular blotting stock, while the 
other, ' ' Direct, " is on an enameled-surf ace blotter. 

gi.' Function of the Blotter Is Reminder Advertising. 
^Almost without exception, blotter advertising is used for 
purely reminder purposes, though there are on record in- 
stances where a postal card mailed out with a blotter, 
usually a blotter house organ, has produced enormous re- 
sults. The trouble is that the blotter house organ soon 
loses its novelty, and when the novelty wears off the returns 

fall off. ^ -u 1 i,.i 

Blotters may be used almost universally, for school ciiil- 

dren as well as business men, with appeals to men as well as 

to women, for homes as well as offices hard to reach. 

Novelty or added utility value helps to ''put them over." 

g2. Blotters Bring ' Business.— In the first number of 
Volume 5 of the quarterly publication, Direct Advertising, 
there is a story of how a IMassachusetts firm manufacturing 
wireless sets used a series of planned blotters to build good 
will among steamship owners and eventually did a good 
business with them, largely through this form of advertis- 
ing. See also Section 145. 

The issue of Advertising & Selling for September 4, 
1920, tells how the American Steam Conveyor Corporation 
used a blotter as a new form of salesman's advance card. 
This firm reached a conclusion that blotters were kept and, 
wishing to give its salesmen a good introduction, this con- 
cern chose the blotter as a means of doing it. After having 
first tried it out in one territory the firm reported : * ' So 
well pleased with the idea that arrangements are being made 
to introduce other sales representatives to their prospects 
n this manner. ' ' See also page 80. 

g3. Poster Stamps.— In compiling material for this work 
personal letters were written to several artists for examples 
of recent American poster stamps. The answer of one was 
typical: ''Poster stamps have gone out." They have. 
But we believe they are coming back and coming back 
stronger than some folk realize. First, what is a poster 


stamp ? We define it as a miniature advertisement contain- 
ing, necessarily, hut a brief message reproduced in sticker 

94. Poster Stamps Almost Always Supplement Some 
Other Form o£ Advertising. — Poster stamps, by reason of 
their very small size (some of them are no larger than 1 inch 
in diameter, or IV2 inches square), are necessarily supple- 
mental to all other forms and not directly responsive them- 
selves, though the two posters for the National Association 
of Purchasing Agents on Fig. 34 specifically suggest that 
the reader write for further information. The original of 
eacfi was 1% x 2V2 inches in size. 

Many of those illustrated on Fig. .34 are specifically re- 
ferring to magazine advertising done by these same ad- 
vertisers, and we doubt not that these unobtrusive little 
stickers are often as effective as larger pieces of direct ad- 
vertising might be under some circumstances. 

The issue of Advertising & Selling for October 16, 1920, 
specifically describes this use of the poster stamp and adds 
this comment: ''Used to merchandise advertising they 
(poster stamps) drive that advertising home into the con- 
sciousness of all those who should be interested in the ad- 
vertising. There is no national campaign that can not gain 
in effectiveness through their use. ' ' 

The illustrations on Fig. 34, ''Turn on the Current" and 
*'Tenks Clipper Pocket Knives," follow more the order of 
the old "German-style" poster stamps, and doubtless their 
German origin, associated in our minds with what happened 
in 1914, and especially in 1918, was largely instrumental in 
killing off the poster idea in America. The others on the 
plate referred to show what American advertisers have done 
to improve the idea. The small double-circle seal is inter- 
esting : it is an example of use of a small poster to seal a 
mailing card, folder, broadside, or similar auto-contained 
mailing piece. 

One might well term poster stamps postscripts of all 
forms of direct advertising. Expert letter-writers know 
that postscripts, properly used, are very effective. 

l^ig. 34. — That poster stamps are eomiii<; back is the predulioii 
of the author who points to several now used by national adver- 
tisers to boost g^eneral publication advertising. 



Mail-order houses have used the poster-stamp idea to pro- 
duce actual inquiries. Maxwell Droke in Postage (March 
1017 pa-e 110) tells of a series which Sears Roebuck & 
Compan; used to produce inquiries for certain catalograes 
for Jaint, wall paper, houses, clothing, and so on. They 
varied th; idea by sending out sheets of stamps in etters 
I,'d catalogues, each stamp good for a certain kind of cata- 
Se, thus making it easy for the prospect to write for a 

certain catalogue. .,1 ik 4.- « 

Printers' Ink for May 13, 1915, describes how effective a 
series of poster stamps were in connection with an automo- 
bile accessory campaign conducted by Gray & JJayis. 

n. Direct-Advertising Novelties or Specialties -The 
names of the various novelties or specialties which may 
properly be listed as direct advertising, not considering 
r.mfaetured novelties per se, are legion, but we shall con- 
sider only a few of the more striking to point the way. 

No attempt at definition will be made other than to say 
that by novelty or specialty in direct advertising we have 
reference to direct advertising which does not fall within 
any of the other physical forms described in the two parts 
of Chapter III up to this point. _ 

06 Every Nevi^ Form of Direct Advertising Is at First 
a Novelty.-Naturally there arise from day to day new 
forms of direct advertising and for awhile, until they lose 
their "novelty," they are novelty or specialty forms of 
direct advertising. The main forms of nove ties now ataost 
standardized are: (1) Coupons, (2) Puzzles, (3) Tables 
with utilitarian values, (4) Reduced photographic repro- 
ductions, (5) Printed calendars-not considering the art 
calendars or their like, (6) Tip-ons, attachment and similar 
"stunty" attention-getters, (7) Containers for retailers 
use, (8) Menus, especially when furnished by advertisers 
for food caterers' use, (9) Unusual physical forms. Un- 
der the latter classification we have reference to quite un- 
usual forms which come up from time to time as direct- 
advertising brains evolve new ideas in make-up, such as aa- 
vertising on gummed paper tape (see Section 357). 




97. Examples of Novelties in Direct Advertising.— 
Figs. 35 and 86 show, greatly reduced, a number of forms of 
novelty or specialty direct advertising. 

Four different coupon forms are shown; the largest is 
almost a ''dodger," since it was distributed from house to 
house. The one for Lyon toothpowder is inclosed in addi- 
tion to a regular package insert referred to in Section 76. 
The coupon headed "Free Coupon" was used by the 
Bartlett Nu Products Company of Pasadena, Cal. It was 
sent out with one of a series of circular (form) letters. 
The users say of the series: ''The one that brought the 
greatest returns is the one containing the coupon. People 
seem to be prone to jump at something for nothing." 
These are of Class 1, referred to in Section 96. 

The Firestone puzzle (Class 2, Section 96) is used as an 
envelope inclosure, but it is surely unusual enough to be 
classed as a ** novelty." 

The two celluloid "tables" (Class 3, Section 96) are 
likewise envelope inclosures but rather unusual in their ap- 
peal. The reverse side of one shows a price list and of the 
other a brand list. 

The two very small photographic reproductions indicate 
Class 4 of Section 96, being almost poster stamps, one with 
a calendar and one without ; they have a value which the 
poster stamp does not have in that they are real photo- 
graphs and so recognized by the prospect as portraying 
the goods "as is," not as some artist has thought they 


Two forms of calendars are illustrated, one of the Alex- 
ander Brothers on one of the sides not shown has a com- 
plete year's calendar. These are Class 5, referred to in 
the preceding section. 

Tip-ons or attachments (Class 6, Section 96) to increase 
attention to a booklet, or other piece of direct advertising, 
are well illustrated by their usage in the Hearst's Magazine 

Retailers are frequently furnished with containers for 
manufacturers' products like the paper envelopes (Class T, 

Fig, .35. — Someone has said that the world craves new ways of 
•loing tilings. Diroct advertisers crave new forms of old appeals. 
These greatly reduced illustrations suggest a few of the "newer" 


II- : 




Section 96) of the Holeproof Hosiery and Luxite Hosiery 


The ruler illustrated is made of cardboard used by a 
printing firm that is specializing in card work, and so 
doubly apt; together with the "policy" and the ''memo- 
randum," which is composed of eight pages imitation type- 
writing (printed) on legal cap (81/2x14 inches) bound in 
an imitation legal cap folder simulating a legal document, 
it represents Class 9 of Section 96. A large number of 
others might be illustrated. System for May, 1920, for ex- 
ample, tells a very interesting story of how the Lily Cup 
Company uses even its billheads for forms of direct adver- 
tising. This company also uses several very unusual inserts 
or inclosures for collection purposes, all of which properly 
should be classed as direct advertising. 

Menus, or 8 of Section 96, are of two classes : 
(1) menus published by a company in conection with ban- 
quets, conventions, etc., such as the Master Printers' 
Dinner, shown on Fig. 36. In this particular case the 
dinner was given by a paper manufacturer so the menu was 
a "sample" of the company's product; (2) Menus given to 
restaurants by food products manufacturers. For an illus- 
tration of this form of direct advertising see Fig. 36. Many 
food manufacturers can to their advantage adopt the idea ; 
many others selling through middlemen may well adapt it 
to special purposes. 

Full-sized photographs as a form of direct advertising 
have been described in the issue of Postage for March, 
1918 (see page 5). Examples were given there of millin- 
ery, coats, ranges, and hats being sold by photographic 
direct advertising. 

Other ' ' novel ' ' forms of direct advertising but not illus- 
trated here are book jackets, the extra wrapper usually put 
around a book by the book publishers and used by them 
to advertise other books by the same author or other books 
of a similar trend. For example, there was probably a 
wrapper or jacket about this book you are holding when 
it was originally sold. That wrapper would naturally ad- 

Fiflf. .30. — ;Most of these "novelty" direct-advertising appeals, besides 
being excellent pieces of advertising matter, are serviceable. 


vertise other business books issued by the same pub- 
lisher. The wrapper probably carried advertisements of 
*' Effective House Organs" by Ramsay, ''Modern Sales 
Management" by Frederick, ''Typography of Advertise- 
ments That Pay" by Farrar, together with a long list of 
other books on advertising and selling topics. 

During the war a part of the space on book jackets was 
taken to advertise War Savings Stamps and similar gov- 
ernment securities. 

The war developed a most unusual form of direct adver- 
tising, but since the war it has not been employed— we re- 
fer to the use of the insides of chewing-gum wrappers. 
During the war these carried W. S. S. and Liberty Loan 

These instances, which at first glance might not be classi- 
fied under the heading of direct advertising, surely come 
well within the definition set forth in Chapter II, and take 
a sales message direct from its maker to the possible buyer. 
In one way they are even more effective than direct mes- 
sages delivered via the mails. Take, for example, the man 
who has bought one business book; he has spent his own 
money to prove to you that he is interested in business 


Railroad time-tables are still another form of direct ad- 
vertising, and in Printers' Ink Monthly, September, 1920, 
there is a complete description of how they are used and 
how valuable this form of advertising has become. 

The New York Central, for example, uses the two-fold 
center spread, which is in reality the frontispiece of a time- 
table, to tell its patrons what it is doing for their benefit, 
and announces an imposing list of equipment purchased at 
a cost of $48,318,300. 

The article previously referred to closes with this pro- 
phetic paragraph: "The whole situation indicates an 
awakening on the part of the railroads to the fact that they 
have a splendid advertising medium in their own hands 
which can be used to good effect. It naturally follows that 
renewed efforts are being made to make that medium read- 



able and attractive. Travelers must have time-tables. 
Railroads now plan to sell them on the whole service of the 

Many other industries are in the position of the railroads 
in regard to their time-tables— they have a powerful direct 
advertising medium at hand which is veritably an unde- 
veloped gold mine. 

Business calling cards might, with a very little stretch of 
one's imagination, be classed as direct advertising; for if, 
they are not direct advertising, under what nomenclature 
do they come ? Frank H. Williams in the issue of Printers' 
Ink Monthly for May, 1920, sizes up the situation when he 
says: "Most manufacturers overlook the importance of 
having good copy on this valuable medium." He adds: 
"Business cards which are anything more than mere an- 
nouncements are all too few." We shall have more to 
say on this subject, in regard to the writing of copy, in 
Chapter X. Take hand lettering, for instance, it is an ex- 
pensive product and an artist does not have many methods 
of "sampling" or showing his product. One artist got 
around this difficulty by photographing several of his pieces 
of hand lettering and sending them out with the top piece a 
photographic reproduction such as is shown in Fig. 36. 

98. New Forms Frequently Made.— As suggested in 
earlier paragraphs, new physical forms are frequently 
made, sometimes old forms are rechristened, such as "vi- 
talized letterheads" to take the place of four-page letter- 
heads, and so on. "Dramatized letterheads" were m vogue 

for a time. 

Checks, even money itself, have been used upon occasion 
as means of gaining attention to other and regular forms of 
direct advertising. A firm selling a veneered basket to 
candy manufacturers found that sending out a check was a 
most excellent way of getting attention. This check was 
in reality a form or adjunct of direct advertising. 

99. Function of This Chapter.— Let it be recorded here 
that the function of this chapter is simply to place briefly 
before every reader a clear conception of the many and 


various physical forms of direct advertising. From this 
point on, except where it is absolutely necessary for clarity 
or because all physical forms do not permit of the descrip- 
tion in hand, we shall have reference to all forms of direct 
advertising. Where there are exceptions they will be noted, 
of course. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. As you understand it, what is the difference between physical 
forms described in the Second half of Chapter III and those de- 
scribed in the first half? 

2. What would you recommend mailing cards and circulars for, 
as a general rule? That is, what general type of advertising^ 

3. Define an envelope inclosure and give the usual sizes and 

folds used. 

4. Wherein do package inserts differ from inclosures? 

5. Name the seven main functions of the package insert and 
illustrate as many as possible from your own experience. 

6. Define in your own words the broadside and tell what it is 
mostly used for and why. 

7. What is meant by the text in referring to a "folder"? What 
is the principal weakness of this form of direct advertising? 

8. Why is blotter advertising so universally used? Can you 
think of any new way of using blotter advertising? 

9. Tell what you can about poster stamps, their origin, possi- 
bilities, and present main uses. 

10. Explain some novel forms of direct advertising and supple- 
ment the text from your own experience, if possible. 


Who hath not viewed, with rapture-smitten frame, 

The power of grace, the magic of a name? 

— T. Campbell. 

100. What Is Meant When We Speak of "The List"? 

-You use practically any of the other forms of advertising 
referred to in Fig. 1, excepting only novelty advertising to 
be exact, and the list, that is, of the people who may see 
and read your advertisement, is furnished by the maker of 
the medium. You put an advertisement in the newspaper ; 
it can only be seen by those who subscribe for or buy 
copies of that issue, so the list of possible readers is tur- 
nished by the publisher of the paper. „ ,, - „ 

This same situation exists with regard to all other forma 
of publication^magazines, business papers, farm journals, 
directories, programs-where paid for; while m the case 
of electric signs, posters, window displays and similar classes 
of advertising, the list implies those who pass by your 
advertisement and chance to see it. In the case of street- 
car card advertising, and all programs and motion-picture 
advertising (except in the case of an industrial picture ot 
which we are not treating), your list of possible readers is 
those who have paid their money to take a ride see a play 
or a picture, and the possibility of any one of them noting 
your advertisement is contingent upon first having at- 
tracted his or her attention. 

But in the case of direct advertising {and house organs) 
the list is entirely under the control of the person or firm 
producing the advertising matter. 

Direct-advertising material that is not sent to some one 
-in other words, which is not given what m the case ot 


almost all other forms of advertising is called ''circulation" 
—is NOT advertising at all ; it is merely paper with some 
form of printing upon it. 

The list, the names to which a piece of direct advertising 
is to be sent if the distribution is being made by mail, or 
the persons to whom a piece if distributed by any other 
means is to be sent, given, handed, or delivered, is then 
the ' ' circulation ' ' of your direct advertising. 

Without ''the list" there is, strictly speaking, no direct 
advertising, for unless the latter is circulated no advertis- 
ing value can accrue. The list, therefore, means everything 
in direct advertising; it is the first and foremost essential 
in any use of this form of publicity whether you are get- 
ting out two pieces or two million or more. 

This chapter, therefore, will be devoted entirely to the 

subject of the list. 

loi. The List Is Vital to the Success of Every Direct- 
advertising Campaign.— Miss Helen Carter, formerly ad- 
vertising manager of the Kabo Corset Company and presi- 
dent of the Women's Advertising Club of Chicago, at the 
1918 convention of the Direct Mail Advertising Association 
said on this subject: "It is always a mystery to me why 
people will spend so much on a campaign and so little on 
their lists. A company that I know of last year spent 
$30,000 getting out a mailing campaign, but when it came to 
their lists they left the matter entirely to their branch of- 
fices and the result was appalling. ' ' 

Some years ago the writer took up work with a concern 
rated at several millions of dollars and found its mailing 
list was some three or four years out of date. The loss 
in letters returned "Unclaimed" or "Out of Business" 
was startling. 

The finest booklet in the world selling an automobile 
accessory would be useless if mailed or delivered to people 
not owning an automobile or not having the means to buy 


Statistics show that every year there are changes in ex- 
cess of 20 per cent in the average lists of householders, 



while lists of dealers fluctuate from 15 to 20 per cent per 
year. In some of the trades— a barber, for example— 
changes frequently exceed 30 per cent in a single year. 

The reports of the leading mercantile agencies show that 
there are in this country alone nearly 5,000 changes in firm 
names titles of companies, and the like each business day. 
In the issue of Postage for May, 1918, F. C. Drew tells 
of an actual campaign planned and put into operation by 
a firm with which he is connected. The goods were ex- 
cellent, and they were well known, the price was attractive, 
and terms were easy, a new mailing list was ready, and 
according to the client— the manufacturer of a device for at- 
tachment to a certain type of portable power plant— it was 
very carefully prepared. _ 

"The campaign was a fizzle,*' wrote Mr. Drew. He 
adds: "A post-mortem investigation developed that the 
client's mailing list, which he considered good and so rep- 
resented to us, was eighty-five per cent useless! Eighty- 
five per cent of the names on it owned and operated power 
plants of a type which not only did not require but could 
not use his device ! " 

R. R. Shuman, an advertising agent, therefore a keen 
judge of circulation, summed up, before the Toronto con- 
vention of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World 
in 1914, how vital the list is to any one intending to use 
direct advertising, in these words: "A mailing list is 
a gold mine or a sink hole. Each dead name is a dead 
loss, say of a dollar a year, in postage, printed matter, 
labor, and its proportion of the cost of keeping the list in 
shape. Each live name is a live asset in proportion to 
the number of mailings it receives and the character and 
wisdom of the mailings." 

Harry C. Burdick, in Postage, for February, 1916, was 
describing the all too frequent practice of making up lists 
when he wrote: 

"In almost every other form of advertising the adver- 
tiser avails himself of his powers of selection in the media 
to carry his message to the advertisee. That is true, per- 


haps, because there are so many media, each clamoring for 
consideration and advancing claims that command consider- 
ation But direct advertising appears to be only out-and- 
out circularizing. Any piece of handy advertising mailed 
to any old gathering of names is direct advertising ! 

**Here, where the advertiser is able to discriminate by 
selection,' he is content to advertise promiscuously. 

■ *'Why? As near as I can make out, the reason is that 
the importance of advertising literature as such has been 
played up— as it should be— while the mailing list which 
practically controls the efficacy of the advertising litera- 
ture has not had any guardian angel behind it to boost it 
into the calcium — which is as it should not be." 

All the rest of the material in this volume is useless 
unless you compile a good list, and keep that list good; 
the succeeding sections of this chapter will try to show 
you how this may be done. 

102. The List Is the Most Valuable Part of the Mail- 
order Houses' Assets.— In New York City there is a 
cloak and suit house doing an annual business, entirely 
by mail, of millions of dollars. Its only asset, aside from 
merchandise inventory which could be replaced over night 
at almost any time, is its mailing list. In order to protect 
that list in every way possible, even during daytime work- 
incr hours, special steel trucks have been built to contain 
the drawers which hold the combination stencil and record 
cards. At night the trucks are rolled into a "fire-proof 
vault for additional protection. 

In Jamestown, New York, there is a school that teaches 
by correspondence the profession of nursing. Every safe- 
guard is placed about its list of actual and prospective 
students ; there is not a single stick of combustible wood in 
the place. It is built of fire-proof materials and equipped 
throughout, even to office equipment, with fire-resistmg 

furniture. , , , . en 

E. F. Houghton & Company, of Philadelphia, manutac- 
turers, have a house organ called The Houghton Line, 
which,' according to their general manager, has earned 



them more than a half million dollars in nine year^. It is 
interesting to note that though they are not a mail-order 
house in any sense of the word, they too .follow the lead of 
the firms mentioned in earlier paragraphs and keep their 
mailing list for The Line in steel cabinets in a fire-proof 
vault. They value the list alone at $150,000. 

At the Toronto convention of the Associated Advertising 
Clubs, Advertising & Selling made the awards for a 
$1000 prize contest which it had been running for some 
little time previous. It is not only interesting but in- 
structive to note that the editor of Advertising & Selling 
in the issue of July, 1914, in ''writing up" the winner of 
the first prize, R. W. Ashcroft, then advertising manager 
of the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company of Mon- 
treal, Canada, made special reference to the value of a 
mailing list in the subhead which read: ''A Two Months 
1 Campaign That Not Only Sold the Entire 1914 Output of 
a New Million Dollar Automobile Factory, but Also 
Provided the IManufacturer with a Remarkable Mail- 
ing List." 

103. Poor Lists the Damnation of Direct Advertising. 
—An advertiser may pick the wrong magazine to adver- 
tise his product in, or put a street-car card for an ultra 
high-grade, high-priced article on a car which runs within 
an East Side slum zone, or make any one of a dozen similar 
mistakes in the ''circulation" of his advertising, and neither 
he nor any one else be the wiser; in fact, like the doctors 
in the hoary joke, "they bury their mistakes." With 
direct advertising, however, such mistake becomes readily 
apparent. Suppose you are a banker, and you get an elab- 
orate booklet advertising, we will say, barbers' chairs, for 
example; the booklet cost, perhaps, 50 cents. Your bank is 
interested in the barber-chair manufacturer, perhaps has 
stock in the company. The chances are that such a mistake 
as this would cost the advertising manager his job, unless 
he could prove his error was purely accidental. Yet every 
day we see barbers' appeals in bankers' magazines, and 
vice versa, sometimes with good results, one must admit. 




but the fundamental principle is not right, nevertheless. 

The so-called *' waste" in direct advertising that we hear 
about is due to poor lists in practically 100 per cent of the 

Bear this thought in mind as we take up the remaining 
sections of this chapter. 

104. What Is a Good List? — So far we have been read- 
ing about **good" and "poor" lists, but we have not yet 
defined either; we probably can, with a few examples as 
a guide, make such a definition. 

If you asked your doctor ''What is good medicine?" he 
would probably look at you in amazement. While the cases 
are not entirely analogous, still they are similar, for to tell 
what is a good list necessarily means knowing just what 
you want the list to accomplish* what you are going to 
send out to the list, and several other relevant factors such 
as the product you are selling, distribution, competition, 
margin of profit, and so on. 

To make a concrete illustration: I might be running a 
very fine, exclusive grocery on Farnam Street in Omaha. 
The very best and most exclusive mailing list of names of 
persons with ample means to buy from me, but located on 
the North Shore Road of Massachusetts, would certainly be 
a *'poor" list for my purposes. 

Again, I might be the manufacturer of an electric wash- 
ing machine. A list of names of the wealthiest farmers of 
Colorado would be worthless to me unless I know they are 
located so that they can get electric current in the day-, 

The telephone book is a good list of names; indeed it 
is one of the best, but not every name it contains would be 
a logical prospect for every butcher, baker, and electric- 
light maker in any city. 

R. B. Rope, of the Larkin Company, mail-order merchan- 
disers, in the course of his remarks at the Detroit convention 
said that there were two things essential in a good list: 
''First, accuracy — names and addresses must both be cor- 
rect to insure delivery of the message. Second, fertility. 

It must cover only actual prospects, that is, people who 
can reasonably be expected to have a real use for your 

goods. ' ' , 

The following might well be printed in box-car letters and 
kept before every one making a list for direct advertising 
of any kind, at all times : 


105. What Is a Complete Address?— The preceding defi- 
nition calls for "complete addresses." Let us see exactly 
what is meant by that. 

At the Indianapolis (1920) convention of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs of the World, a speaker brought out the 
fact that 52 per cent of the mail received at the Chicago 
post office bore no street address. According to postal 
rules and regulations (compare Chapter XX), insufficiently 
addressed first-class mail gets "directory service" and is 
delivered. Third class mail (1 cent circulars and the like 
mailed in that class) goes into the discard. 

The exact ruling of the Post Office Department on this 
point will be helpful. Section 607 of the Postal Laws and 
Regulations reads: "At city-delivery offices where a city 
directory is available it shall be used when necessary to 
ascertain the addresses of persons to whom letters are 
directed, and it should also be used in the case of transient 
newspapers and other matter of the third and fourth classes 
where the error in or omittinor of the street address is evi- 
dently the result of ignorance or inadvertence ; but when 


LETTERS, ARRIVE at any post office in large quantities, 



Be sure that the street address appears on your direct 
advertising to insure its delivery. 

If you are addressing a large corporation, such as the 
United States Steel Corporation, the name of the individ- 
ual and his department as well as the name of the firm are 
required, and if a branch office the street address is also 

If you want to reach John Doe and he happens to live 
in Chicago, we will say your ''complete address" would 

John Doe, 

2110 Sherman Boulevard, 

Chicago, III. 

While if Mr. Doe were connected with the International 
Harvester Company there and you wanted to be sure of 
reaching him you would add: 

John Doe, 

Advertising Department, 
International Harvester Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

If your piece is to be mailed third-class, it should bear 
the street address in addition to the preceding, to insure its 

delivery. ^ 

io6. "Who Have Use for Your Product or Service?' 
—To answer this question correctly presupposes a careful 
analysis of your possible market, and it takes time. It 
would be much easier if you are selling wooden legs, for ex- 
ample, to take the list of members of the American Legion 
and mail to them your literature, but you would doubtless 
encounter a lot of waste. Cooperation with the proper 
authorities and perhaps judicious publication advertisinir 
would bring you a list of men needing or having use for 
wooden legs, and then your direct advertising would likely 

be successful. 

107. "Who Can Probably Be Influenced by Your Ad- 
vertising Appeal?"— This part of our definition refers to 



the ability of persons to buy the product or service you will 
have to offer; also to their ability to read and understand 
your message when you have done your best to put it into 
terms they can and should read and understand. 

108. "Who Should Be Your Customers?' —Even a good 
product, such as fur coats for the Eskimos, may be a glut 
on the market in the tropics; the Eskimos, on the other 
hand, would be poor prospects for electric fans^-f or cooling 
purposes. With a stretch of imagination you might be 
able to consider that the fans would be valuable— granted 
electric connections-in driving smoke out of their igloos! 
The importance of distribution comes in at this point- 
do you want the business of this particular prospect? As- 
suming you can get it, can you handle it efficiently and 

properly? , __ , 

109. Why It Often Takes More Than the Name ot 
One Individual to Make an Effective Appeal to a Com- 
pany.— Fig. 37, reproduced through the courtesy of System, 
portrays graphically why it is sometimes necessary to put 
on the list more than one name with any one firm in order 
to make an effective direct-advertising appeal. 

Suppose you are manufacturing leather belting. You 
want to sell the Blank Manufacturing Company which op- 
erates several plants. If you were going to conduct your 
canvass through publication advertising you would prob- 
ably choose one business publication to reach the general 
manager, or other ^'Yes" or ^'No" man; another to reach 
the general superintendent of the company's plants; a third 
to reach the purchasing agent ; a fourth to reach the man 
who actually used the belts, perhaps. It is conceivable you 
might also use class publications in the particular field. 
Say the Blank Company made spices, you would probably 
add ''The Spicy Monthly'' or other trade publication. This 
would mean five (5) different approaches to sell the Blank 


A comparison of the preceding paragraph with l^ig. ^i 
will show you that Blank's customers, bankers, competitors, 
directors, stockholders, subsidiary concerns, loQal trade and 

. ^•••'f^ ,*> - 









Concerjrs yhdr 
aM4/ of-Jtcr 


Wlieie doestlie B uying Im pulse Cane ton? 

C^/s cidH wdiciies Jo/i< Me Man trio icfuiJiy p/xps Hie order is fikely 
fo be ifff/iienced if/ /us decis/ons lyo^fiers iii/iisaimOnfsideOrf»t/ioft(uts. 


Fig. 37. — This chart, shown through the courtesy of System, indi- 
cates how the man who actually places the order is likely to be in- 
fluenced by others in his own as well as the outside organization. 


other business men's organizations, not to mention personal 
acquaintances or supply concerns having reciprocal rela- 
tions,— all these might influence Blank's belt purchases. 

To' make a good list to reach Blank and many other firms 
in the same class by direct advertising, you would need to 
add as many names of individuals as are likely to stimulate 
the buying impulse for your belts. 

This section uncovers the weakness of many direct adver- 
tising campaigns; for all too often, in making a direct cam- 
paign, you merely address, we'll say, the United States 
Steel Corporation and not any specific individual who may 
be deemed the possible prospect, and expect one of his mad 
clerks to take the time to '' Sherlock Holmes" your direct 
advertisement and then place it where you intended it 

should be placed. ^ ^ t • . m 

no. Eternal Vigilance the Price of a Good List.— io 

paraphrase an old adage, ''Eternal vigilance is the price 
of a good list." After you get the name and address and 
the firm, these should be verified. Then, as you will find 
covered in Section 124, a try-out campaign is often found 
desirable. No salesman can close his eyes and pick 100 
per cent of possible prospects to call upon; neither can 
any man determine offhand 100 per cent of possible pros- 
pects for his direct advertising to reach. Even then your 
vigilance must not end, for you must ''keep the good list 
good," which means eternal revision, as will be treated of 
in Section 124. See also Fig. 66. 

III. What to Do Where Individual Name Cannot Be 
Secured.— Sometimes, let it be admitted, you cannot locate 
the right man or men to whom you should address your 
direct advertising as suggested in Section 105. Call on 
your salesmen to help, also your dealers, or other distribu- 
tors; for you must remember that the more personal your 
direct advertising is, the more profitable it will be, as a 
general rule. 

Failing in your tactics to determine some phrase or no- 
tation which will help the $18-to-$20-a-week mail sorter in 
the "Metropolitan Mammoth Store" to know where your 


booklet on Near-Silk hose is to go, mark the envelope for 
''Hosiery Buyer" or adopt some similar method of indicat- 
ing its intended destination. 

112. Good Lists Not Always Big Lists. — Let us relate 
an actual instance. In a certain New England state there 
is a mail-order concern that started with desk space and 
now has three floors. Originally this house had 60,000 
names on its mailing list, made up of what were considered 
all the larger concerns east of the Mississippi but exclud- 
ing the far South. As this is written, late in 1920, this 
list, originally made up from Dun's and street addresses 
supplied from telephone books, has been gradually pared 
down so that, after eliminating all of the unproductive 
territory, it now contains fewer than 20,000 names, more 
than one-half of which represents active customers. 

Cutting the list into a third, by eliminating two-thirds, 
enabled that mail-order house to weather the high-price 
period, conjoined of course with selling strictly on a price 

The best lists are those which give you the largest num- 
ber of possible prospects in the fewest names, all other 
things being equal. 

113. Sources of Names o£ Prospects. — After taking in- 
to consideration our list of customers, the names on our 
ledgers (Fig. 38) give you a list of sources of names of 
prospects as complete as we have ever been able to find. 
It should be studied with care and followed with reverence 
in the preparation of any list. There is little which can 
be added to this chart, though one New York correspond- 
ence school developed a new method of getting lists of 
prospects which, strange to say, was also used advantage- 
ously by a firm of offset printers in Chicago, both for en- 
tirely different purposes. Each of these concerns took 
every issue of the Saturday Evening Post and mailed a 
special circular letter to every advertiser therein which let- 
ter specifically referred to the addressee's advertisement in 
the Post. 

Offering novelties to express agents, editors, and others 



for lists has long been favored and still frequently effects 

On certain propositions schools can be recruited to fur- 
nish names, though such plans must be worked out in each 
case with the proper school authorities. 

Supplementing the ''Organizations" on Fig. 38 as a 
source of lists, some firms offer novelties at conventions and 
other gatherings in exchange for one's name and address, 
and thus build up a good list. 

One^s own stockholders as a source of names and possible 
prospects are often a gold mine at our doorstep which we 
overlook. In the issue of Printers^ Ink Monthly for June, 
1920, J. M. Campbell tells how such well-known concerns as 
the American Sugar Refining Company, American Bell 
Telephone & Telegraph Company, Southern Pacific, Loose- 
Wiles Biscuit Company, and others utilize this source; and 
we understand that at least one oleomargarine campaign 
was actually made successful through the employees and 
stockholders of one Chicago firm. 

Stock brokers and others frequently buy one or more 
shares of stock in a concern in order, as a stockholder, to 
call for and get a list of the rest of the stockholders and 
then use these as a basis for a direct advertising campaign. 
The writer knows of (luite a number of sales of stocks accom- 
plished by usinj? lists built in this manner. 

Similarly, schools, colleges, and universities often find 
their alumni an excellent source of names from which to 
raise funds. Harvard University at one time mailed a 24- 
page book, 9 X 12, to every one of its living alumni, over 
35,000 names. 

Big national advertisers watch closely the arrivals of buy- 
ers as published in the daily papers. Details showing how 
Swift & Company do this will be found in Printers' Ink 
for February 5, 1914. For our purposes let it suffice to 
say that every incoming buyer receives at his hotel a letter 
of invitation to call at the Swift plant and many of those 
buyers accept and order Swift's products while the out- 
of-town buyer is still wondering how they knew he was in 



114. Names Can Be Bought.-As another source ^f 
.ames let it be recorded that there are several reputable 
rcerns who xnake a business of compiling lists for others 

^'you will find that such concerns have, generally 
soeakb- two classes of lists: (1) stock list^lists they 
Tve on hand, say, of all the candy -a-factu-^^^^^^^ 
the Ford owners in Utah, and so on; and (2) built-to oraer 
li<;ts compiled to meet your own specifications. 
' Sme of the list houses guarantee their firm rna.hng hsts 
as 99 per cent correct and their lists of individuals as 95 

'"in'most cases the lists, excepting for those of automo- 
bile owners and the like, are of firms only, not of indi- 

^'tS compilers of lists make no secret of t^e fact that 
the directories are their principal sour e of ^^PP^^ ' f ^^ 
stock in trade is their experience m making lists, plus an 
Sity to sell each list over and over and thus cut down 
the cost to each buyer. ^ 

,15. Source of Supply Where You Do Not Sell Your 
Goods Direct-Suppose you sell a wringer which is at- 

tached to a washing machine by a n>«^''"*«f "Z^;. f JX 
in- machines. How are you going to get a list ot the 
cruaTbuycrs of your wringers? This is an actual case, by 
the way. It is accomplished by a simple Plan that has 
been operated quite often in recent years. The wringer 
manufacturer gives a guarantee with his wringer Bu 
to make that guarantee effective the ultimate user must 
detach the card or slip, fill in and mail back to the manu- 

^^h"w: Johns-ManviUe Company "f «« ^'^.''P^'i %'S'" 
method with its roofing. See Advertmng & Selling, 
February, 1916, for specimen of form used. 

A steel safe manufacturer at one time followed similar 
tactics with his safes sold through office-equipment supply 

Tre!' Effect of Source Upon Efficiency of List.-Atten- 




tion should be called to the fact that the source of a list of 
names oftentimes operates upon the efficiency of the list se- 
cured. In Mailbag for September, 1920, page 192, Philip 
Vyle tells of a try-out which produced 23 per cent from 
the try-out list. Later, a list of 20,000 names was used but 
only 3 per cent returns were secured. The reason for the 
disparity was shown inasmuch as in the first case the list 
was *' hand-picked," while in the latter case the list was 
an old one which had been in stock for a long time. In 
view of a seasonal appeal the second list was not nearly as 
good as the first one which had been compiled right *'in 
season" and used immediately. 

A similar experience was that of a mail-order jewelry 
house, according to Printers^ Ink, January 16, 1919, where 
the jeweler paid $3.75 for a list of "75 of the best families 
in a small town" furnished by a minister's wife. The 
list actually produced orders amounting to only $4 at a 
cost of $14.10 for advertising. 

The jeweler closed his comment in this way : **The more 
I experiment with special schemes for building up business, 
and with lists of people who are strangers to the house, the 
more I become convinced that, while perhaps some special- 
ties may be sold to promiscuous lists of people with some 
measure of success, for a mail-order merchandise business 
like ours periodical advertising is the cheapest and most 
effective way of building up our mailing list." 

While of course many lists have been l)uilt other than by 
periodical advertising, there is food for thought in this 
man's statement. 

117. How to Compile the List. — Having decided what 
will make a good list, and the sources from which you are 
to get your names, the next step is to compile the list. 
Since in Chapter XIX we shall take up the entire subject 
of records, including the records of a list, we will deal here 
only in showing ''how" to do it. 

The line of business you are in will necessarily have some 
bearing upon the manner of compiling the list. It is usual, 
however, in all businesses, retail as well as wholesale, organ- 

izations as well as manufacturers, to get the name and ad- 
dress on a prospect card (see Fig. 120) ; then to have the 
card record transferred to some sort of mechanical device 
for addressing the list, unless handwritten or typewritten 
addresses are to be used. Much depends, of course, upon 
what you can afford to invest in the list. 

In connection with the name you want all the data you 
can ^et that will help you better to visualize the prospect : 
Man" Woman, Child. Married. Single. Nationality. 
Ac^e' Weio'ht. Heicht. Church or Lodge Affiliations. 
These are just a few suggestions of what you may wish to 
know about the ''name" you are putting upon your list. 

Do Not Put Your List on Sheets 

The use of sheets is old and out of date ; it makes impos- 
sible the adding of new names or the proper elimination of 
old or dead names. Cards only should be used to make up a 
mailing list properly, especially when the list is to be used 
over and over again. 

You will also have to decide whether you are to file these 
cards alphabetically by the individual or firm name ; geo- 
graphically by post office address ; territorially by county, 
street, or other division; or perhaps according to some 
special advertising campaign you are putting on, as say, 
"White Goods Sale," "Clearance Sale," etc., or perhaps 
chronologically as the seedsmen file their records 

The size of cards most frequently used is 5 x 3 inches ; 
almost any stationery store can. supply you with them. 

The cards should be filed in a cabinet-drawer of proper 
size, which likewise can be had from almost any stationer. 
If the list is to be extensive, then subdividing guide-cards 
will be needed according to the divisions decided upon ; i.e., 
states, cities, counties, or if alphabetically and so on, and 
these, too, can be easily procured. 

Sometimes when a list is only to be used a few times, 
say three or four, it is made up on the typewriter and three 
or four carbon copies made at the time the original maa 


ing label or sticker is written, thus saving some money. 
This does not, however, make a very neat label or address 
and is not to be recommended where appearance is an 

asset, and it usually is. , • -,. 

Cards are available with tabs, dates, and other indica- 
tions which will permit of the omission of a large part of 
the data which might otherwise burden the card record. 

When we study follow-up methods in Chapter IX we will 
learn the necessity of dates, seasons, and similar records 
on our mailing list, to permit us to follow up at some 
certain time in the future. 

1 1 8. Why Lists Need to Be Subdivided.— It will be 
well to know just why lists need to be subdivided as pre- 
viously suggested. This is done so that we can compare 
the sales or inquiries in one territorj^ with those of another. 
For example, we can compare what Salesman Smith has 
done in Keokuk with the work of Salesman Smythe in Kal- 
amazoo ; moreover, the number of names sent in by each 
salesman or by means of other list sources can be com- 
pared. If the list is of considerable size, then unless it 
is subdivided it soon becomes a mere mass of names and 
we lose that personal appeal which is the basis of all effec- 
tive direct advertising, as will be discussed in Section 


•lig How the Leading Subdivisions of Business Com- 
pile Lists.— Since the compiling of lists in every different 
business will vary, no hard and fast rule can be set down. 
Even for an industry, the very method that works well for 
the Standard Oil Company may not operate at all if tried 
by the Texas Company. People would be suspicious ot it 
if the same method were used by competitors ; they would 
feel there had been collusion and that no real competition 
existed. It will be well in a few sentences to epitomize the 
methods of compiling lists in leading branches of distribu- 

120. Retailers.— We will take up the retailer first be- 
cause he stands nearest to the ultimate user in the consump- 
tion of goods. 



The first essential in compiling a list for a retailer is that 
he get clearly in mind his zone of trading— the territory 
actually served by him and his store. The city grocery has 
been estimated to cover five city blocks only. A. H. Graves, 
in System for November, 1918, told how he had his mailing 
list so arranged that he had nine lists in one. By a system 
of punched holes in the tops of the cards— punched over 
printed dots which are in alignment— he is able to as- 
semble quickly all of any one of nine different subdivisions. 

The main sources for the retailer's lists are : 

Charge customers, 
Gash customers, 
Telephone book, 
Social registers, 
Church rolls, 
Lodge rolls, 

and other sources as indicated on Fig. 38. 

Retailers, because of the comparatively restricted terri- 
tory which they cover as a rule, can use unusual methods of 

getting lists. 

Fig. 39 illustrates a ''stunt" used by a Denver public 
utility to secure a new and live prospect list. This was 
during the interest in the Hoover campaign for nomina- 
tion for president. It put out a so-called ''ballot," as 
reproduced, offering a "Hoover" suction sweeper as a 
prize for filling in the ballot with other prospects* names. 
Space was left for 10 names and the "voter" sending in 
the list to which the largest number of sales was made won 

the prize. 

Garver Brothers, the Ohio retailers who are located m 
a very small town and do a very large business (over $500,- 
000 a year), have a mailing list of nearly 15,000 names, for 
instance. They have a paid correspondent in every school 
district within a radius of about twenty miles who keeps 
them informed of newcomers and departures. From this 
information additions or corrections are made. 

In Business for April, 1920, will be found a very com- 




plete story of how D. W. Robinson, proprietor of a depart- 
ment store in a small town in Michigan, keeps up a mailing 
list that brings him trade from an area of fifty miles. 
Further comment on this will be found in Section 364. 


The Ho ove r Party 

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pattiM • cluuK* I* 4mifMm THC HOOVER m mt hi c n » M i»i ) 



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r« Uw ftnl IM ■■■■<. haa whick w* wka tlw brfMt awabw •( wl*^ »• wB gh* tm akoiaUly frw 

One Hoover Electric Suction Sweeper 


I to wy rMUMi af DM*ar. aal aa iM^ l i r i af Ikto C iaipaay. 

VMM IW •< PMifKtt l« |>U Miaa 
T>« •« a^ lua u 

riUlllT I>i|llla1i 
TM Iwn SM ft MMDi U^ to 

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h I 
As It I 
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Riiplat Aar Dart 


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Dm jag Piaaaai Camaaifi 

Far a Fraa 

■laaaiti aliaa i 

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Tha Oia» « i Caa * 
Elactric LigM Ca, 

Fig. 39.— The ballot form brought a Denver firm a large number 
of names of new prospects for an electric cleaner. Shown through 
the courtesy of Electrical Merchandising. 

Here it should be noted that the Robinson lists were built 
by paying five cents each for cards giving householders' 
names and addresses, names and ages of their children, 
whether or not the family owns an automobile, and the re- 
porter's own idea as to the quality of merchandise the pros- 
pects might buy. From this Mr. Robinson has divided his 
list into the following sub-classifications ; 

Buyers of fine merchandise. 

Buyers of medium merchandisea 

Buyers of cheap merchandise. 

Buyers of large amounts. 

Buyers of medium amounts. 

Buyers of small amounts. 

Buyers from mail-order bouses. 

Property owners. 


Automobile owners. 

Young women. 

Girls 5 to 15 years. 

Children 1 to 5 years. 

Boys 5 to 15 years. 

Infants 1 month to 1 year. 

The J. L. Hudson Company of Detroit, one of the fore- 
most of the department stores to use direct advertising, has 
built a very valuable mailing list through a unique system. 
Its employees are numbered among the members of every 
local fraternal society, lodge, or other social organization. 
These members make a note of the new members admitted 
to their own lodge and send their names and addresses to 
the company, which in turn writes to the initiates liters 
of much cheery comment with little of the commercial in 
them. This method frequently develops a business connec- 
tion for Hudson. 

At the Cleveland convention of the Direct Advertising 
Association, Joseph B. Mills of the Hudson store said : * ' In 
my office three assistants, as a part of their daily task, read 
the newspapers looking for a clue to new business. Na- 
tional affairs, State affairs, city affairs— political and social 
— all have their interesting viewpoint and all can be used to 
promote business through direct advertising. 

Attention should be directed to the fact that many manu- 
facturers make most excellent use of lists compiled by re- 
tailers to the mutual advantage of the manufacturer and 
retailer. For example, some retailer takes on a line of steel 
filing cabinets; the manufacturer of those cabinets will, 


often at his own or at least partly at his own expense, take a 
ist of prospects furnished by the retailer and advertise to it. 
A Niagara Falls, New York, merchant is typical in the 
method he uses to get a live mailing list. He has each 
salesman keep near at hand a pad of blanks which read as 
follows : 



City . 


Professional Men 
Business Men 


Young Men 

Snappy dressers 



Hard-to-fit men 


By checking the various items on this list which apply 
to the prospect waited upon, a list that permits of individ- 
ualized personalized appeals has been built up. 

The retailer, being in actual contact with the buyer, is 
in a better position than some other links in the chain of 
distribution because he can make an examination of past 
purchases and learn what the persons represented by the 
names on the list prefer as to style, economy, durability, ex- 
clusiveness, and so on. 

Reference to Chapter XXVII will show what results re- 
tailers have secured from lists prepared with the care and 
forethought outlined in this chapter. 

Most retailers' lists should be divided into two general 
classifications: General and group lists. 

The general lists are often merely a combination of the 
group lists, and contain the names of those to whom ah 



onnouncements, special sales notices, openings, and other 
'.eneral appeals" are sent, while the group lists are sep- 
arate groups to which a specialized appeal may be made, 

such as: 

School children, 

School teachers. 

College students, 

College teachers, 

Religious organizations, 

Club members, 

City or county employees, 

Society women, 
Business women. 
Professional men, 
Factory employees, 
Business men, 
Property owners. 

and other such classifications as may work out best for the 

individual retailer. . -,• ^ -i, ^- „ 

121. Manufacturers.— Next in the chain of distribution, 
because they sell through canvassers, salesmen, and by 
mail, as well as through retailers and jobbers, are the man- 


To attempt to list the sources of names for the manufac- 
turer would be merely to make an index of 110,000,000 
people in this country, looking at it from one angle, because 
the peculiarities surrounding each manufacturing business 
are such that there are myriads of possible sources for lists. 
There are more than a hundred different directories pub- 
lished, for example, ranging from automobile manufactur- 
ers to zinc producers. 

As with the retailer, the manufacturer must consider his 
zone of trading, but he is not so dependent upon it as is 
the retailer. He must also give careful consideration to 
competition. A manufacturer from New England trying 
to invade California with a grape juice, for instance, would 
necessarily have to compete against local brands. 

Freight rates; in other words, the transportation prob- 
lem, suggest a practical limit to the manufacturer's possible 
market. He must also consider climatic conditions and dif- 
ferences in the buying habits or proclivities of the South- 
erner as compared with those of the Westerner, for instance, 
if he aims to cover the country. These are problenis in 
list-building foreign to the retailer because of his restricted 
territory of operation. 




The main sources of lists for the manufacturer are direc- 
tories, of course, but the livest lists probably come from 
publication advertising of various kinds. These names are 
secured at a heavy cost, and since the burden of inquiry 
has been shifted upon ''the other fellow" they are, as a 
rule, more valuable than names secured from directories 
and from list houses. 

Names of dealers and consumers contained in salesmen's 
reports afford another source for the manufacturer's list 
which must be given close consideration. Their value, of 
course, depends upon how the manufacturer markets his 


The general and group sub-classifications also apply to 
the manufacturer's lists, though no individual classifica- 
tions can be given here ; these would vary with the lines of 
business in which the manufacturer was engaged. For ex- 
ample, the manufacturer of fine writing papers has general 
lists of printers, paper merchants or jobbers, and other 
large buyers of paper. This same manufacturer has group 
lists showing names of large lithographers, printers special- 
izing in bond paper work, insurance companies, and other 
special groups who are comparatively large users of his 

This classification would probably be useless in the case 
of even a product allied to paper, say printers' type, for 
instance, because the type founder would not be interested 
to any extent in the ultimate users of his product. 

122. Jobbers. — Jobbers are also called wholesalers, and 
in some fields referred to as "merchants." The term cov- 
ers supply houses, merchandise brokers, distributors on a 
wholesale scale, and commission houses, as a rule. 

They take the products in large quantities from the 
manufacturer and frequently repack and deliver them to 
the retailers in smaller and "broken" packages. 

Naturally, therefore, the jobbers' first essential in a mail- 
ing list is the territory which they will cover (for very few 
jobbing houses are national in scope) ; and, secondly, the 
list of retailers this particular wholesaler will serve. 



For the jobber the main source of a good list would be 
the list house, which will compile for the wholesaler m the 
itv of Minneapolis, for example, a list of all retailers nor- 
mally covered and served by the ''twin cities" of Mmne- 

aoolis and St. Paul. ,r. ■ v.v. - 

Salesmen 's reports are more important to the jobber m 
the making and maintaining of lists than they are either to 
manufacturers or retailers, for normally jobbers do but 
mtle advertising; in fact, on account of the limited sections 
of states, counties, and cities which they serve, there is prac- 
ticallv only one method of advertising to advantage and 
that 'is direct advertising, which naturally presupposes a 

listlo begin with. 

Since wholesalers frequently cover several lines of re- 
tailers their lists are often subdivided into lines of goods 
as well as by territories and States. - . i 

Butler Brothers are an outstanding example of whole- 
salers doing business entirely by mail. They have only 
one salesman and their catalogue is called: ' Our Drum- 
mer " They cover the entire country, too. 

123. Mail-order Houses.— This section has reference to 
all classes of houses doing business entirely or partly by 
mail The firm referred to in the last paragraph of the 
preceding section is really a mail-order house selling to deal- 
ers only. 

Other classifications of mail-order houses are : 

1. Mail order direct to consumer, general products. 

2. Mail order direct to consumer, specialties. 

3. Manufacturers to jobbers, by mail. 

4. Manufacturers to dealers (retailers), by mail. 

5. Wholesaler or jobber to consumer, by mail. 

6. Retailer to consumer by mail. 

7. Manufacturer or other producer to consumer, by mail. 

To no other business is the list so vital as to the mail- 
order business, as we saw in Section 102. 

Mail-order houses are likely to use all the different 
sources of names as shown on Fig. 38, especially from ad- 




vertising in publications, inquiries bou^rht from non-com- 
petitors', directories, lists furnished by present customers, 
telephone books (especially of the specialty seller), clip. 
pings, list houses, and tax records. 

Mail-order houses frequently classify their lists to enable 
them to make an appeal to certain forms of prospects at 
different times, such as automobile owners, garden makers, 
camera users, and so on. 

124. Maintenance of Good Lists. — Getting a good list, 
whether it be for the wholesaler, the retailer, or the manu- 
facturer, or whether of mail-order, or any other classifica- 
tion, is only the start of the battle— keeping it good, as sug- 
gested in Section 110, is the next big job. 

In preceding sections of this chapter we have repeatedly 
commented upon the necessity of revising and changing the 
lists. The publication ''list" is revised automatically- 
the Post Office department where the publication has 
second-class mailing privileges sees to that, in fact — but in 
direct advertising the user must correct, and keep correct, 
his own lists. 

Every department of the business and every employee 
from salesman to shipper should cooperate with the person 
in charge of lists to see that that person is advised 
of all changes in address, changes in firm names, and so 

Depending upon the line of business — bankers change 
much less frequently than barbers, for example — the list 
should be corrected periodically by rechecking it against 
some reliable source of information, such as a new direc- 
tory, a new list of automobile owners, tax lists, and so on. 

Checking firm names against those of the mercantile 
agency books, quarterly, is the plan frequently used by 
large mailers. This may be supplemented by checking 
against the latest semi-annual telephone books for street ad- 

If the mailings are going out under third-class (1 cent) 
postage, which does not insure return of the unclaimed or 
undeliverable mail automatically, it is often good policy to 



send out a first-class (2 cent) mailing about once a year 
and ascertain definitely. 

New names will of course have to be added from time to 
time, from salesmen's reports, rating books, and other such 

sources. . -, , i 4.« 

The more frequently your lists are revised, the less waste 
there will be in your use of direct advertising. The more 
often you use the lists, the oftener they will need revising, 
because of the proportionately large sum you are investing 

in them. 

Twice a year for correcting lists may be conceded as good 
practice in live direct-advertising departments. Fig. 40 
will be found quite helpful in showing methods of correct- 
ing lists. 

Checking your list against that supplied from some other 
source and adjusting the discrepancies is an excellent 
method of correcting lists. , 

One manufacturer's method of checking up his house- 
organ list will be helpful in this connection. When a name 
is°added to the list four envelopes are made out and filed 
away. In the fourth envelope there is placed a return 
postal card which must be sent back if the addressee of the 
envelope wishes to continue receiving the house organ. 
When that return card is received four more envelopes are 
addressed, another return card placed in the fourth en- 
velope, and so on throughout the year, permitting the man- 
ufacturer to check his list automatically three times a year. 
Personally the writer cannot enthusiastically endorse this 
idea, for he never could see the logic of requiring the pros- 
pect to continually ''beg" in order to receive advertising 
material which might sell the prospect some of the adver- 
tiser's goods. . . 

124A. Short-cutting the Handling of Big Lists.— It is 
all too easy to invest lime and money in filing cabinets and 
methods of indexing, and cross-indexing lists, and then to 
spare your effort in making the list pay dividends. 
One of the staff writers of Printers' Ink for July 8, 1915, 
told in detail how just such a complicated system came 





^osT orricc 



issues or 















or moorcss 



orncc IN 






Fig. 40. — A handy check-up table shows the various methods 
of correcting prospects' and customers' lists and indicates how 
to keep these lists up to date. Courtesy of Addressograpn 


to grief and how by reclassifying the list vocationally a 
large sum in salaries was saved. 

The National Cash Register Company master list, when 
totaling 1,500,000 names, was divided into 72 divisions. The 
use of "red, blue and white electric lights, connected with 
the addressing machine, together with a number of differ- 
ent shaped and designed tabs, enables the company to pick 
out the prospects automatically in any one of the three lines 
(red denotes a user, blue denotes a user who should have 
more equipment, and white a prospect) in 18 different lines 
of business, or in any one of the 18 different sales districts. 
Armour & Company operate on a different plan. They, 
for example, take the figure ''2" to represent owners of 
pineapple plantations; *'13" to represent an orange 
grower, and so on. Then after the envelopes are addressed 
the girls pick out those marked "2" and insert in those 
envelopes only literature which appeal to the pineapple 
thrower. The ''13" addresses get literature of interest to 
orange growers and so on. 

To learn how to enlist the services of the United States 
Post Office department in correcting lists, see Section 380. 
''Dead wood" is quite likely to impede your lists despite 
your best efforts ; this should be looked for and removed as 
often as possible. If you sell through salesmen, have them 
check over your lists occasionally and report how many 
"babes and superannuated, cripples and criminals," to say 
nothing of curiosity seekers, are imprinted upon them. 

Watch for duplicate requests from other members of the 
same business or social family, and prune your list accord- 
ingly. Of course if the items you send are of such value 
that you can afford to multiply your list, or for any other 
desirable reason, well and good; then disregard this advice. 
125. Decreasing Returns Often Predicate "Dead 
Wood" in the List.— W. G. Clifford in "Building Your 
Business by Mail" tells an interesting story of a business 
which produced 40 per cent returns the first year, 22 per 
cent the second, and which the fourth year had dropped 
to a scant 7 per cent. 


A thousand names were selected at random and a very 
careful check-up was made, resulting in this report: 

410 people had changed addresses from one to four times; 
261 had moved to parts unknown; 
7 had died; 
1 had gone to jail; 

83 had bought a competing article ; , . ^ ^, « __ 

124 had already bought one of the articles which the firm was 
trying to sell — 

or a total of 886 persons out of a thousand names were 
worthless-almost 90 per cent of the mailing list was no 
good. Isit any wonder that returns decreased? 

Buckley, Dement & Company, a Chicago list house, m 
their own house organ recently referred to a case where a 
list of 100 000 dealers deteriorated 14 per cent m six 
months; and counting the new prospects which had come 
into the field in the same period, the list was subjected to 29 
per cent change in the six-months' period. 

Using such a list even on the correct twice-a-year basis 
would mean material decrease in results. 

126. Classification the Key to Personalization.-We 
have repeatedly pointed out that one of the strong points 
of direct advertising is its personal appeal. This personal 
appeal can only be inserted where the classification is prop- 
erly made and properly used. • i i .f 

Writing an elderly maiden lady about a special sale ot 
men's blue denim overalls is but a slightly exaggerated case 
of what happens when the list is not P^^Pf 1^. ?,^^^'^f ^- • 

Naturally classifications will vary with different busi- 
nesses; we have already suggested several classifications m 
Sections 120 to 123. A simple method of noting these 
classifications is indicated in Section 120 There is al. 
the colored card method; the use of red for lawyers b u 
for women, white for children, and so on ; as well as the use 
of signal clips of various kinds both upon the card-index 
records and upon the addressing-machine plates, as will oe 
set forth in Chapter XVIII. 



Next to personalizing an advertising piece by talking 
about the man is to talk about his community, its crops, 
its advantages and so on. 

Part Five of this work suggests several classifications 
which may well be used on many lists. 

One of the large separator companies divides its list into 
three classifications: 

1. Non-users of separators. 

2. Users of competing machines. 

3. Users of the company's machines grown old and out of date. 

127. Classification of Officials. — There is also the plan 
of classifying your list according to officials. Below are 
listed a classification of 20 leading officials: 

1. President. 

2. General manager. 

3. Secretary. 

4. Treasurer. 

5. Sales manager. 

6. Factory manager. 

7. Advertising manager. 

8. Engineer — of many kinds. 

9. Sales correspondent. 

10. Credit and collection clerk. 

11. Cashier. 

12. Chief accountant, or auditor. 

13. Cost accountant. 

14. Purchasing agent. 

15. Shipping clerk. 

16. Filing clerk. 

17. Mailing clerk. 

18. Statistician. 

19. Comptroller. 

20. Traffic manager. 

Of course this list might be expanded indefinitely, but these 
titles will be suggestive. 

128. Close Analysis and Best Results Analogous. — Just 
as Printers' Ink (April 22, 1920, page 122) so well says: 



** Experience is showing that best results in direct advertis- 
ing are secured by specializing the appeal, approximating 
that which would be made in the case of a personal letter 
written to an individual with knowledge of the conditions. 
A direct campaign on automobile trucks with which we 
are familiar brought quite unusual returns through follow- 
ing this idea. The prospective mailing list was classified 
as to lines of business : and the booklet or catalogue, by a 
change of one line on the cover and two pictures on the 
inside of the book, became a message specially directed to 
coal dealers, furniture movers, contractors, or whatever 
was the specific business of the prospect being appealed to." 
Classification is the key to the successful use of a good 
mailing list well kept. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Explain the difference between the hsts used in publication 
advertising and in direct advertising. 

2. Define a good list. 

3. Take some business with which you are familiar and list as 
many sources of names as possible. 

4. Classify this list as you would in selling prospects by mail; 
through salesmen. 

5. Why is the maintenance of a good list almost as necessary 
as the building of one? 

6. Tell the number of ways of checking a list. 

7. How often would you check a list used monthly ? 

8. Describe a simple system of handling a list of names if you 
were to use one for some business with which you are familiar. 




Whatever is printed is intended to serve a definite purpose, and 
the degree in which it does this determines its efficiency. — Henry 
Lewis Johnson. 

129. The Physical Form Which Interests All.— We 
may have our varying opinions as to which physical form 
of direct advertising should be used; we may disagree as 
to the particular purpose for which it is prepared ; we may 
make use of different lists and each of us may be right ; but 
on the subject of returns or results all minds agree in the 

The one reason for direct advertising, or for that matter 
any other form of advertising, is to accomplish certain 

At the outset let it be admitted that returns or results are 
sometimes intangible ; when they are, naturally opinion and 
judgment still hold sway. In the case of mail-order adver- 
tising or advertising with a mail-order appeal, however, it 
is possible to know definitely whether there are returns. 

Returns is the word commonly used to denote return 
cards, letters, inquiries, and similar physical forms which 
are sent to the advertiser by the advertisee ; while results, 
broadly speaking, is the word used when intangibilities are 
dealt in, as when a comparison of one year's business is 
shown with another year's business in tons, dollars-and- 
eents, or some other common denominator. 

130. What is Meant by "Good" Returns or Good 
Results? — To answer this question is on a par with answer- 
ing the query: *'Do blondes or brunettes make the best 

wives?"; or 

i i 

How many people do you think ought to 


read our advertisement if we put it in the Gazetted Un- 
less I know what your predilection is in the choice of femi- 
nine complexion in the first case, or unless I have more than 
a hazy idea of what size of advertisement, how often it 
appears, the offer it entails, and the circulation of the 
Gazette, I shall not be able to answer your query. 

This is no attempt to be facetious in order to dodge the 
issue. The author has attended dozens of conventions 
where some beginner in the use of direct advertising would 
get up and in all earnestness ask: "What returns ought 1 
to expect from a circular letter ? ' ' 

Not less than three weeks ago, as this is written, this very 
question was propounded at an international convention of 
iirect-advertising specialists. Knowing nothing about the 
business of the writer of the letter, the list to be used, the 
method of mailing, the aim to be sought, or any of those 
elements, not to mention many others, every one of which 
affects the returns, or results, it was, and is, manifestly 
impossible to lay down any hard and fast rules as to results. 

To say that the returns should justify the expense may 
^eem like begging the question, yet the query can only thus 
be truthfully answered. 

Let us take as a typical case an actual one. A young 
man in handling direct advertising for a large manufac- 
turer got an idea that a certain book ought to sell by mail. 
He had a very good list of 500 names. He was going to 
sell that list a $3.50 book by mail. His profit was to be 
$1.16 per book. He talked it over in this way : 

Cost of letterheads, at least $5.00 

postage at 2 cents 1^.00 

multigraphing ^-^^ 

fiUing in inclosure and maiUng 7.50 

inclosure, say ^-^^ 

Total, roughly $32.45 

To secure a profit of $1.16 per book, this man would have 
to obtain orders for about 28 books, or .056 of the entire 



list. When it was figured out in that way he decided not 
to embark upon the sea of mail salesmanship. 

The estimate did not take into consideration any possible 
loss through the mails, or failure on the part of some one to 
pay for a book if offered on approval, nor did it include any 
''overhead" for the manager's time, or other such expense. 

The best we can do is to judge the future by the past— 
to take some typical instances and find out what the returns 
were. Part Five treats exclusively of returns or results, 
and details of how they were secured; therefore in this 
chapter we shall only cover the broad general subject of 
returns, or results. 

131. Returns Vary Greatly with Offer Made. — It stands 
to reason that if you offer a free book in a letter, you will 
necessarily get more returns (answers) than if you asked 
the recipient to pledge himself to see a salesman or to place 
even a conditional order. 

This difference in the offer frequently accounts for re- 
turns of possibly 40 per cent from one letter, perhaps 3 
per cent from another, both apparently equally good in 
almost every way except for the ''bait" offered. 

Now this section is not decrying the offering of a ''bait" 
or use of a "decoy"; sometimes that is the thing to do, 
but the point to be borne in mind is that you can not play 
"ring around the rosy" with a prospect forever; eventually 
you must "get down to business" and that means selling 
the prospect your product or service. 

132. Absence of Returns May Indicate Success in 
Appeal.— Sometimes the very absence of returns, or 
"come-backs," as some call them, may indicate that the 
results are excellent. There is no earthly use in getting a 
pile of "come-backs" if all you aim to accomplish is to 
smooth the way for your salesman to call, or to get the in- 
quirer to drop into your dealer's and buy some of your 
goods. Too often in a drive to get returns the selling 
appeal is weakened. We become so eager to make the pros- 
pect come back and ask for, say, our "Blue Beauty Book" 
that we overlook entirely that what we want him or her to 




do is to get it clearly in mind that "Blue Beauty'^ pots, 
kettles, and pans are the very best granite ware on the 
market, can be had at almost every department store (it 
we cannot mention names), and the best thing for the pros- 
pect to do is to purchase them. 

While the preceding paragraph, of course, has reference 
specifically to a letter in answer to an inquiry, a similar con- 
dition often arises in all other forms of direct advertising 

We emphasize this before taking up some typical and 
actual returns and results so that the reader will not get the 
idea that because we treat of this physical form early in the 
book we think every piece should be prepared to get re- 
turns," adding that, of course, every piece of direct ad- 
vertising MUST be prepared TO GET CERTAIN RESULTS. Kc- 

sults, not returns— there is the difference ! 

The results you wish have a great deal to do in deciding 
on what physical form you shall use, a subject we shall find 
adequatelv covered in Chapter VIII. j. - ^ 

133. Many Inquiries May Mean Few Sales.-It is a 
matter of record that a silverware campaign which offered 
a small premium for answers brought 47 per cent replies, 
but actually only 1 per cent of those replies were turned 

'"^ StrSt selling talk on motor-boats pulled 9 per cent 
replies, but these resulted in 4 per cent sales; 28 per cen 
of all inquirers confessed that curiosity promp ed the r 
r ply ; the'se produced but 2 per cent of the total sales, wh^^^^ 
the remaining 72 per cent made 98 per cent of all the pur- 

'^ITadding-machine company with a mailing of a two- 
page letter, inclosing a return card ^"^^ ^«^f ^"^^^^f, Jl' 
- service bulletin " on - Tax Assessing and Collecting sen 
to a carefullv classified list of those likely to be interested 
n thi^ subject, made a double offer on tje -t-n car^ 
first offering, of course, the "free" booklet. Next the 
company asked for an O.K. to a sentence that would per 
mTL adding-machine company's representative -^-lien n 
St vicinity'^ to call with a machine for demonstration 



purposes. The point is that 43 per cent of those returning 
the card O.K.'d it, thus giving permission for the salesman 

to call. 

These instances show that numerous people will write for 
a. "free" booklet, or premium, yet will not buy goods. 

At the Detroit convention of the Direct Mail Advertis- 
ing Association in 1920 the vice-president of a firm selling 
entirely by mail, and which secured all of its inquiries by 
publication advertising, said that in seven years his firm 
had secured nearly 1,000,000 inquiries but to date had only 
succeeded in selling a little more than 82,000 of them. This 
statement is no criticism of the efficacy of direct advertis- 
ing, nor of this firm's methods, but is cited here to 
prove our statement that many inquiries may produce few 
sales, at the same time to hold before the reader the ne- 
cessity of first learning whether inquiries or sales are to be 
the method of judging the success or failure of the 

At the same convention the advertising manager of a firm 
selling farmers admitted that its whole aim was to secure 
a large volume of inquiries, inasmuch as whether or not 
every one inquiring bought this firm's product such returns 
enabled the manufacturer to ''make himself solid" with the 
dealers to whom the inquiries were referred. 

Charles L. Benjamin, before the St. Louis convention of 
the Associated Advertising Clubs, clearly pointed out the 
fallacy of judging any piece of advertising by the number 
of inquiries it produces when he said: "Do not make the 
mistake of supposing — as so many advertisers do — that the 
effect of advertising can be measured by the number of in- 
quiries immediately produced. Inquiries come only from 
those who are at the moment interested in the article adver- 
tised, but these constitute only a small proportion of the 
persons on whose minds your advertising has made an im- 
pression and who weeks, months, even year's later, may 
respond to that impression." 

Strange and even paradoxical as it may seem, it is the 
personal opinion of the writer that in a great many cases — 


not in all, and certainly not in mail-order selling— the suc- 
cess of a direct-advertising piece may be judged rather by 
lack of inquiries than by the receipt of many. When you 
have a product selling through dealers, for example, what 
you want the person to do is not necessarily to inquire, but 
to buy. The receipt of many inquiries may actually prove 
that your proposition was not clearly and thoroughly out- 
lined in your advertising. 

Collating the experiences of several, the author in Mail- 
hag, October, 1918, page 156, found this rule to hold, as 
general: *' Inquiries or direct returns increase m value 
just as the intangibility of the thing offered for sale in- 
creases. In other words, if you are offering something 
INTANGIBLE you must placc more and more stress upon the 
inquiries— for it is only after the contact that you will have 
a chance to demonstrate your intangible proposition to 
your prospect, and without demonstration you will have 

no sales." 

134. Some General Data on Returns.— Frequently you 
will find that the returns, or results as the case may be, 
are in line with a Northwestern leather clothing manufac- 
turer who planned a three-part direct campaign aimed at 
25,000 dealers. It is a matter of record on file with the 
author that the third part of this campaign was never com- 
pleted for the reason that the results from the first two 
pieces were of such huge proportions that the firm direct- 
ing the campaign did not feel it advisable to secure any 
more business at that time. 

The largest manufacturers in the world of a comfit vend- 
ing machine found for the year 1919 that 46 per cent of 
their total business came from leadsr— inquiries and ''tips 
of possible buyers, that is— which they had sent to their field 
salesmen. Of this 46 per cent they further found that 
27 per cent of it came from direct-advertising mailings, 
** homely broadsides with lots of black and red ink there- 
on," as their advertising manager explained at a recent 
neeting. Estimating this direct-advertising result on 
a basis of their entire business, 12 per cent of it— from the 



initial inquiry to the final sale — came from direct adver- 

E. St. Elmo Lewis, formerly with the Burroughs Adding 
Machine Company, made this statement at the Philadelphia 
Direct Advertising Convention: ''For every dollar that 
was spent in the last five years of which I have any record, 
the Burroughs Adding Machine Company got nearly ten 
dollars of traceable results." 

A New York City firm of engineers and constructors 
which uses several forms of advertising, including direct 
mail once a month, compared the results thus: "The 
nature of our service is such that we hardly expect and do 
not receive direct returns from magazine or trade-paper 
advertising. On the other hand, our direct advertising has 
been very productive in direct returns." 

In New England there is a laundry which started in a 
small building of two rooms. The first advertising its pro- 
prietors put out was a mailing folder. They sent this out 
to families in their neighborhood. As their business grew 
they found it necessary to move into the more spacious 
quarters of a larger building, but they continued to use 
direct advertising, sending their pieces to neighborhood 
after neighborhood. When they had obtained from their 
advertising a sufficient number of customers in one neigh- 
borhood to warrant the sending of a team they would add 
names from the streets next to those, always branching out 
and keeping pace with the business by increasing the num- 
ber of their teams. This laundry to-day is the largest and 
best in one of New England's big cities and is now housed 
in a modern brick structure. Its owners never used any 
other kind of advertising until they moved into their new 
building when they began to use newspapers because they 
had customers in all parts of the city. This instance shows, 
again, the interdependence of all forms of advertising. 

A firm of Chicago tobacco manufacturers secured over 
5,000 dealers in a two-weeks' (fourteen days) direct-adver- 
tising campaign. 

In ten years one life insurance company using direct 



advertising entirely to complete its sales built up a business 
which engaged 7,956 persons for a tot^l of $14,199,284. 
Selling insurance by mail is perhaps one of the hardest 

tasks of all. 

135. Plan of Attack Influences Returns.— While the 

subject of the Plan will not be discussed at length until we 
reach Chapter VIII, it should be remarked at this point 
that the plan of attack frequently influences the volume of 
inquiries. Sherwin Cody records in ''How to Deal with 
Human Nature in Business" that a catalogue sent broad- 
cast to the trade, for example, is usually treated with com- 
parative indifference. He tells of sending 5,000 booklet 
circulars to old customers and getting only six orders of 
one dollar each. He took the same booklet-circular and 
with a strong personal letter sent it to 1,000 more of the 
same class of names and got one hundred orders. ^^ 

Many people prefer to mail a card rather than ''go to a 

dealer." ^ ^ 

Whether or not a return card, order blank, or other tirs.- 
aid-to-the-would-be-inquirer" should accompany the piece, 
is another matter for consideration. This will be taken up 
in later chapters when we plan out a piece ; at this point 
we merely want to stress returns and results and show that 
all of them are comparative. 


136. In Section 134 we showed some of the general results 
from using several of the different physical forms of direct 
advertising but without singling out any particular form m 
the returns analysis. In this and succeeding sections we 
shall take up a few of the typical returns from several of 
the various physical forms described in Chapter III, though 
to quote E. W. Simons, of the James Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin, it must again be admitted 
that:' "Regardless of the form of advertising used, the 
real purpose is the creation of a state of mind favorable to 
the article advertised and to secure definite action in as 



high percentage of cases as may be possible. In most prop- 
ositions, the number of replies received or the number of 
orders constitutes but a very small part of the real results 
and of the real value of the advertising." This statement 
reaffirms that of Mr. Benjamin in Section 133. 

137. Returns from Personal Letters. — A battery manu- 
facturer for the year 1919 found that 14 per cent of all in- 
quiries answered with a personal letter brought back 
orders, "which," to quote him, "were accompanied by cash 
or request to ship C. 0. D. This percentage does not in- 
clude orders received through dealers or jobbers." 

Sherwin Cody, an experienced salesman-by-mail, is 
authority for the statement in the book previously referred 
to that "letters are at best far weaker than is personal 
canvassing." He adds that if calling on customers in per- 
son will get you 75 per cent orders, "writing letters should 
get about 7 per cent." He also supplements this with the 
statement th^t while ten personal calls will give you a good 
"line" on any proposition, he finds from his experience 
that it usually takes from 500 to 1,000 mail calls at any one. 
time to make the results observable. 

Comparatively few personal letters are used in direct ad- 
vertising except to answer inquiries produced by other 
direct advertising or some form of publicity. 

138. Returns from Form or "Circular" Letters.— In 
"Direct by Mail Advertising," by H. P. Elliott, we find 
this rule: "If your circular (form letter) is well written 
and your proposition has merit you will get about one per 
cent returns, or from a thousand circulars you should get 
ten replies, showing that ten people are willing to talk to 
your salesman." 

We question whether this rule may be accepted generallj^ 
without reservations. /The proposition, the list, the plan 
of attack, and many other factors will serve to increase or 
decrease returns and the inclusion of a return card or 
other form of "come-back" will almost invariably increase 

Hugh Chalmers once told how he sent out 1,000 form 















letters, even using the one-cent stamp, and got back nearly 
900 replies, or 90 per cent returns. The secret lay in the 
fact that this letter asked for prices on the goods handled 
by the person addressed. 

A form letter inclosing an order blank and return (un- 
stamped) envelope, mailed to a list of 5,000 druggists, pro- 
duced $7,000 worth of business in 21 days. 

A strictly mail-order house selling a product which is on 
sale locally in practically every city where it circularizes 
with form letters reports that it does business on the basis 
of 14 of 1 per cent orders, and adds: *'We find this very 
satisfactory and could do business on a basis of % of 1 per 
cent orders.'* 

A firm of machinery builders which sends out form let- 
ters regularly to a list of about 1200 and invariably in- 
closes a return card says these letters ** usually average 
2 per cent returns." 

Yet a fire-fighting appliance maker got 60 per cent re- 
turns from a letter sent to editors asking for a list of pos- 
sible agents for his device. On a lot of 6770 letters to 
firms in the coal-mining industry the same individual got 
422 replies, or 6 per cent as against 180 replies (10 per 
cent) from 1789 letters to the chemical industry. 

An insurance agent seeking to line up more agents when 
trying for inquiries only, with a series of 3 letters, pro- 
duced 10 per cent inquiries from the first letter, 8 per cent 
from the second, and slightly in excess of 8 per cent from 
the third. 

From a list of department stores a silverware firm got 6 
per cent returns, 5 per cent of which were accompanied 
with orders and at a selling cost of .034, while the same 
company with another form letter sent to jewelers, who 
seemingly should be better customers, produced only 2 per 
cent orders at a selling cost of .07. The variation, an ex- 
amination of the letters showed, was probably largely due 
to better selling copy in the first letter. 

The editor of Printers' Ink, in the issue of May 11, 1916, 
page 12, in answer to the direct inquiry as to how large a 

percentage of returns one should expect from form letters, 
said in part : ' ' A letter which otters something for noth- 
incr will pull a large percentage of replies. If that letter 
be'skillfully written on handsome stationery, and be accom- 
panied by a stamped return card on which the addressee 
is to sign his name to obtain 'absolutely free and without 
any obligation whatever a handsome book, bound in full 
morocco,'— perhaps there may be 75 per cent returns. 
But if you ask for the immediate remittance of two dollars, 
this being the regular price of a piece of merchandise, you 
will have to write very skillfully, indeed, to pull two per 

cent returns." , 

In this comment the editor emphasized the fact that much 
would depend upon the character of the list. Let us also 
quote from the comment this summation : ' ' So we come to 
the conclusion that any one who lays down as a general 
proposition a definite percentage of returns to be expected 
from circular matter, without regard to the proposition, 
the letter, or the list of names addressed, is treading on verj; 

unsafe ground. " 1, 00 iqi7 

While the same authority in the issue of March 22, 1917, 
page 118, in reply to the exact question reiterated: Ke- 
tums from a circular letter depend entirely on the live- 
ness' of the list, the proposition advertised, and the manner 
in which the proposition is presented. " ^ ^ ^ 

The editor told of one form letter sent out under first- 
class postage with a self-addressed ''Yes and No 
card inclosed which produced as high as 82 per cent returns. 
In this case a 1 cent stamp was tipped on the upper lett- 
hand corner of the letterhead and the opening para-raph re- 
ferred to the stamp and told why it was there. The recip- 
ient's name had been filled in in advance on the return card 
so that all that was required of the addressee was to remove 
the little green stamp, put it on whichever retjirn card he 
wished to return and mail that card. More than that re- 
turns were still further stimulated by publicity in Publica- 
tions which aroused curiosity and interest and paved tne 
way for the mailing. 







The editor added: ^'When a remittance of from one to 
five dollars is required to be sent in advance for some article 
such as a book, from 1 to 3 per cent would be considered a 
fair return from a good 'live' list. This figure can be in- 
creased to 5 to 6 per cent if no cash is required in advance 
and the article is sent subject to examination and return 
if not satisfactory.^' Compare the preceding paragraph 
with Section 130 and see how well that young man's analy- 
sis tied up with the experience of others. 

139. Returns from Four^page Sales Letterheads. — The 
LaSalle Better Letter Trophy was awarded at the Detroit 
convention of the Direct Mail Advertising Association in 
October, 1920, for a letter sent out on a four-page illus- 
trated sales letterhead to 45,912 people which produced 
844 inquiries and from $75,000 to $100,000 worth of directly 
traceable business. 

With a four-page sales letterhead sent to 72,200 grocery 
and delicatessen stores a grape-juice company produced 
5850 returns, or 8 per cent, with orders for 2325 cases of 
its product and yet the company was not satisfied with 
this return ! 

V. C. Dwyer, in Mailhag, for March, 1920, page 323, tells 
the story of a four-page letter which brought 1000 per cent 
increase in sales. This was unusual inasmuch as it was a 
regular form letter, four pages in length and each page pro- 
duced on a letterhead illustrated with different designs. 
The attendant circumstances were such as to make this re- 
turn unusual, to say the least, but the accomplishment is 
worth noting. 

"William A. Hersey, of Robert H. IngersoU & Brother, 
New York, before the Cleveland convention of the Direct 
Mail Advertising Association said: "I have tried all sorts 
of circulars, broadsides, small envelope stuffers, mailing 
folders, four-page letterheads, and four-page circulars with 
a separate letter, and I stick pretty closely to the 8V2 ^^^ 
single page, or sometimes I use the 11 x 17 (four-page let- 
terhead) with a special letter, and sometimes I use it with a 
letter on the first page, 


A varnish company using two-page illustrated e terheads 
rPDorts this- "We find that our illustrated letterheads 
Suhe?nclosures which go with them have produced many 
flpfnal orders for dealers. " 

140 Results from Booklets.-It is not often that any 
direct results can be traced to a booklet, yet the manufac- 
S^'rers of an office specialty device (cited with the under 
stodin- that their name should not be used) gave the re- 

ulS; booklet which we shall call "Judging by Results, 

r-ne Choice of a Check Protector," though >t w-as not a 
^heck protector, but a much higher priced article They 

entout approximately 450,000 copies of this booklet and 

rec ived 32 000 direct inquiries, placed more than 4000 

al and 'sold almost 2000 machines. T^e'r machines 

,.robablv average $300 each and this meant $600,000 wortn 

Tbusinm f rom one booklet ! It was followed up by sales- 

T;." Returns from Catalogues.-It is, on the other hand, 
quit'e easy to tell that excellent results <^<>rnejvc^l2; 
erly prepared catalogues, for all you have to do i^ to "-eter 

[he business of general mail-order houses. For th year 
1919, the American Wholesale Corporation, of Baltimore, 
according to Direct Advertising, Vol. VII, No. 2, page A 

old $35^345,711.91 worth of merchandise entirely through 
a 15-order catalogue for which the selling cost was only 

^ Ve"unit"ed Drug Company, as told in an article appear- 
ing in Postage for March, 1916, page 42, incorporated as a 
pan of the cover of its premium catalogue a coupon vaW 
at $1, which enabled this company to check directly the 

attention given to their catalogue. , , „„>, <,„p<^„ 

A A Vantine & Company, at the end of each season 
check up every page of their mail-order catalogue o see 
just how much profit or loss is made on each item quoted^ 
''Here are cuff links, occupying a space of forty-four square 
inches," writes John Allen Murphy in df c"b'nf J''^^ 
checking system in Printers' Ink, December 19> 191«. P«^^ 
58; "this space brought in thirty-two dollars during the 





year. In order to be profitable, let us say each square foot 
must produce ten dollars' worth of business. Results would 
thus show that the links had abundantly justified them- 
selves. * ' 

142. Returns from Mailing Cards and Circulars. — A 
simple slip, 31/2 x 814 inches, printed in one color, both 
sides, produced over $4000 worth of business in two days for 
a mid-western truck company. This offered a special price 
on chains and sprockets, one side played up the "extraordi- 
nary offer, ' ' the other side was an order blank. 

A simple mailing card, regular in fold, offering factory 
equipment pulled over $7,000 worth of business in direct 
results, "not to mention the assistance it has been in our 
mail and individual sales work," says the company. 

Manufacturers of an electric vacuum cleaner reprinted 
their trade paper inserts and mailed them as mailing circu- 
lars to 18,000 prospects, adding a return card. "Each 
mailing," they write, "we received over 700 cards in re- 
ply." This would be a percentage of .038, but 
by this close follow-up month after month they report they 
were able to increase their list of active dealers 120 per cent 
in 12 months. 

A simple motto card produced one of the most unusual 
results we know of. Besides the motto it contained the 
firm's trade mark and address, the latter rather small; it 
was printed on cover stock, and made no suggestion of 
seeking a reply; yet a mailing of 4,000 of them produced 
200 requests for "more of those cards." 

143. Envelope Inclosure Returns. — It is almost impossi- 
ble, too, to trace returns from envelope mclosures, though 
one manufacturer recently showed us a series which pro- 
duced in excess of $12,000 worth of traceable business. 
A sewing-machine company finding itself loaded up with 
a lot of bottled oil that had been in stock for months and 
which apparently would stay there for months more, but 
which did not permit of sufficient profit to advertise it, got 
up a little envelope inclosure which was mailed with the 
firm's bills, statements, and letters. This moved the old oil. 

Seasonable goods are readily sold and their sales traced. 
Retailers are large users of envelope inclosures, of their 
own manufacture and of those sent them by manufacturers. 

144. Returns from Folders.— A steel tank company sent 
out 5477 "stunt" folders— one making an ingenious or trick 
fold— and produced 115 inquiries which brought in 
$6,200.50 worth of traceable business, total cost $285.12. 

A paint company had an interesting experience with 
two different folders. Both went to the same list of 2,000 
names and both offered free window displays. One pro- 
duced 215 replies, or .108 per cent, while the other brought 
510 replies, or .255 per cent. The difference is easily ac- 
counted for: the latter was printed in full colors while 
the former had only one color and black. 

A refrigerator company reports, after a careful statis- 
tical study, that it secures %o of 1 per cent returns from its 
folders, but gets back $5.50 for every $1 invested. 

145. Returns from Blotters.— Blotters are frequently 
pure general publicity, but one saw company mailed out 
5194 blotters, accompanying them with a multigraphed 
slip of about the same size and a return postal card. The 
concern got 254 replies for a free window display, indicat- 
ing .049 per cent returns. 

146. When Returns Are Desired, the More Nearly You 
Approach the Personal Letter the Better.- If replies or 
returns are desired from direct advertising, let it be said 
here that the more nearly you approach the appeal of a 
personal letter the more likelihood you may have of secur- 
ing returns, though results may be better through the use of 
some other form. For example, in building up good will 
through confidence the house organ stands supreme because 
consistent and persistent, but the house organ is not as a 
rule a prolific inquiry producer. 

Citations of statistics as to results and returns from 

. various physical forms will be found also in Sections 7, 20, 

35, 36, 47, 61, 74, 75, 84, 92, 102, 148, 186, 187, 192, 197, 202, 

209, 218, 221, 222, 233, 234, 247, 255, 263, 269, 290, 292, 299, 

301, 317, 328, 333, 354 and all of Part Five. 



Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Explain in your own words what you understand by "re- 
turns" and "results." 

2. Name as many different things as you can think of which 
might influence results or returns. 

3. If I were sending out 1,000 form letters offering a copy of 
this book for $3.50 without money in advance, what percentage 
of returns sliould I expect? 

4. If the money were required in advance, would returns de- 
crease; if so, why? 

5. Tell how any firm within the ken of your experience has 
successfully used direct advertising; does the firm know the exact 
returns ? 

6. Assuming that answers, regardless of proposition made, are 
what I look for, what physical form would you recommend ? Dis- 
regard other angles, of course. 

7. Blank Manufacturing Company has a circular or fomi letter 
ready to mail. How many replies should the company expect? 

8. If you cannot give a definite answer to the preceding ques- 
tion, tell why. 



For the apparel oft proclaims the waw.— Shakespeare. 

147 Two Kinds of "Outside" Appeals.— In this chapter 
we take up the remaining ''physical" appeal which is in- 
herent in a piece of direct advertising. We have reference 
to that part of the piece which the addressee first sees— 
the envelope or wrapper, for instance ; and also to that part 
which is the outside of the piece after he has passed the 
outer guard known as envelope or wrapper. 

Bear in mind that we discuss here the outside solely from 
the PHYSICAL angle and from its. physical appeal to the 
prospect, as a tangible; i.e., physical, thing. The matter 
of planning the outside from a mechanical angle will be 
taken up in Chapter XI, while the writing of the material 
to be used on the outside is taken up in Chapter X. We 
are led to devote an entirely separate chapter to the sub- 
ject of "the outside" for, to repeat the great dramatist s 
quotation at the head of this chapter: "The apparel oft 
proclaims the man," and yet few, comparatively very few, 
users of direct advertising utilize the appeal of the outside 
envelope, or the wrapper to best advantage. Practically 
all admit the value of the outside of the booklet or catalogue 
or other piece in itself, but they do not carry that idea 
through to the mailing or delivery container. 

148. Three Classes of Envelopes.— There are three mam 
classes of envelopes: (1) Standard Commercial; (2) Gov- 
ernment (bearing the necessary governmental postage 
stamp) ; and (3) Novel, which includes the colored as well 
as- those pf special designs. 

Appendix B lists the sizes of the first two mentioned 
and should be referred to in ordering envelopes. 

Envelopes in the three divisions referred to are also made 







in the *' outlook" or *' window" style. Commercial en- 
velopes may be had in various styles (some patented) of 
folding in ends, sides, flaps, and the like. Such an en- 
velope, when delivered by mail, may lead an addressee to 
believe that it is sealed. He may conclude, therefore, that 
it is a first-class piece of mail matter, and that the 1 cent 
(third class) stamp which appears upon it was probably 
placed there in error. 

Fig. 41 illustrates the ** outlook" or ''window" envelope 
itself with the letter therein, as well as the letter (printed) 
and inclosure which go with it, as used by the Blackburn 
Brokerage Company, Kansas City, Missouri. This par- 
ticular letter and ''outside" are pulling better than 43 per 
cent returns, according to a letter on file with the author 
from N. B. Blackburn of the firm. It is proof positive 
that the "outlook" envelope may be used for general mail- 
ings at a big saving and yet not impair the effectiveness of 
the campaign. Some direct advertisers were fearful that 
the use of the "outlook" envelope used almost exclusively 
for statements at first would make a poor impression upon 
prospects. Of course in this campaign the prospects were 
housewives and not familiar with business custom. This 
particular envelope is of the "penny-saver" variety; that 
is, it can be sealed, there being a flap at the end which per- 
mits of opening the envelope for postal inspection. 

There are instances on record where increased returns 
have been brought by use of these patented, "appearing- 
as-if-sealed" envelopes as compared with the old-style flap- 
tucked-in envelopes (see Sections 153 and 353). 

149. The Outside a Means of "Dodging" the Waste- 
basket. — The main function of the outside, considered 
from the angle of the envelope or wrapper and the cover, 
or the book, or other piece, is to help the piece dodge 
the waste-basket, to lengthen its life, to increase interest 
in what is on the inside. 

By the outside you can appeal not only to the sense of 
sight but also of touch, and the double appeal will often 
save your piece from failing of attention. 




Mr* Jae«( P»rfMll 
Rostn&ale, So. 


KumCMt. Mo. 



>U1..U lw« .* 

SAVftO -f 

I wiO do all dw good RUB ava <1k1 ami I ww'l •» 

-Good «onUn«. Mn. United Suie* Hen I un to help mw with ikia 
week • wutunt^ I a«d three «muUdI»-SOAP. WATER end YOU— 
wt ioiu nuke • team. 

tWliarte RUE 
|UR the dothaft 

lAVLO —r* 'T^ call ■>• SAVEX) becauM I aave you tune. Uboc and ike ciothea 
The fir* week you will ootKe how much time and labor I eatr* Next 
week you wtU aee how bnghl and clean I make the clothea. Your neigk- 
bort will tee your clolhea early on the line, anowy vrhite. and will want 
ny SAVLO «Mera fo came and work ior them 

%J^\%0 nya "Aher I have been with you a month, you will gel out your pencd aod 
(■cure up and find that you aave more aoap than SAVEO coeU 
"In •«. eifhl or nine montht you will nonce how I have aaTcd your 
clothe* Of couTM. clothe* will wear out but I mv* the wew and taw of 

%J^^^fy ogr* "If you uaa a waahini machine. I can be a b«g help Thar* I mra la laa* 
ead l^or and in current if your machine it electric 

"I am only a few moniha old but I have made inany thuunMt aew 
fricndi each month One day when I wat only two week'* old. they look 
me to a CHEMIST He took me all apart »nd analyzed every brt of im 
and he ianl am harralea* lo clothe* and hand* and to evcrytkini aa^ 

SAVKO "ty* "How moeh do I coet> Th e fint week I work for nothing, for the (Im«»- 
itre of (Ming acquainlad Ailat thai t coat IS cenU fpr 12 tab* or >3-^ 

,enup»w.ahi«g _ g. D Ugear Oro 


-And I 




SAMPLE -A* ••' - 

I will be walilal al lb* Star* •• 




IUMS*S on. wttOOH 

Mn J4Ma Pamall 
RQgWltel*, Mo. 

Fig. 41.— Some direct advertisers have not taken 
advantage of the labor- and time saving possibilities 
of the "window" envelope. See text for details. 

It is admitted that not 100 per cent of all direct advertis- 
ing is read, saved, filed, and kept at hand for reference. 


Life is a battle, business a competition ; likewise adver- 
tising is a survival of the fittest and that which has an 
attractively appealing outside is most likely to be consid- 
ered fittest. 

150. The Outside May Gain Attention Without Mak- 
ing an Advertising Appeal. — Let the reader note that up 
to this point we have not argued for the use of the outside 
for "advertising" purposes, strictly speaking. Hitherto 
we have been considering the use of the outside solely as 
a means to an end — lengthening the life of the piece, in- 
creasing its attention value. This may be done by an ad- 
vertising appeal, but the use of such an appeal may defeat 
the very purpose we are trying to accomplish. 

To elucidate: there comes to my desk a finely engraved 
business card reading: 

J. Hamilton Elvins. i 

I do not know Mr. Elvins, I do not know his business; 
yet I am impressed by the card. I suspect he wants to sell 
me life insurance, for insurance companies have so often 
used this form of approach (with the result that America 
is well insured). I send the messenger back and tell her 
to find out Mr. Elvins' business. She fails; he wants to 
see me on personal business, its nature may not even be 
insurance and he may tell her that. In the end I probably 
see him. He may have been sent by a personal friend 
and. is simply making a friendly call, or he may want to 
sell me something. In any event, once past the outer 
guard that watches over the portals of most business of- 
fices of any size (similar to the office boy or girl, or 
mechanical letter-opener in the case of direct-advertisin?: 
material), whether J. Hamilton Elvins accomplishes the 
purpose he starts out to accomplish depends entirely upon 
J. Hamilton's ability as a salesman. The engraved card 
and the dignified and respectful manner get him by the 
one whose business it is to ''flag" callers. Just so the 
''outside" of the mailing piece, or auto-eontained direct 
advertisement, must try to get by the mail clerk, and 



others who would keep it from delivering its message 
where it will be properly received. 

Had Mr. Elvins' card borne a further statement: "Life 
Insurance," or "Investments"; in short, had it carried 
an advertisement, he would have probably advanced no 
farther than the outer door. 

In similar fasliion it is sometimes excellent strategy not 
to reveal on "the outside" the exact object of your direct- 
advertisement visit, though it may be well worth while 
to stage the visit as elaborately or even as simply as you 
can; it is likely you may want to play upon certain char- 
acteristic hopes and fears; or appeal to prides or preju- 

If whatever is within the "outside" is something that 
is an old and appreciated friend, it may be well to use the 
outside to notify the addressee that within he will find 
"your old friend." An example: One house organ that 
reaches the writer's desk is sent out by a Texas public util- 
ity company. On the outside, that is, the envelope, there 
is usually a little cartoon. One such was an illustration of 
Father Time and a young man standing nearby giving 
this advice: "Give him the best you have." One imme- 
diatelv begins to look within for the best. 

My first acquaintance with another house organ was 
obtained through the medium of an envelope (the out- 
side) shown in Fig. 42 A. The quaint "bird," or whatever 
it is, carrying the banner with the mystic "GAB — Better'n 
Ever," aroused my curiosity without my considering the 
appeal of the words. The fact that the envelope was ad- 
dressed for the writer's attention enabled this piece of 
one-cent mailing matter to get by the clerk who sorts in- 
coming mail. The outside as illu^rated induced me to 
ook within the envelope, and the outside of the house organ 
which was inclosed was so interesting that I opened it 
up and got its message almost at a glance. Now I look 
for that house organ every month ! 

Compare this actual happening with another. For sev- 
eral weeks I have been receiving regularly about once a 



month, I think, a full first-class mail envelope; on its 
upper left-hand corner I read *' mid-continent mer- 
cury/' No city address is indicated, but I have learned 
it by now. I open it, yes; because it is a two-cent en- 

Fig. 42. — Tliis line engraving illustrates several methods of 
dressing up the appeal of the "outside." A. Arousing curiosity. 
B. Utilizing the outside to enlist aid of post office department in 
keeping mailing list up-to date. C. Using the back of the en- 
velope for an advertising appeal. D. Note the peculiar-shaped 
flap and how it is used here. E. Using a die cut opening to tie up 
the inside with the outside appeal. See text for details. 

velope, but I know just as well what it is going to contain 
as if I had sent it to myself: it will be a reproduction of 
two of a certain newspaper's full-page advertisements in 



one of the advertising publications. No letter, no special 
comment accompanies it; nothing to create interest inside 
or out. The money spent for it is almost, not quite, 
wasted, for at least I know now the name and address of 
the newspaper, but whether it appears morning or after- 
noon, or "how many more lines of 'chauffeur wanted' 
advertising it prints than its nearest competitor" I do 

not know ! ^ ^ -u a 

If those two reprinted advertisements, for example, naa 
been reprinted on the same sheet of paper, with a curios- 
ity-arousing cover thereon, or had the reproduction been 
upon a grade of paper which would make me want to feel 
it, I might have read them. 

While the writer is against any form of advertising that 
is in bad taste he would not wholly subscribe to the state- 
ment set forth in *' Making the Letter Pay," by A. Peter 
Stowe, in which he says, in part: *'Many envelopes may 
be seen, in common use, almost covered, both front and 
back, with advertising. This use of the envelope is of 
questionable value and taste. The advertising may be of 
some value, but that value is small at best and the loss of 
dignity and caste more than overbalances it." 

There is a golden mean, and while Fig. 42 A may not 
be entirely dignified I surely felt no distaste toward the 
firm by reason of receiving'it ; rather, I mentally list that 
concern now with a half dozen other live engravers in as 

many cities. 

151. Frequently Identical Appeals Used on Outside 
and Inside.— It is frequently the policy to use for the 
cover of the bound or unbound piece of direct advertising 
inside tha envelope or wrapper the general idea of the 
same appeal used on the outside, and vice versa. 

A pleasing booklet is before me. It measures only about 
3x5 inches; its outside has a physical appeal that is such 
as to make me want to pick it up and look into it— yet 
the temptation is not prompted by the lure of words, nor 
by the enchantment of art work ; in fact, the only word 
on the front is ''Letters." This is hand-lettered and, 






while not losing dignity, is quite novel. The book has a 
deckle (see Chapiter XV) on two sides, and a cord binding. 
Ficr 42 E illustrates, greatly reduced, how the outside 
and i'^nside may be physically tied up very closely together. 
In this instance the method is a die-cut opening. The 
space just above the panel of black lines has been cut out 
of the envelope entirely, leaving a space, on the original, of 
about 11/4x11/, inches. Apparently it is an open door. 
When we get Inside, we see only the picture of a man 
standin<^ with his hat and overcoat in his hand; it does 
not even show the full figure, since it terminates at the 
man's thighs; yet the illusion has been created and the 
tie-up cleverly achieved of outside, outside headline and 

the inside. . , ^ ,, 

152 What a Change in the Outside Dress Means to 
Users of the Follow-up.— In Chapter IX we discuss the 
follow-up, but it should be noted here that, regardless of 
the style or kind of follow-up, the outside-the envelope or 
wrapper, especially, and also oftentimes the letterhead 
itself— may be used to make a physical impression instead 
of being the means of losing the addressee's interest. If 
a person receives a half dozen letters from some concern 
and finds nothing in them to interest him, he may decide 
to shunt all future communications from that concern 
direct to the waste-basket. If -the next letter comes ma 
licrht yellow envelope, when all ^t he others have come in 
blue envelopes perhaps, the chances are that the outside, 
by the change in colors, wUl cause this letter to be opened. 
Once the letter is before the addressee, then it becomes a 
question of writing ability and approach as to whether he 
reads on or not, but the outside will have, meanwhile, 

done its duty. ^ ., ,. 

153. A Simple Method of Getting an Outside tha 
Will Impel Attention.— By far the larger part of all mail 
comes to the desks of American business in what is known 
' as No 63/i envelopes. An increasing number of firms have 
adopted a simple method of getting attention by physical 
change of the outside. They have adopted what is known 



as No. 9 and No. 10 commercial envelopes (see Appendix 
B) At the San Francisco meeting of the Associated Ad- 
vertising Clubs of the World, one of the speakers told how 
a certain insurance agent never used anything else in com- 
municating with any one outside of the large cities except 
a No 10 commercial envelope, because, as he phrased it : 
''The man in the country is so much impressed with the 
legal-sized envelope that he will open it under any cir- 

mi TYi Q-i" Jin r* P s 

William A. Hersey, of Robert H. Ingersoll & Brother, 
in the issue of Marketimj for April, 1920, says: *'Usu- 
allv we find that No. 9 envelopes (nearly the size of the 
No. 10) will pull better than a No. 6 size. ^ I suppose this 
is because they stand out more in the mail.'^ 

He also adds some interesting data ; namely, that m a 
number of test mailings, letters mailed in regular ad- 
dressed envelopes in almost every case outpuUed those 
mailed out in outlook or window envelopes. 

154 In General Circularizing Not Usual to Disclose 
Your Purpose by Copy on the Outside.— In general cir- 
cularizing it is not usual to ''give away your hand by 
any elaborate copy or illustration on the outside of your 
mailing envelope or the outside fold of an auto-contained 
piece. At the convention referred to in Section l&J, 
another speaker told how he had been in a doctor s oftice 
that morning and had seen 21 one-cent mailing pieces 
arrive, only two pieces of which were opened by the doc- 
tor. One of those had on the outside this wording: 
''Modern Methods in Surgery." That was all; but it 
made a physical and mental impression upon the doctor. 
He wanted to know the latest modern methods, but woe 
to the inside material if it did not live up to its outside 
promise! The other piece was a house organ which boldly 
announced: "Keeping Up with the Profession," the title 
of a publication. Doubtless for the reason that the cap- 
tion told what was inside, the piece was saved. 

Fig. 42 E gives you no idea of what is inside the envelope, 
while Fig. 42 B boldly proclaims what is to be found 








within and uses the outside to keep the mailing list up to 


The reader should examine the outside of all the dif- 
ferent pieces illustrated in this work. From this observa- 
tion he will then understand why in mailing to a * 'cold" 
prospect— that is, one who has not inquired or in some 
other way expressed interest— the usual thing is not to 
show on the outside either word or picture that will tell 
the addressee exactly wha.t is inside. On the other hand, 
it is frequently the case that a familiar sentence or scene 
is used to whet the addressee's curiosity and encourage 
him to go to the inside for the sales message. 

155. How Neatly the Inside Fits into the Outside and 
How Harmoniously Both Match Are Important Points. 
—In planning a direct advertising campaign two things 
can mar it almost to the point of failure; both are small 
and each has to do with what we are terming "the out- 
^^ side.'' If your inclosure does not fit snugly into the en- 
velope, or wrapper, or if in the case of a folded up, auto- 
contained piece that folding is not done neatly, your pros- 
pect is going to get a very poor impression. 

This physical failure to fit is often due to the fact that 
a booklet is ordered some special size and no provision 
made for envelopes at all. The book is delivered; the 
publisher of the book then realizing that envelopes will 
be needed, and not wishing to delay the use of the book 
until special-sized envelopes can be made to fit, uses some 
ready-made standardized envelope of a size nearest to his 
booklet. Frequently in such cases the nearest fit is no fit 

at all. 

The other little thing that may grow big is the using of 
a cheap, thin stock of paper envelope for a fine-appearing 
booklet or catalogue. If you fail to keep your envelope 
(outside) harmonious as to style and texture as well as color 
with the inside, as if one were a real part of the other, you 
are missing out on a point that costs but little yet physically 
makes a big impression on the prospect. To be concrete, u 
you get a fine catalogue with a deep green cover stock, 




embossed in gold and colors, out of a cheap manila en- 
velope you have the impression of a man in a dress suit 
Jnterin- a drawing-room with muddy shoes on his feet ! 
A vcry'small investment in a pair of rubbers would have 
obviated the offending appearance. 

An example of close harmony is before us. The piece 
is a fine booklet, *' Closing the Stove Sale," with a cover 
picture showing the stove, a prospect (woman) and sales- 
man (presumably retailer). This same plate and design 
was adopted for printing the envelope, but minus the 
message- and since the envelope was made of the same 
stock of paper as the cover of the booklet, the harmony 
was perfect and those receiving the piece were consciously 
pleased with the physical appeal. o .^ n . ^ 

While in many large firms the envelopes of all hrst-class 
mail are slit by the office boy and opened by a correspon- 
dence clerk, the contents only reaching the desk of the 
person addressed, in the case of booklets, house organs and 
other pieces requiring envelopes, these go direct to the 
desk of the party addressed. These ''outside" appeals 
then relatively are more important than the outsides used 
on first-class mail matter. It is from the ''outside" or 
envelope that the recipient gets his first— and frequently 
lasting— impression, and if this outside is ragged, frayed, 
tattered, even torn, as it all too often is, a finely planned 
and executed piece is not so effective as it should be. 

156. Two Main Subdivisions of Envelopes (Out- 
sides).— Practically all envelopes (outsides) may be di- 
vided into two main subdivisions, according to Geo. F. 
Moss, an envelope specialist writing in Postage, August, ij/ J/-^ 
1916, page 86: "Dealer envelopes, being those sent out 
by manufacturers and wholesalers to dealers, and the 
other, we will call consumer envelopes, are sent out by 
any one direct to possible consumers." 

The dealer envelope may be made attractive in several 
ways. One may show the package, the article sold, the 
place of business, may visualize profits, the turn-over, and 
so on. Florence Manufacturing Company, makers of the 



Pro-phy-lac-tic toothbrush, use an envelope picturing their 
brush in the yellow box, in its regular container all m 
color This makes an instant point of contact with their 
dealers. Consumer envelopes may indicate greater adroit- 
ness; here is one sent out by a fruit farm, showing straw- 
berries in colors ! , * tt j a 

157. Sometimes Envelope Backs Are Used.— bome- 
times the back (or the face) is used for an all-over design 
and the other side made to comply with the governmental 
rules (see Section 379), thus increasing the advertising 
value of the envelopes outside. Fig. 42 C is a specimen of 
the back of an envelope so used. Occasionally the center 
of the flap is made to reproduce a trade-mark, thus help- 
ing to impress it indelibly upon the minds of all who re- 
ceFve it (see Fig. 42 D). ' . 

^ Since the recent ruling went into effect in regard to 
^ blank space on the front or mailing side of all envelopes 
^ and other pieces, as you will learn in Chapter XX, the 

advertising value of the outside has been materially re- 
duced. , , ^^ 
■ The serial idea of the follow-up has, upon several oc- 
casions, been helped through utilizing the outside of the 
envelope In one case the company's trade character, a 
messenger boy, was shown on the six different follow-up 
outsides in six different poses. The Chain Belt Company 
of Milwaukee, Wis., has utilized a similar idea with its 

"^""f 58 The 'outside of Regular Mail May Differ from 
that of Circular Mail.— George Washington Robnett, in 
the issue of Mailhag for May, 1920, said: ''The envelope 
has the 'first word' when the letter or message reaches 
the recipient's desk. It is the first thing he sees; is the 
first impression he gets. If it carries a real idea it is ai^ 
most certain to leave a lasting impression. It may be a 
decidedly important factor in making the sale, it thai 

should be the object of the message An envelope 

should be given the same thoughtful consideration thai 
any other part of the advertising and merchandising pro- 



^ram is given An envelope can be made as definite 

an advantage almost as a trade-mark Above all re- 
member that it is the first appeal; it is the outer garb of 
Lr message of progress and service. It sliould there- 
fore be distinctive enough to strengthen and build up a 
constant association with your house and product. It 
should be yours and yours alone. " 

This obviously has reference to the regular everyday 
correspondence envelope or dealer envelopes as described 
in Section 136. Gilbert P. Farrar, the typography expert, 
author of "Typographv of Advertisements That Pay, 
said in Printers^ Ink for May 22, 1913, that curiosity is 
often of prime importance in making the outside 1 a 
general circular. Mr. Farrar 's exact words are:. AH 
of the topnotch mail pieces that I have seen have the ele- 
ment of curiosity well developed on the outside of the 

^^''The Little Schoolmaster'' of the same publication in 
the issue of November 18, 1915, made this comment: 
"Why," asks an advertising agency man, "do so many 
advertisers— particularly publishers— print on the out- 
side of their circulars such a good hint of what the circu- 
lars are about that we can throw about half the stuff that 
comes along right into the waste-basket without bothering 

to open it?" 

There's something in this. Curiosity impels us to look 
into many things that we would not bother with if we 
knew what they were about ; and when curiosity impels an ^ 
examination, that examination may result in the develop- ,^ v 
ment of interest. The smart salesman does not usually ^ 
tell you offhand that he has come around to relieve you of 
some of your money. It isn't a good plan for printed 
salesmanship to give warning or put the prospect on the 


Let us hasten to add, though, that this curiosity is a 
two-edged sword and must be extremely well handled 
or it will work harm. "Smart" salesmen are not neces- 
sarily *'star" salesmen. Louis Victor Eytinge, formerly 

VI t 



editor of Postage, in the issue of Mailhag for May, 1917, 
sounded a worth-while warning on this point when he said, 
in part: *'If well done, this is resultful — if poorly 
phrased, poorly executed, it is extremely harmful. Take 
your choice, for even in the book field there is a wide 
divergence. A. W. Shaw Company rarely uses a bait on 
the envelope, while McKinlay, Stone & MacKenzie and 
the Review of Reviews people, both remarkable book ven- 
dors, invariably add the extra bait on their envelopes. 
Too often the additional printing on the envelope says, in 
effect, 'This is merely a circular which is not important 
enough to travel alone and needs this extra bait. 

f )7 


159. In General the Same Principles Apply. — In gen- 
eral, the same principles apply to the appeal of the outside 
of a booklet, catalogue, folder, or other direct advertising 
piece, as has been laid down in Sections 146 to 158 inclu- 
sive. There is one main exception, the Postal Department 
of the United States Government frowns upon and fre- 
quently has banned die-cut mailing pieces unless they are 
inclosed in an envelope that follows standard proportions. 
Fig. 43 illustrates what are known as die-cut booklets, 
menus, etc., and if any of these were intended for distri- 
bution through the mails it would be necessary to inclose 
them in a rectangular envelope. The "For the Chil- 
dren'' booklet is a children's shoe catalogue. 

Where they can be used, this physical form, as will be 
covered in Chapter XI, is decidedly effective. 

160. Planning Striking Physical Outsides for Book- 
lets, Catalogues, etc. — As we conceive it, the well-planned 
outside of a booklet, or catalogue, or other piece is sim- 
ilar to the outside of an envelope ; its main function is to 
arrest the eye, and if possible to help in ''getting over" 
an idea without nullifying the interest of the prospect to 
look within. 

Edgar W. Jordan in Postage, May, 1917, gave an excel- 

Fig. 43. — The use of a peculiar form of die-cut cover to aid the 
appeal of the outside is shown here. The booklet "For the Chil- 
dren" is a catalowue of children's shoes. Note how the picture 
of the kiddies shows through the die-cut shoe. 





on Ih'" 


C "1*^ 

Ki.r. 44. A. The liuniorous appt-al on the outside. See also 

Fi" ^SO. ^^. An old, familiar form of direct advertising. The 
additi<m of the strin^r adds utility. C. An example of a simpl''. 
l)hotograi)hic "Itieed-olf" cover for a booklet. See text for detaii> 
of all these illustrations. 

lent rule in regard to the designing of covers (outsides) : 
"Combine with the massed light and shade or color some 
typical or specific element." An examination of covers 
shown on Figs. 15 and 16 will show examples of this mass- 

F C Drew, a specialist in making folders, in the issue 

of Postage for June, 1918, goes into detail as to designing 

the cover for the mailing folder. He contends that the 

outside of the folder is akin to the first paragraph of a 

letter, and every one knows that a letter with a weak first 

paragraph is not going to be effective. 

Here are Mr. Drew's rules for making the most of your 

folder outside : . , j. n 

"First you take the product around which the folaer 
is to be^BHItTTlTenTOTi^fite dbwnl)n"a pr^^^^^ of paper 
£11 the~reis5ns why one should buy that product or be in- 
terested in it— all the advantages which ownership and 
use will confer. Then you write captions around these 
reasonsr— write headlines which will epitomize those ad- 
vantages with maximum force and originality of expres- 
sion. Then you choose the most powerful headline and 
illustrate it— put it into the most original and at the same 
time the most pleasing dress you and friend artist can 
devise. And then you will have a cover of the 'positive' 
or 'directly suggestive' type. 

''Sometimes, however, covers of this type are either 
impossible or impracticable or, perhaps, undesirable. 
The positive advantages of your product may not lend 
themselves to strong captions or to forceful illustrations. 
Then you employ a cover of the 'Negative' or 'Indirectly 
Suggestive' type— your caption and illustration suggest 
and visualize the avoidance or over comingjof a disadvan- 

Mr. Drew, it should be noted, also goes on record against 
making a blanket rul? as to whether or not the goods ad- 
vertised should be referred to on the cover. 

i6i. Adding Service to Make Physical Appeal 
Stronger.— A little thing physically, yet possessing a 


strong appeal, is the addition of a string in the corner of 
a booklet for hanging it up. Especially does this appeal 
to farmers and others who do not use a filing system. 

The almanac of the medicine company shown on Fig. 
44 B has a string, and the one of the fertilizer company 
has a hole punched for such a string. Of the two the 
former is much the better since few people will bother to 
put in a string for themselves. 

162. Board Covers as a Physical Appeal.— Binding a 
book or catalogue in board covers, especially in the stiff 
board of a regular book, makes it ** mighty" hard for the 
average man to throw it away. Of course such a binding 
is expensive, but when the book is of a character which 
should bear a long life, it is economy and insures that 
it be kept. A flour company produced a catalogue bound 
in leather which cost $4.50 a copy; Appersons got out 
portfolios costing nearly double that. Both of these con- 
cerns say that the cost paid them. 

163. Selecting the Outside.— A mail-order man, in the 
issue of Printers' Ink for October 24, 1918, told how he 
chose a catalogue (outside) design. Briefly, his plan is 
to have his artists furnish him with from twelve to fifteen 
cover sketches. These are sifted down by the manager 
to about six. These are then pinned up in a row, about 
eye-height, over the manager's desk. Every one coming 
near is asked to pass comment on the covers. A record 
of first chorees is kept. Then the manager gives the cov- 
ers what he calls a ** living-room table test." The two 
most promising are mounted on dummy catalogues and 
taken to the manager's home and scattered on the table 
among magazines, competitors' catalogues, and so on. At 
the end of two or three weeks the manager has been able 
to decide definitely which of the two designs stands 
out most effectively in this test. 

But whatever ** outside" is chosen for any piece, if a 
container*' 'outside," such as an envelope, is needed, be sure 
,0 order it when you order the piece itself and save vexatious 
delays later (see Fig. 66). 



164. Mailing Stickers on the Outside a Form of Direct 
Advertising. — Fig. 45 illustrates a number of mailing 
stickers used on packages, bundles, frequently on outsides 
of envelopes and wrappers, in mailing various pieces of 
direct advertising. Until recently little attention was paid 
to mailing stickers; oftentimes plain gummed paper was 
used. Now many firms have special designs which stand 
out in the mails to reinforce the tie-up with the rest of their 

For the best possible physical appeal the mailing sticker 
should receive careful consideration and be tied up with 
the rest of your direct-advertising campaign. The points 
to be brought out are : legibility of address, attractive de- 
sign, and advertising value. 

Fig. 45.— Compare these mailing stickers used in mailing large 
books, catalogues, etc., with some of those shown in other illustra- 
tions in this book. The prospect gets his or her first impression 
from the physical appearance of the outside, including the mailing 
sticker. See also Fig. 87 for reproduction of other mailing stickers. 

165. Utilizing the Inside of the Outside. — In closing 
this chapter, which has had to be a ** trail-blazer" in many 
ways, since all too few companies or individuals have given 
any care and study to envelopes and mailing containers, 
let us point out that at least one firm made even the inside 
of **the outside" pay its way. Sears Roebuck & Com- 
pany in sending out a 1600-page catalogue print on the 
outside of the wrapper, in addition to the address and the 




return notice to the postmaster, an announcement to look 
upon a certain page for a special offer. It bears a further 
announcement: *'How to Open." We read: ''First 
cut wrapper along heavy line below. Then unwind until 
you reach edge pasted to cover of catalogue and tear off 
wrapper carefully along perforated line." 

Following these directions we find on the inside of the 
wrapper, printed in two colors, what looks almost like a 
full newspaper page advertisement of men's clothing, with 
part of the space given over to an offer of a free sample 
book of men's clothing, and bearing a coupon like a regu- 
lar publication advertisement. 

Commenting on this. Printers' Ink said: ''Talk about 
using all of the pig but the squeal ! But be that as it may, 
there may be a hint or two here for manufacturers who 
do not happen to be in the mail-order business." To 
which we append, Why restrict it to manufacturers; why 
should not all use the inside of the outside ? 

See also Section 78, page 95. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Is the planning of the outside given as much attention as it 
should be? Why not? 

2. Is an advertising appeal necessary to produce a successful 

outside ? 

3. Give the connection, if any, between outside planning and 

follow-up work. . 

4. Suggest an improvement of the outside of a regular envelope 
used by some firm you are familiar with ; also one of the firm's cir- 
cular-letter envelopes. 

5. When should envelopes which are to inclose a catalogue be 

ordered? ., 

6. In your own words tell how to make the most of the outside 

of a mailing folder. 

7. Can you suggest ways of utilizing the inside of the outside 

for some firm? 




One of the first things that a man has to learn in business is 
how little he can do hij himself. When he finds that out he begins 
to look around for people to do what he can't. — Henry Ford. 

i66. The Growth of an Average Business. — There are 
recognized by authorities five logical steps in the growth 
of every average business, though one of the steps (the 
fourth) is not necessary in a strictly mail-order business. 
These steps are; 

1. You personally sell something to your customer. 

2. You go to him through your personal representative. 

3. You g:o to him through the mails, by adding an insert in 

your package, or otherwise by reaching him direct. 

4. You go to him through an agent or dealer who is not your 

own direct representative. 

5. You go to your customer in the mass, by means of general 

publicity, so that an increasing number of persons may 
be developed to the point where you can deal effectively 
with them in one or more of the first four methods. 

Fig. 46 will make this clear to the reader. 

The broom maker who quits working for a manufac- 
turer, and buys a bale of broom corn, a machine, and starts 
to make his own brooms which, when made, he puts on 
his back and peddles to his neighbors and, having sold 
them, decides to sell also to the nearby groceries and gen- 
eral stores, has taken the first step in building a business, 
and has followed this next by taking step four. If he 
makes good brooms and the vacuum cleaners and like de- 
vices have not by that time driven him out of business, this 
broom maker eventually gets more orders than he can 
properly handle and sell; therefore, knowing the manu- 


I- You do it all yourself 

n-Yoo hire 5ome one to hejp you 


ni^ You begin to use the Moils 

BT- You secure wider dislribulion. You Delete some 
of your authority, you become adirect meifadyertiser 

y- You add General Publicily.buNo not sacrifice the personal 
and direct-mail work which isnoweven more necessar/lhanever 

Fig. 4G.-Thi8 chart shows the logical steps ^^ ^^^f^^'^^^J^^r 
unchangeT Courtesy of American Multigraph Sales Co. 



facturing end himself, he hires some one to do the selling 
and takes the step designated by us as step two. This 
personal representative, known as salesman, probably finds 
he can work several towns and cities and eventually he 
and the manufacturer find it desirable to use the mails to 
keep in touch with their customers — the stores. They 
may also decide to add to their regular line of house 
brooms a whisk-broom for clothes; and to advertise this 
they may write letters to their old customers, and, in or- 
der to reach the users of the house brooms, put a package 
insert around the handle of each one to be sold. They 
have taken both parts of step three. 

Since brooms are generally manufactured locally and 
not distributed nationally, there is little likelihood of any 
broom manufacturer's ever taking step five, though an 
association of several broom manufacturers is, as this is 
written (September, 1920), planning to start, in the fall 
of 1920, a campaign of cooperative publicity for the 

This instance is given to show that while every business, 
excepting mail-order, takes the five steps now and then, 
they are not taken strictly in that order. 

167. Question of Preparation of Direct Advertising 
Arises Early. — In the case of our young broom maker 
the question will arise in a very short time: Who is to 
prepare the direct advertising for the broom? The broom 
maker may be illiterate and from the first may need to 
employ some one to prepare the letters, circulars, package 
inserts, or other direct advertising which he uses. In the 
hypothetical case before us such work of preparation would 
probably be added to the salesman's duties, and that man, 
assuming he were an efficient salesman, would probably 
be a poor writer of direct advertising because he would 
write as if he were talking — in salesman's language — and 
frequently his written arguments would fail because 
they would not have the magnetic personality of the sales- 
man to help "put them over" in the- mind of the pros- 


Or if the broom maker can read and write, he probably 
will prepare his own direct advertising, but sooner or 
later, as his business grows, the problem so succinctly out- 
lined by Henry Ford in the chapter head comes up for 
decision. The broom maker will have to look around and 
find some one who can help him to prepare his direct ad- 
vertisements. J T^ . ^ r?:^^*. polic- 
ies. Letter-Shop Concerns and Printers First Busi- 
ness Counsel for Small Direct Advertisers.-Quite like y 
the broom man will get out a circular (form) letter early 
in his modest campaign, or a circular in printed form 
(dodger or handbill) ; if he gets out the form he will 
have to take it to a letter shop, by which designation is 
known the firm engaged in running machines for dupli- 
cating imitation typewritten letters. If the printed form 
is u^d, for his letterheads in any event, the printer is 
called upon and becomes the first business counsel o 
the embryonic manufacturer. Since in the l^JPotJe ^^^ 
case we are considering, as we see in Section 166 theie is 
little likelihood of general publicity, there is, therefore, 
little likelihood of our manufacturer being able to requi- 
sition the services of an advertising agent, for advertising 
agents primarily are interested in the sale of space m pub- 
lications, receiving as they do from the publications a fixed 
percentage of the value of the space sold to advertisers 
It is quite true that modern agencies are more inclined 
to work on a -service fee" basis, sometimes rebating to 
the advertiser their commissions, by a credit against the 
service fee agreed upon, but the amount of advertising 
that our small manufacturer will ever do would hardly 
be sufficient to attract the attention or justify employing 
an advertising agent on a service fee basis. 

Quite naturally, therefore, as the volume of direct ad- 
vertising increases in any business we find it is prepared 
by and with the help of those sources from which it ob- 
tained its start rather than by the publication-paid agen- 
cies By this is not meant that there are not advertising 
a-encies which have direct advertising departments and 


which help their clients to prepare it, but they are the ex- 
ception and not the rule. 

169. Why Letter Shops and Printers Can Advise. — 
Letter shops are duplicating, writing and helping to write 
letters for several firms, just as printers are doing work 
for many firms, and so they are kept in touch with the 
ideas of several, and quite often they are advised of the 
ideas which succeed as well as those which fail. For in- 
stance, a letter they write for the local church fails to get 
any replies; the pastor probably will advise them of that 
fact, or the letter shop writes a letter for the Local Union 
No. Umpty-steen, and to quote the secretary: *'It was 
rotten, didn't get nary an answer." Crude, but all of 
this informs the letter shops which letters get replies and 
which do not. They also learn how their clients succeed 
and indirectly assume, quite rightly, that it is in part due 
to their advertising. 

Of course modern printers — both large and small — fre- 
quently have special service men and service departments 
to work out and turn over to the printing-manufactur- 
ing end of the business problems submitted to the sales 
end by possible customers. We shall come to this angle 
in a later section. 

Born of the ages-old idea of cooperation, of '^ swapping" 
ideas and adapting them, comes the first step in the secur- 
ing of outside aid for the preparation of direct advertis- 
ing. Even the largest appropriations are for liberal use 
of the services of letter shops, printers, and other repro- 
duction agencies, as we shall also see in succeeding sec- 
tions of this chapter. 

170. No Matter Who Prepares, the Personal Angle 
Must Be Maintained to Be Effective. — Leaving for the 
moment the physical entity who is to prepare our direct 
advertising, it must be driven home here that the effective' 
direct advertisement is the one that most nearly ap- 
proaches a 100 per cent personal letter from the writer to 
the addressee, and therefore whoever is chosen to assume the 
I'esponsibility of the preparation of direct advertising 


should be chosen with care. If one letter shop quotes you 
a price of 25 cents less per thousand copies in order to 
get your work, and another has been writing all your let- 
ters for you in the past, you will probably find the 25 cents 
an ill-advised saving. In short, the counselor should be 
chosen on the basis of service and not price. I know of a 
case where one letter shop tried to get business from an- 
other by quoting upon and furnishing much inferior me- 
chanical reproduction, because the customer did not know 
the difference between two different methods of reproduc- 
tion, both of the names of which ended in ^' graph." 

In many cities and towns there are what are known as 
*' free-lance " advertising men, men who have no mechani- 
cal equipment of any kind, being neither letter-shop own- 
ers nor printer^. Local advertisers engage them either on 
a piece-work basis or by the day or hour, to advise them in 
the preparation of their direct advertising. Where one of 
these persons is located in your city or town for a long 
time and enjoys a good reputation, it is likely you will find 
that his services are desirable, but where he is here to-day, 
gone to-morrow (because of the principle laid down in the 
first paragraph of this section) you had better choose some 
one who is there to stay. 

A joke is going the rounds which illustrates so well the 
point we wish to emphasize that we repeat it here: the 
preparation of direct advertising is ever so much more of 
a PERSONAL matter than the preparation of a page of pub- 
licity for a magazine having a circulation of a million or 
more per month or week. 

A form letter was to be prepared for a large educa- 
tional institution. The advertising manager wrote one, 
and the sales manager another. One gentleman was a 
slow, easy-going talker, the other a '' snappy" individual. 
Neither liked the production of the other, and since the 
letter was to be signed by the president of the institution 
they finally decided to compromise by combining para- 
graphs from each of their efforts. • 

The different paragraphs were accordingly typed ott 



and the joint letter was personally submitted to the presi- 
dent by the advertising manager. The president looked 
it over and said : * * Who wrote this letter ? ' ' 

Wishing to be truthful the advertising manager, know- 
ing that he had written the first paragraphs and the sales 
manager the last paragraphs, replied: 

''Well, sir, it is a sort of a joint production." 

''Yes, I see," snorted the president, pointing a pudgy 
finger between two of the paragraphs, "and there's the 

While no form of advertising, as a rule, can be effective 
when a "joint production," this is even more true of direct 
advertising. This is not saying that the services of more 
than one man cannot be called into play, but one man who 
is familiar with all the facts, conditions, and purposes must 
be responsible for the completed piece or "the joint" 
will show. 

171. Preparing Direct Advertising in the Larger Busi- 
nesses. — So far we have restricted our remarks to small 
businesses, which of course in the aggregate use a large 
amount of direct advertising, but the larger volumes of di- 
rect advertising come from the larger businesses. Now let 
us see how some of them handle the preparation of direct 
advertising. Reverting to our broom maker, his business 
might have grown to the extent that he finds it expedient 
to appoint a man to handle correspondence and look after 
direct advertising. In time there would be needed a clerk 
for that man, and from such nucleus a separate "advertis- 
ing department" might logically grow. 

This particular broom maker might see "the hand- 
writing on the wall" — the passing of the old-time broom — 
and we might, without straining our imaginations, picture 
him as bringing out a new dustless, oilless mop of some 
kind, thus taking step five, as set forth in Section 166, 
and using general publicity. 

In the latter case the general publicity would undoubt- 
edly be prepared by a recognized advertising agency (that 
IS, recognized as an organized service-agency by the pub- 


lishers and therefore entitled to the agency discount- 
some publications are much more liberal with their ** rec- 
ognition" than others), but the direct advertising in all 
probability would still be prepared in the manufacturer's 


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Fig. 47. — An interesting organization chart which shows the im- 
portance of the various angles of sales promotion, direct advertising, 
and duplicating work in the average concern. 

own advertising department, for effective direct advertis- 
ing is, let us recall again, as personal as possible. It 
should be synchronized with the publicity work, of course, 
and would probably be the work of the manufacturer's 
own *'on-the-pay-roir' employees as contradistinguished 
from that of the publication representative paid on a per- 
centage basis. 

Fig. 47, reproduced through the courtesy of the Sales 
Manager Monthly, shows complete organization of one of 
the comparatively smaller motor-car manufacturers. 

Fig. 48 illustrates a plan of organization worked out 
by one of the large New York advertising agents for one 
of its clients. 


It naturally follows that as the business grows the dele- 
gation of authority must go further and further. Com- 
paring Figs. 47 and 48 you will find that it is a further 
step from the general sales manager to the mailing list in 
Fig. 47 than it is in Fig. 48. Take the Detroit Stove 
Works, for example ; under their advertising manager are 
five separate divisions of the work of preparing direct 
advertising. One person has charge of gas appliance cat- 
alogues, trade promotion and follow-ups; another of coal 

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Fig. 48. — ^llow one large New York advertising agent charted the 
organization of one of its clients. This is especially interesting 
because it shows the importance placed on direct advertising. 

and wood stoves ; a third of furnaces ; a fourth of electric 
appliances, and a fifth of hotel appliances. Each of these 
divisions reouires specialists, of course. ' In explaining 
this organization to Printers^ Ink (January 27, 1916) the 
advertising manager said in part: *'A11 departments (the 
five referred to in the preceding sentence) work in accord 
with a general plan submitted by the advertising depart- 
ment, and literature and catalogues are largely in keeping 
with the money appropriated for the respective lines. 


The printing and art work are done under the direction of 
the advertising department.'* 

This man then goes on to explain a policy frequently fol- 
lowed in both large and small concerns, namely, that of 
securing the aid of outside specialists to do some part of 
the mechanical as well as mental work; he says: ''For- 
merly we maintained an advertising mailing department, 
but due to the seasonal nature of the different lines of 
manufacture we have found we can secure service of this 
kind from a concern in our city that makes a specialty of 
this work at about the same expense and with less bother 
and trouble than when we looked after the work our- 
selves. ' ' 

What he has to add about the relationship with their 
agency may be taken as almost typical: "Our point of con- 
tact with the advertising agency is simply the writing of 
copy and the placing of business entailed in such general 
publicity advertising as we do. All trade promotion (di- 
rect-advertising copy and plans, etc.,) are prepared by 
the company." 

In the same article an organization is referred to which 
prepares the simplest form of advertising, and even 
though the advertising is for an internationally known 
companj^ still it is exceedingly simple. The company is 
the Cream of Wheat Company, and the ''department" is 
one man, of whom it is said: "While he (the advertising 
manager-department) pleads not guilty to the painting of 
the pictures which the company uses, he does everythmg 
else, and it doesn't take very much time at that." This 
firm relies largely on colored pictures in general magazines 
and uses practically no direct advertising, for every one 
from the tiny .toddler to the aged hobbler is a prospect. 
All of this accounts for this simple form of department, 
which has no inquiries to answer; which has almost per- 
fect distribution (only a single product, or brand), and 
no necessity for booklet, house organ, or letters of any kind. 

So we arrive at another principle; both as the business 
grows and as the problem of distribution grows, perforce 

the '' department" handling the direct advertising must 

^^1^2 Training the One Who Is to Prepare Direct Ad- 
vertising.— Inquiries may be handled by carefully trained 
stenographers, but if they come in large volume sooner or 
later expert counsel will be necessary to answer special ques- 
tions related to any problem involving educational work. 
Thus many firms face the situation by training the person 
or persons who are to prepare direct advertising. 

One of the best statements as to what a direct-advertising 
writer should be was, strange to say, uttered by a country 
newspaper publisher, or, strictly speaking, religious weekly 
paper publisher-J. F. Jacobs, senior member of Jacobs & 
Company, Clinton, South Carolina, when upon one occasion 

he said: ^ j- ^4. 

"It is very desirable that the person who prepares direct 
advertising on a given proposition should have had ample 
experimental experience of the value of the article which he 
is trying to sell. He should, if practicable, have been a 
user of the article, and thereby fully aware m an experi- 
mental way of all of its good qualities. He should also be 
able to put himself in the position of a consumer of the 
article, to see the likely objections which might be raised 
through its purchase, and the possible misuses to which it 
might be put, bringing the article into disrepute, so that m 
his attack he may have always in mind what the average 
consumer would have in mind when the matter is first 
brought to his attention, plus what the average consumer 
might have in mind after having used the article. The en- 
thusiasm which is also necessary in a salesman is all the 
more necessary in the printed selling effort." 

"Practice makes perfect," of course, and practice m the 
art of using direct advertising may be acquired in two 
general ways: (1) Experience, and (2) Study of the ex- 
periences of others as recorded in trade journals, business 
magazines, advertising publications, and books similar to 
the one you are now reading. 
Reference to Section 504 where there appears a biblio^- 


raphy, will give you the names of several works and publi- 
cations which should be studied by those training to prepare 
direct advertising. See also Section 245. 

173. Unusual Angles of Preparation.— There are un- 
usual angles in the preparation of certain direct-advertising 
matter. One lies in making use of a famous author or per- 
sonage in connection with some book or other piece. For 
example, a manufacturer of rubber goods found that people 
simply would not inquire for data about garden hose, but 
they would write for data relating to the canning of fruit. 
To the latter inquirers he sold his jar rubbers, but to get 
inquiries for hose he engaged Ellis Parker Butler, the 
famous humorist, author of ''Pigs is Pigs," to write for him 
a booklet entitled : ' ' Millingham 's Cat-Fooler. ' ' It proved 
very effective. Prospects were interested in Butler who were 
not interested (they thought) in garden hose. See Fig. 18. 
Another peculiar angle is the occasional piece of direct 
advertising prepared for some cooperative organization 
which is composed of several individual units, many of 
which probably have their own separate advertising depart- 
ments. Note that in the case of the several cooperative or- 
ganizations of California the advertising, much of which 
is direct, is prepared by a department which is as self- 
contained as if the organization were that of individuals in 
a firm rather than of sometimes as many as seven thousand 
separate firms combined. 

A cooperatively published book, "As a Man Liveth,'' put 
out by the Associated Metal Lath Manufacturers, is a case 
in point. Those desiring complete details are referred to 
page 210 of Mailhacj for December, 1918. Sufficient for 
our purposes here, however, is the comment of the secre- 
tary-manager, Zenas W. Carter, who said: "The publica- 
tion of this book jointly enabled us to get out an unusually 
high-class piece of advertising at a considerable saving over 
the cost which would have accrued had each member-com- 
pany handled the subject independently by the publication 
of individual advertising booklets. As the situation with 
reference to housing in the United States was so acute, it 


was absolutely necessary that the subject be presented in 

''coopTrltrve^'educational advertising in publications is 
a mowing practice, but as yet very little has been accom- 
iifhed in preparing cooperatively direct advertising along 
ihe lines of the metal-lath book just referred to. It would 
eem that there is a big field for this form m the future ; 
a town wants to meet mail-order competition, then why not 
a cooperative book, or other piece of direct advertising? 
It could be entirely a local work ; local printers letter shops, 
and free-lance specialists might be engaged and be paid tor 

iointly on an equitable basis. ^ ^. . -n^ 

174 Points on Organizing a Direct-advertising De- 
nartment.— While earlier sections have, by inference at 
least, covered the organization of advertising departments 
in general, and while in most cases direct advertising is not 
a part of the work of an advertising department sufficiently 
large to justify a separate division or department, there are 
some additional points which should be covered. ^^ 

-Mail Sales," "Sales Promotion," "Trade Promotion 
and many other terms have been invented to describe the 
Direct-advertising division or department. 

Referring again to Fig. 47 we find that the Sales Pro- 
motion Department handles the mailing lists and does the 
cooperative sales work. At the International Correspond- 
ence Schools, we understand, the function of the Advertis- 
ing Department is to produce the inquiry, and the function 
of the Mail Sales Department is to turn the inquiry into 
an order. In carrying out the latter, we also learn, the 
Mail Sales Department prepares the advertising booklet 
used as a means of closing the sale. . . ^ ^x. 

Fig 49 illustrates a complete organization chart ot tne 
Sales Promotion Department of a large paper manufacturer 
which, naturally, is largely concerned with direct advertis- 
ing because the company sells the raw product of direct 

advertising. , 

Briefly let us trace the organization of that department s 
personnel. First came the manager. He had a stenogra- 



£. £. &*ougb 

A. W. Spauldins 

Z. M. King 

IMnot by mail follow up 
material for newspaper 

1. Printers' adrettiieiDents 
S. Paper Mercbanta' *' 
8. Proofs uf newspaper 

4. BroMlsldes 

ft. " Amerkian Writing's 

& Eoolofurea 
7. Circular LeHen 

Follow up material for 
Trade Paper Campaigns. 

1. Portfolio of adTertisa* 

Sample Books 

5. SmaU 
FUs Folders 
Envelope Eoolosurss 
N&tifloation to btanehes of 

agency changes 
Stock Cards 

SpeoUd material 
House Organs 



HRS. Y. M. D0BB8 




C. K. Vaatnin 
Wm. Robins 

E. LeiterHs 


Ordering of 8(ook 

" Engrarlng 
" •• Electrotypes 
" •' Printing 

Prodnotlon of special 

ProduoUoo follow up 



W. £. SoUiiran 

B. J. May 

J. P. Counter 

PUllp fiousen 
£. J. SulUvaa 
John RslUy 
Catherine O'CaoDW 
Alioe Hunter 

Distribution of: 
Follow up material 

Sample Books 
FUe Folders 
Enrelope Enoloturtt 
Special RcpoHs 

" PubUoatioDS 
House Organs 
Circular Letters 
"Eagle A" Tapa 


Malllrg Lisa 

Helen Pbennar 
Ulllan Whitemora 


Aiper Merohaats 
•« «• 

Company Persoonsl 
••Eagle A" Unity 


Preparation of newspaper adTertlstng 
Production of newspaper adTertisemcnts 
Placing and checking of newspaper adTertisemanti 
Preparation, production, placing and obsoUog 

of Trade Paper adTcrtlsIng 
Oaaeral consulting serrloa 




Albert HIgbtca 

U. Brodsrick 

•'Eagia A" Unity" 
"Business Bulletin' 
Special Reporte 
Special Articles 

Fig. 49.— The department represented by this organization chart 
has been steadily built up from a nucleus of one man and a sten- 
ographer to its present size. See text for details. 



pher-secretary. Then a girl was added to take care of the 
mailing lists. Next, a young man was brought in to look 
after the orders placed with printers and other related 
matters. Later, came an assistant to the manager. After 
that another individual was engaged to edit two of the 
company's house organs — one to employees, the other to 
department heads. Then followed another man to edit a 
house organ to paper merchants and printers. By this 
time the sending of material to consumers direct and to 
distributors for redistribution had assumed such propor- 
tions, sometimes running to hundreds of thousands of pieces 
a week, that a person was added whose duty was simply to 
direct the distribution. From this point on, each indi- 
vidual added helpers as needed until the entire organiza- 
tion was such as you see in Fig. 49. This chart ** breaks 
down" the department into separate functions also. The 
general publicity and trade-paper copy is largely handled 
by the advertising agency as indicated. 

Coming back to the point that is fundamental in all 
direct advertising, personal appeals are the most effective, 
and many of the leading firms who appreciate direct adver- 
tising and are large users of it, such as Burroughs Adding 
Machine Company, Sherwin-Williams Company, and, more 
recently, the American Multigraph Sales Company, have 
districted the country and appointed divisional or branch 
advertising managers, thus keeping in close personal touch 
with the "Western Coast by a divisional advertising manager 
located in San Francisco, and with the South by one in At- 
lanta, and so on. These divisional managers prepare the 
direct advertising pieces for their locality and all is printed, 
published, and distributed through the main or general 
home-office department. 

174. A. Functions of the Sales-promotion-by-mail 
Department. — Marketing, for July 15, 1920, publishes a 
thorough analysis of the functions of the sales-promotion- 
by-mail or direct-advertising department, from the pen of 
William A. Hersey, Manager of the Mail Sales Department 
of Robert H. Ingersoll & Brother, New York, as follows : 




1. Writing to dealers iij advance of salesmen's calls. 

a. General letters or cards to dealers. To have dealers 

expect salesmen. 

b. On special bargains salesmen may have to offer, or an- 

nouncements of new lines. 

c. Special letters to dealers who will have "kicks" to make 

to the salesmen, or to overcome special objections 
which are known in advance. 

d. To prospects who have never handled your lines. To 

give them a general knowledge why they should 
handle — to save salesmen's time. 

2. Following up salesmen's calls. 

a. To write to dealers who were away or busy when the 
salesman called. These letters, or circulars, should 
be planned to do the work that the salesman would 
have done had he been able to see the dealer. 

h. To write to dealers who complained about the goods or 
service. Salesmen should report all of the vital cases. 

c. To write dealers who did not buy all the lines they 

should handle. At times a salesman is unable to sell 
certain lines, or if for any other reason he does not 
sell them. 

d. Write to dealers who should have ordered more of 

certain lines than they did order from salesmen. 

e. Letters of welcome to new dealers, giving them ideas on 

how to sell, how to display, etc. 

3. To keep in touch with dealers between salesmen's calls. 
It is not always possible for the salesmen to call upon all 
dealers as often as they should, or, on the other hand, if 
they were to call too frequently, the volume of business 
procured would not justify the expense incurred. There- 
fore, it is advisable to keep in touch with the dealer be- 
tween salesmen's calls with letters covering such instances 
as the following: 

a. Keep up dealer's interest in line; offer sales sugges- 

tions, etc. 

b. To keep the dealer stocked. 

c. Special letters on lines which he is likely to be out of. 

d. Supply dealer with order blanks, return envelopes, etc., 

to make it easy for him to order general stock by 

4. Towns the salesman cannot cover. 


a. Blanket mailings to the thousands of small towns the 
salesmen do not cover. These mailings should be 
planned to secure direct returns, the same as if a 
salesman were to call on these dealers. 

h. To open new accounts in small towns the salesman does 
not reach. 

c. Special letters to dealers in towns that a salesman 
misses on his trip, but had expected to visit. 

5. Selling special classes of dealers which salesmen cannot 

call on. 
In almost every line of business there are certain lines 
which are handled to some extent by trades other than 
those the salesman calls on, but the volume of business 
on these special lines is so small that it does not warrant 
having the salesman call, in order that these special lines 
may be sold to special classes of trade. 

6. Pushing lines on which salesmen fall short. 

Quite frequently salesmen do not come up to budget on 
certain lines. Campaigns can be planned to sell lines 
on which they fall short. 

7. To assist salesmen generally. 

There are times when a salesman finds it difficult to sell 
certain lines, or to meet certain objections which are found 
difficult to overcome. To overcome either of these con- 
ditions campaigns can be planned to back up the sales- 
men's efforts. 

This very thorough analysis covers only the following up 
of salesmen. To get the angle of direct advertising de- 
partments where the goods are sold through dealers and 
where direct advertising is done through those dealers, com- 
pare with Figs. 47 to 49 inclusive. In many instances the 
manufacturer in his own advertising department cares for 
the entire mailing of a continuous and regular campaign 
on behalf of dealers. Naturally the functions of every de- 
partment differ at least slightly from every other depart- 
ment even in the same line or industry, but these typical 
eases will be helpful in planning a separate department or 
a division within a department. 

174B. The Place of the "Free-lance" Writer in Pre- 
paring Direct Advertising. — There is scarcely a city of 


any size in the country that does not have among its men or 
women what are known as *' free-lance " writers. These 
people have felt the ''cosmic urge" to write, and frequently 
they produce excellent copy for direct advertising, house 
organs, etc., for local advertisers. 

Their training lies, of course, usually along general or 
specific lines of literary work ; their ability, however, may 
be used in good stead because their experience invariably 
fits them to write ' ' copy " of a kind which is forceful enough 
to make the reader come to a certain decision by means of 
the words before him or her. In some instances such 
writers have had merchandising experience; quite often 
their vocation is fixed with an advertising agency, or other 
firm of that nature, while the writing of short stories, special 
articles, and the like, is simply their avocation. A glance 
through the leading magazines will discover the names of a 
half dozen or more prominent advertising writers who 
are following the calling of ''free-lance" writing. 

Quite often, too, free-lance writers may be advertismg 
men, editors, and other experienced "scribes" who have 
given up their regular job and though practically devotmg 
their whole time to some literary occupation yet are willmg 
to "keep their hand in" the writing of advertising matter 
by producing advertising copy to order. 

The author knows of one well-versed advertising man who 
has located himself in one of our eastern states, bought a 
home, and settled down to a regular occupation of writing 
business articles. One of the leading producers of direct 
advertising in that section upon hearing of it immediately 
got in touch with him and induced this experienced adver- 
tising writer to prepare and supervise orders for future 
booklets, folders, and the like. In this way, the advertising 
expert is assured of a certain income per week through tni. 
connection, and for a small retainer's fee the advertising 
producer is assured of having a copywriter ready and on 
call at all times. Should the producer require more than 
the stipulated amount of the writer's time during any one 
week, additional recompense is provided. 


Other instances might be cited. There are retail stores 
generally which could well afford to use the services of local 
writers say, for one day or two days a week, when they 
Pould not afford to engage such persons for an entire week. 
Suffirestively, this offers a field for more or less intensive 
cultivation on the part of authors and writers, as well as 
those attempting to join their ranks. 

In this connection see Section 245. 


175 In earlier sections we have brought out the fact 
that there are outside agencies and departments of business 
which may be called upon to function with us or our de- 
partment in preparing and distributing direct advertising. 
In the sections which are to follow we shall take up briefly 
how to use most effectively the services at hand. 

176 Value of Outside Viewpoint.— It is ever so much 
easier for an "outsider" to maintain the outside viewpoint 
-which usually closely approximates the users' viewpoint 
-than for an "insider," that is some one in the company 
or firm's own organization, to maintain this viewpoint. 
Instances without number could be cited to show that the 
outside viewpoint is valuable. The outside viewpoint, 
especially when it is specialized on some angle of the propo- 
sition, is\ery valuable. Some "outsider" may have made 
a life-time study of color in direct advertising, and without 
knowing anything about some particular business have a 
viewpoint which would be worth far more than the view- 
point of an "insider" associated with that particular busi- 
ness or industry for many years. 

177. Using the Direct-advertising Specialist.— There 
are comparatively few specialists in direct advertising; 
that is, men who confine their labors exclusively to direct 
advertising. It is therefore not so much to be wondered 
at that one firm specializing entirely on direct advertising 


stands to-day in the lead throughout the country. There 
are however, many firms which are largely specialists in 
direct advertising but take up in addition other phases, 
such as window displays, lists, court-reporting, and so on. 
The bulk of these are letter-shop owners and small-town 
agencies, for the smaller advertising agencies often start 
as direct-advertising counselors. 

Listen to this from Postage, July, 1916, page 37, quoting 
the head of a business : ' ' When a business man wants legal 
advice he goes to his lawyer ; when he wants medical ad- 
vice he goes to his doctor ; and when he wants financial 
advice, he goes to his banker— so, when he wants advertis- 
ing advice, the best thing he can do, in my opinion, is to 
croto a good advertising man, as advertising is not a busi- 
ness but a profession. As I look back on years gone by I 
have to smile to think of the time I wasted trying to get 
up advertising copy for ourselves when I knew absolutely 

nothing about advertising." .-,.,. ,■ 

Early in 1916, J. H. Buswell, himself a specialist in di- 
rect advertising, made prior to the Philadelphia convention 
of the Associated Advertising Clubs a thorough study of 
the subject of utilizing outside specialists to help in prepar- 
mcr direct advertising and he found that 76 per cent o 
the firms replying favored such a practice, 15 per cent 
were against it, and 9 per cent were ''neutral.'' 

Mr Buswell 's findings showed that where a specialist 
might not fit in would be solely in the handling of a highly 

technical product. -, ^ • +1,0 

He also found that the specialist was most needed in the 
small-town field. One firm replying to his questionnaire 
summed up the problem in this manner: ''The large con- 
cerns which can afford to hire a corps of advertising men 
of ability need not look outside for assistance m preparin, 
any kind of copy, but the small concern that does not hap- 
pen to possess a man with some knowledge along advertis- 
ing lines really needs to look elsewhere for f s^^^ajice 

This report also gave a very clear idea of the five thmgs 
that the average firm wants from an outside specialist: 


1. The outside or consumer viewpoint on plans, layout, and 
copy. Compare Section 176. 

2 Ability to use properly the data with which he is provided. 

Truth! Skill! 

3 A prompt and, when necessary, "Emergency" service. 

i A reliable, practical, experienced, thoroughly progressive 

5. Ability to make it pay. 

178 The Advertising Agency and Direct-advertising 
Counsel— In other sections we have referred to average 
advertising agencies and their lack of interest in direct ad- 
vertisino- but among them we find certain exceptions. In 
fact the'really far-seeing agencies are becoming more and 
more the representatives of the advertiser and not of the 
publisher. Here before us is the report of the success of a 
New York agency which has specialized in mail-order style 
copy • that is, copy which produces the inquiry. But the 
inquiry amounts to nothing unless it develops into a sale, so 
this agency's success has largely been built by helping its 
clients to plan direct advertising as well as publication 
advertising. A word or two of its accomplishments will be 
illuminating. On one of its accounts its publication copy 
produced inquiries for 63 per cent less than former costs 
and ITS FOLLOW-UP copy closed one in five on an article 


$25 TO $40. In another case the agency multiplied by three 
the sales of a large correspondence school and this is all 
that it did: '' Rewrote the first follow-up letter, alter the 
enrollment blank, and made a slight change in the terms. 

When the writer was editor of Postage he conducted a 
study of what advertising agencies, especially the larger 
ones, were doing in connection with direct advertising, the 
findings of which were published in the issue of October, 
1918. One of the most progressive reported this: **By 
far the larger part of work done on this account (an office 
specialty) is devoted to preparation of special mail work, 
booklets, house organs, sales manuals, catalogues, instruc- 
tion books, and general selling literature. Every link of 


the chain must be as strong as I can make it. And who 
shall say which link is most important ? " 

Another agency reported in detail what it had done in 
direct advertising for several clients, one of which was a 
silk account using a book costing more than $1. This piece 
was said to be almost as effective as the sending of a per- 
sonal salesman. This fact is interesting only because it led 
the editor to ask how the agency could accomplish this. 
The answer of its president sums up the idea of using any 
outsider's help: ''We find it necessary to get the best 
results from this sort of work (direct advertising) to em- 
ploy specialists, artists, and a printing supervisor who are 
not only good mechanical workers, but also have advertising 
sense and are able to create real ideas. Working in this 
way, we are glad to report that our department of direct 
advertising shows a consistent and steady growth profit- 
able both to us and to our clients. 

179. The Printer and Direct-advertising Counsel.— A 
certain state fair had always met with a loss, but in 1919 
its directors put the entire campaign in the hands of a firm 
of local service-printers, with the result that for the first 
time in its history the fair made a profit, $60,000 to be 
exact, and drew the largest attendance which it had ever 
enjoyed. The service men were able to do this because they 
were specialists in direct advertising as well as printing. 

Edward Corman, secretary of the Knoxville council of 
the Tennessee Printers' Federation, in a recent issue of 
Direct Advertising wrote: *'Too many printers are ever 
ready to proclaim themselves specialists in any class or 
kind of printing without taking the trouble to learn any- 
thing about it. Any printer ca7i print direct-advertising 
matter and more or less of it is done in every commercial 
plant. But knowing how to specialize in it and produce the 
sort of work that 'reaches the spot' and earn good profits for 
both printer and customer is a very different matter.'' 

Yet the printer is the manufacturer of an advertising 
medium— direct advertising— and there is no question that 
the work of the United Typothetae of America (The Inter- 


national Association of Master Printers) during the last 
several years has educated many printers to the point where 
they can offer intelligent business counsel. Not long ago 
one of the leading advertising publications had a long 
article on capitalizing the printers' brains, adding that 
''When you do, the advertising appropriation usually goes 
further because the printer knows the sales problem." 

Literally hundreds of instances similar to the one referred 
to in the opening paragraph of this section could be quoted 
to show that printers' counsel on direct advertising should 
be sought, though fairness to our readers requires that Mr. 
Gorman's statement in the second paragraph be quoted to 
warn against those few printers who claim what they can- 
not deliver. 

George A. Galliver, president of the American Writing 
Paper Company, in an address before a conference of master 
printers made a statement covering the ideal arrangement 
of printer with direct advertiser that merits recording here : 
''We want to see the day when the majority of all the buy- 
ers of printing will go to the printer, not for a price or a 
bid on a job, but as they would go to an architect if they 
were building a house, for suggestions, advice and service. 
We also want to see the customer cooperate with the printer, 
placing his problem before him, so that the printer can 
familiarize himself with the customer's needs to such an 
extent that he can lay out recommendations for printing 
jobs of such style and form that the customer himself may 
not have thought of, which would spell success for the cus- 

This statement is to the point and is emphasized both 
by the nation-wide endorsement which the company men- 
tioned has made of the U. T. A. and the enormous appro- 
priation it has been expending to prevail upon the buyer 
of direct advertising to work with the printer. 

180. Examples of What Outside Help Has Accom- 
plished.— One or two examples of what outside coopera- 
tion has accomplished will be suggestive to the direct adver- 
tiser. An advertiser needed 300 window cards measuring 



14x24 inches. His original plan was to reproduce this 
design in three colors on ordinary white stock by letterpress 
methods of printing from Ben Day and half-tone plates. 
By such a process the set of three-color plates would have 
cost several hundred dollars and the stock and printin» 
about $100, at least, making the total cost of the job in ex- 
cess of $600, or about $2 each for the cards. 

A specialist (outsider) took a light stock 28 x 16 instead 
of 24 X 14 ; to this he tipped on a large colored underlay, 
and the underlay in turn on a very heavy gray mount 33 x 
22 inches. Each card was colored by hand and a richer 
and softer effect was obtained than originally planned. 
The total cost of the cards was $300, or $0,857 each. 

During 1919 and 1920 it was hard, following the war 
drives, to put on any successful campaigns for philanthropic 
or charitable institutions. Yet one firm of direct-advertis- 
ing specialists in New York, by the use of a planned direct- 
advertising drive, exceeded the mark of $975,000 set for 
the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. 
The same organization by another drive in a similar man- 
ner raised $800,000 for the Visiting Nurse Service Cam- 
paign of Henry Street Settlement. 

171. What a Typical Outside Counsel in Direct-ad- 
vertising Does. — Here is a chart showing just what a cer- 
tain Northwestern firm of direct advertising offers to those 
who use its services: 

A. Art Department: 

1. Sketches — 

a. Pencil. 

5. Water color. 

c. Wash. 

d. Oil. 

€. Crayon. 

/. Pastel. 

g. Combination. 

2. Layouts — 

a. For folders — all kinds. 

b. Advertisements. 


c. House organs. 
d. All sorts of direct mail. 

3. Working drawings — 

a. For every reproduction purpose, 

4. Illustrations — 

a. For books. , 

5. Retouching — 

a. Photographs. 

h. Built up from blue prints. 

c. Built up from specifications. 

d. Bird's-eye views. 

6. General — 

a. Anything else you can think of that can be pro- 
duced by pencils, crayons, or brushes, with wet 
or dry colors, on canvas, cloth, paper, wood, 
metal, or other surface. 

7. Photographs — 

a. Negatives. 
h. Prints. 

c. Enlargements. 

d. Reductions. 

e. Silver prints. 

B. Copy Department: 

1. Advertising — 

o. Direct-by-mail campaign. 

b. Dealer campaigns: 

(1) Portfolios. 

(2) Window displays. 

(3) Sales helps. 

(4) House organs. 

(5) Ad books. 

(6) Letters. 

c. Special work — 

(1) As required. 

C. Engraving Department: 

1. Line etchings — 

a. On zinc. 

b. On copper. 

c. Ben Day effects. 

d. Color work (flat). 

e. Half-tone (newspaper). 




2. Copper Etchings — 

a. Half-tones — 

1. All screens. 
h. Combination — 

1. Half-tone and line. 

c. Duotones. 

d. Color process. 

3. Electrotypes — 

D. Printing Department: 

1. Everything (except circus posters, which are below 
our grade). Everything else, from a letterhead to 
a magazine issue. 

E. Cooperation Department: 

1. Business sense. 

2. Advice and counsel. 

3. Efficiency in management, 

4. Faithful promises. 

5. Quality, deliveries, etc. 

What advertising man of experience can properly define all 
these terms, let alone know how to handle the technique 
they involve? 

182. The Place of the Director of Direct Advertising. 
— Most of us have a family physician. He is an able 
general practitioner, but if he finds we have some serious 
malady or derangement he calls in the services of a special- 
ist. The two physicians consult and work together and our 
life is saved. So it is in advertising in general and direct 
advertising in particular. The director of direct advertis- 
ing to-day is comparable to the general practitioner. He 
diagnoses the needs and requirements of his company and 
calls in the specialists in the various forms of direct adver- 
tising who can best help him to serve his client. 

Andrew Carnegie either gave Henry Ford the idea used 
in our chapter head, or seconded it, for he is quoted as 
saying: "It marks a big step in a man's development 
when he comes to realize that other men can be called in to 
help him do a better job than he could do alone. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Give the five steps in the growth of an average business. 

2. Take some business you are familiar with .and trace its 

3. Why is it sometimes advisable to use outside advice in plan- 
ning direct advertising? 

4. Give your idea of what training is necessary to make a com- 
petent producer of direct advertising. 

5. Briefly describe how to organize a direct-advertising division 
of an advertising department. 

6. Compare, in a few words, the advertising agency, the 
printer, and the letter-shop speciaUst. 

7. Is it the sign of a big or a small man to call in outside 
assistance? What is left then for the "manager'' to do? 





In which are discussed the importance of planning the 
campaign, regardless of number of pieces involved, to- 
gether with whatever follow-up may be desired, and, finally 
—but very important — ^the writing of the copy. 



In campaigns every move must he analyzed and prepared in 
advance and in relation to every other move; all must he directed 
toward the common goal. Groping tactics, halfway measures, 
lose everything. — Napoleon. 

183. Lack of Continuity Weakness of Much Direct- 
advertising Effort. — Robert Ruxton, famous as an analyst 
of direct advertising, hit the nail on the head as to the 
primary weakness of much dtrect-advertising effort when in 
the issue of Knowledge for August-September, 1920, he 
wrote : * * The men who have built fortunes out of periodi- 
cal (publications) methods of advertising are as twenty 
to one as against those who have built fortunes out of the 
direct-mail method of advertising, though the direct-mail 
advertisers are, numerically, greatly in the majority. 

''Why should one class relatively fail, and the other class 
relatively succeed? 

' The answer lies very largely in one term : Continuity. 
The direct-mail advertiser almost immediately 'balks* 
at any campaign embracing the same continuity of effort 
that is accepted as a matter of course by his periodical-using 

"To-day the great majority of advertisers (periodically 
speaking) figure on a yearly basis — advertising starts un- 
der contract with penalties for discontinuance in the form 
of reversion to short term or higher rate. 

*'The whole system makes for, and has brought about, in 
the periodical field a system of continuity, that, willy- 
nilly, has made advertisers prosperous whether they liked 


(( I 




it or not. There are many cases in advertising history 
where compulsory continuity has carried the man over 
'dead center'- and made his fortune, when, if he had been 
a free agent, he would have ceased effort at the critical 
juncture and gone down in ruin. 

*'This is one of the great basic things in which periodical 
publicity differs from direct-mail publicity, and, like all 
FUNDAMENTAL principles, it exercises a stupendous influ- 
ence when spread over an aggregate of cases. In advertis- 
ing all advertising — continuity is a paramount factor. 

This paramount factor is absent from nearly all direct- 
mail campaigns." 

Mr. Ruxton has been quoted at some length because of 
his broad experience and international reputation in this 
field, and because what he says with reference to periodical, 
or publication, advertising applies almost equally well to 
trade paper, farm publication, newspaper, street-car card, 
bill-board and every other field of advertising. 

By continuity we do not mean monotony. That is, the 
campaign may embrace any or all of the various physical 
forms fully described in Chapter III of this work. 

No fixed rule can be laid down as to which physical form 
should be used in any particular campaign. What is de- 
sired—the aim— what competitors are doing; what direct 
advertising matter is being received by the prospect from 
other sources; these are just a few of the factors which 
enter into a decision as to what physical form or forms are 
to be used in any campaign. 

One firm has found it a good plan to precede the mailing 
of its annual catalogue by a very attractive announcement 
form of mailing card. Another mails with every booklet a 
form letter calling attention to some particular paragraph 
which is marked in the booklet. 

It may be fairly generally admitted that it is not wise to 
stick monotonously to any one physical form of direct ad- 
vertising throughout a campaign. In other words, do not 
confine yourself exclusively to letters, or to folders, or to 
broadsides. Just as the good baseball pitcher is a man who 



"mixes them up,*' so the good campaign-planner varies the 
form of his appeals to the possible prospect. 

The following are a few of the elements which will help 
make the appeal have continuity. 

1. Use of same style of lettering for trade-mark,, trade name, 

company name, etc. 

2. Use of same color or colors throughout the campaign. 

3. Use of same style of copy, or illustrations, or other such 


4. Standardized border, tint blocks, etc. / 

5. Utilization of a trade character; one truck company, for 

example, a series of enclosures written by "Driver Dan." 

184. Five Fundamentals in Planning a Campaign. — 
Continuity is possible only with a plan. In the case of 
forms of advertising other than direct .advertising for a 
man who has something to sell, the advertiser sees to it that 
something is planned definitely to be offered — either 
weekly, monthly, yearly, or upon other definite bases of 
time. In the case of direct advertising this is not the case. 

The five fundamentals which must be learned before you 
can plan any direct-advertising campaign are : 

1. Analysis of aim or purpose. 

2. Analysis of appeal to be used. 

3. Analysis of time of appeal and reappeal. 

4. Analysis of effect of physical and mechanical factors upon 


5. Analysis in advance of possible success through tests. 

Fig. 50 graphically shows the principal factors in plan- 
ning a campaign, including the follow-up. When these 
fundamentals are learned it may be found that one 
single piece will accomplish the results desired; again, 
it may develop that many different pieces will be 
needed. Possibly it may also bring about the decision not 
to attempt the campaign at all. See Section 130 for a 
'imple example of this class. 

After planning the campaign plan the individual piece. 
See also Fig. 66. 

185. Planning Presupposes Time for Preparation. — *'It 
is a fact that all too many direct-advertising campaigns 






fsmunmua sfusnm •^FRtctD iH&sAusMw 'strat£&ic 
• ■ 




| time:o 



P I " 


|FDLLO<y UF>_1 



Fig. 50.-This chart not only takes into consideration the on 
campaign but also the follow-up. The text must be read for compie 
details, since only the "high spots" are covered on this chart. 




are prepared to-night and wanted * ready to mail' in the 
morning," wrote W. Arthur Cole, of Wm. F. Fell Com- 
pany, a printing firm specializing in direct advertising, in 
Advertising & Selling for June, 1914. Mr. Cole con- 
tinued: "When it becomes necessary to make an attack 
before daylight — 'at the psychological moment' — go to the 
newspapers. When you must take a market by siege — 
and in these days competition forces most advertisers to 
do it that way — do it by a direct-advertising campaign 
preplanned to the last detail." 

The advice embodied in this quotation does not consider 
the enormous field of using direct advertising to follow up 
inquiries produced from other sources, yet just as much 
care in planning is necessary here. 

Preparation means study, and study takes time. Many 
insert an advertisement in some magazine or business paper 
and expect to follow it up by direct advertising yet do not 
plan that follow-up literature until the first inquiries have 
been received. 

Some advertisers know months, even years, in advance 
that a certain purchase will be made at a certain time and 
yet they fail to plan ahead of time carefully what they will 
do to make that purchase come their way through direct- 
advertising effort. 

The quotation from Mr. Cole is important from another 
angle, it emphasizes the interdependence of all forms of 
advertising; and its sincerity is vouched for in that the 
producer of one class recommends another class as best 
suited for some particular purpose. 

i86. Analysis of Aim or Purpose. — First, then, comes 
an analysis of what is the concrete, definite*aim or purpose 
of your campaign. Let a word of warning be interpolated 
at this point : do not get into the habit of thinking of ' ' cre- 
ating a campaign"; A:eep ever before your mind^s eye that 
you want some one to do some thing and plan your cam- 
paign through your analyses accordingly. 

It might seem that no one could be guilty of such a child- 
ish thing as to start a campaign of any kind without a defi- 


nite aim or purpose, though the advertising graveyard 
shows this is all too often the case. Instances are on 
record where "to get business" was apparently the aim or 
purpose and a subse(iuent analysis revealed the impossi- 
bility of getting business because of local conditions, which 
a prior analysis would have disclosed. For example, an 
attempt to get orders for electric washers in rural territory 
where there is no day current of electricity or possibly no 

electric current at all. 

Would you call up an architect and say : Build me a 
seven-story building over on Steenth Street. Draw your 
plans accordingly"? Or would you call up a lawyer and 
say "We have some fine flour here to sell, draw me up 
a contract for selling it"? Would you expect either the 
architect or the attorney to be able to plan the building or 
draw the contract without more information as to your in- 
tentions? To the architect you would expect to say what 
the building was to be used for, whether it was to be a 
residence or a factory; of brick or sheathing; while to the 
attorney you would expect to explain to whom you wished 
to sell the flour, how much there was of it, and other such 


Yet day in and day out direct-advertising campaigns are 
called for by manufacturers, retailers and others with the 
printer, advertising man, or direct-mail specialist, who are 
given no more definite instructions than the ridiculous ones 
quoted in the paragraph immediately preceding this. 

Let the author digress for a moment here to say that 
with an idea of helping to point the way to continued, per- 
sistent, consistent planned campaigns, giving consideration 
to all strategical, mental, and mechanical factors, he has 
lar<^ely submerged his own personal opinions throughout 
this work and endeavored to make it the composite experi- 
ence—brass tack facts of accomplishments, not of one, or a 
few, but of many, in a large number of industries. 

If it is absolutely impossible to plan a campaign tor a 
Jong period ahead, plan it for as long a period ahead as 
possible. Strive for continuity and persistency. 



Thero are eight main aims or purposes which can be 
accomplished by direct advertising : 

1. Producing direct orders — sales. 

2. Producing inquiries. 

3. Generating good-will. 

4. Keeping interest alive. 

5. Supplementing pubUcity. 

6. Paving way for salesmen. 

7. Getting Hsts and correcting them. 

8. Strategical purposes. 

These aims or purposes frequently interweave. For in- 
stance, in a campaign that is to produce inquiries you may 
also generate good-will, or keep interest alive until the 
salesman can call, or until the addressee goes to a retail 
store, if the product is one sold through retailers. Almost 
every one of the first seven purposes may be augmented or 
modified by the eighth aim — strategy. 

Fig, 51. — The first card in a "teaser" campaign illus- 
trates the use of imitation handwriting in a piece of 
direct advertising. It was reproduced from what is 

See Section 30G. 

known as a zinc etching. 

Fig. 51 illustrates the reverse of a United States govern- 
ment postal card received by the author upon one occasion. 
It is a facsimile hand-written message and, you will note, 
entirely without a clue as to its origin. It reached the ad- 
dressee about December 20th. 




About a week later a broadside came to my desk bearing 
on the upper left-hand corner in script (imitation writing) : 

''Ten thousand people wish to know M ," and after 

the ''M" was my name and under that were the firm name 

and address. . , . i i xi. 

Unfolding the broadside, which was entirely blank on the 

first opening, except for these words: 

''Now here's the story," 
I came upon an elaborate two-color broadside telling me 
that 10,000 people wished to know me on January 5th, and 
that they were the live shoe merchants of America. Next, 
naturally, the way to meet them was through the publica- 
tions advertised! 

This illustrates the use of direct advertising m the usual 
way plus unusual strategy. The preliminary "teaser" 
postal card was a stratagem to gain attention. This cam- 
paign mailed to 1,000 names brought 67 replies and 9 con- 
tracts, which result was very good considering how hard 
it is to sell advertising space even in person. 

In this connection see reference in Section 65 relating to 
the use of several stratagem "teaser" postals in another 

campaign. , t^ ,. . -n 

187. Analysis of Market and Marketing Policies Pre- 
cedes Decision as to Purpose.— Before you can definitely 
decide which one or more of these purposes referred to m 
Section 186 is to be accomplished by the campaign under 
advisement, it is generally necessary to stop and analyze 
the prospective marketer or advertiser, his business, and 
his marketing policies. In many cases the analysis of the 
business and the aim will be one and the same. It will also 
be highly imperative to analyze the market itself— that is, 
those who will buy the product or service. The study of 
the market embraces a study of other products in service on 
the market with which there will be more or less competition. 
A decision to try to pave the way for salesmen would 
be foolish if the advertiser, marketer, did not have, nor ex- 
pect to have, salesmen to follow up the direct campaign. 
This is an overdrawn example to make the point clear. 

Likewise a knowledge of what the advertisers for competi- 
tors are doing is often helpful in deciding upon a move that 
will offset their advantage. The flying start of Sears Roe- 
buck & Company has been attributed to R. W. Sears' de- 
cision to send their catalogue, costing $1.00, free upon 
request, at a time when all his competitors were proceeding 
on a conservative basis and requiring a payment of ten 
cents in advance to reimburse them in part for postage. 

In view of the widespread offering of books and cata- 
logues, some firms, in order to restrict inquiries to those 
who are vitally interested, place a nominal price on their 
pieces of direct advertising. The Loose-Wiles Biscuit Com- 
pany, for instance, charges 5 cents each for a "Sunshine 
Fairy Tale Booklet." It is an out-and-out advertisement 
for the firm, but in fairy-story form to interest children. 
The company reports having sold thousands of these pieces 

at this price. 

Procter & Gamble Company, California Packing Corpora- 
tion, Armstrong Cork Company, and Dennison Manufac- 
turing Company are just a few of the national advertisers 
who make a practice of charging for their "service" book- 
lets; that is, booklets giving a real "service" to their buyers 
and incidentally advertising the brands of their publish- 
ers, of course. 

Several firms in the engineering and machinery field 
publish regular catalogues. These are so full of data 
which cost a great deal to secure that a price is exacted for 
hem. Carnegie Steel Company, for instance, published a 
thin paper, leather-bound book containing much data of a 
technical nature, which was sold for $2 per copy though it 
cost more than that to produce. L. S. Starrett Company 
has published several books of a similar nature, which were 
also priced. 

James Lees& Sons Company, yarn manufacturers, as 
set forth in Printers' Ink for August 14, 1919, have pro- 
duced a knitting book which is sold to the user of yarns 
through the dealer. The manufacturer sells the book at 20 
cents each to the dealers and the dealer gets 35 cents each 




from the user. This furnishes another aspect of price- 

The highest priced advertising book that we know of is 
the portfolio entitled ** Building with Assurance," pub- 
lished by the Morgan Sash & Door Company of Chicago. 
It is priced at $2.50. This book is aimed for distribution 
among the architects, builders and retail lumber dealers and 
these classes are given a limited number of free copies 
though the public is required to pay the full price. The 
work, according to Printers' Ink, December 2, 1920, cost 
close to $200,000 to produce. 

Now and then it will be found advisable to have the 
advertiser change some of his business policies in order to 
give full scope to the direct-advertising campaign. In 
Section 178, for example, we read of a slight change in 
policy, suggested by the firm's advertising agents, which 
materially multiplied results. 

Warren R. Lightfoot, in Postage for April, 1917, gives 
as the three fundamentals of winning any market for any 
product : 

1. A thorough understanding of the product. 

2. A logical analysis of the field in whicli the product can 

be profitably sold. 

3. A complete outline of the scheme of distribution to be 

employed and the media through which the product is to 
be presented. 

By '^distribution" is understood the getting of the goods 
or product, from maker to buyer, considered from the mer- 
chandising angle, and not the actual transportation. If a 
product is shipped direct from the seller to the buyer with- 
out the intervention of a salesman or other intermediary, 
that is known as mail-order distribution. If you get your 
product at the retail store, it may have passed direct from 
the manufacturer to the retailer, or through the hands of 
wholesalers, or jobbers, but you know it as ''retail distri- 
bution." In this latter instance, in the cas9 of the retailer, 
if it comes to him through a jobber he knows it as "whole- 

The Market 

sale distribution" as compared with "direct-selling" when 
the manufacturer sells direct to the retailer. 

In Section 222 (h) we shall elaborate upon the necessity 
of thoroughly understanding the product ; we are now pri- 
marily interested in an analysis of the field, or market. 

i88. How to Study the Market and Marketer.— One of 
the best summarizations for the study of this broad subject, 
the market and the marketer—the subject of many com- 
plete books— appeared in Printers' Ink. It was compiled 
by Clarkson A. Collins, a New York advertising agent : 

'Number of actual consumers. 
Number of possible consumers. 
Actual consumption per capita or per family. 
Possible consumption per capita or per fam- 
Number of actual dealers. 
Number of possible dealers. 
Number of actual jobbers. 
Number of possible jobbers. 
Territorial distribution of above. 

The number of competitors and location. 

Their total combined output. 

Their individual output. 

The distribution of their output. 

Their best markets territorially. 

Their weakest markets territorially. 

The trade channels used by them. 

Their manufacturing methods. 

Their sales methods. 

The prices of their goods. 

The merits and demerits of their goods. 

Cost of raw materials— Compare with com- 

Cost of manufacturing— Compare with com- 

Cost of selling— Compare with competitors. 

^Overhead charges. 

Where possible, a personal investigation of the market 
should be made, of course. Where this is out of the ((ues- 

The Competition 

The Marketer's 
Own Plant 



tion, a study of the incoming orders and other mail gives 
the writer of direct advertising a fair idea of the class of 
people he has to appeal to and what they are likely to need. 

One specialist in preparing direct literature to sell deal- 
ers in small towns keeps on file several snapshots of "typi- 
cal" small-town stores, and looks at them occasionally to 
refresh his mental vision of the small-town field. 

Direct advertising itself is often used largely as a study 
of the market. One national advertiser procured an ex. 
tremely thorough and reliable research on market con- 
ditions in his industry by a planned campaign of direct 
advertising. The series included personal letters, report 
blanks, stamped return envelopes, follow-up letters, and, 
in order to induce more prompt replies, an ''advance copy" 
of the results of the research of the industry was offered, 
which, when compiled, was sent out. 

189. How Marketing by Mail Differs from Other 
Forms of Marketing. — Mr. Collins' study in Section 188 
presupposes marketing through wholesale and retail chan- 
nels, of course. We should note the differences between 
marketing by mail and marketing through other channels. 
C. Lee Downey analyzes the question, ''What can be sold 
by mail ? " by asking four questions : 

1. Can the article be clearly and concisely described in a cir- 
cular or booklet? 

2. Can the article be attractively and comprehensively illus- 

3. Can samples be sent by mail? 

4. Can the buyer conveniently and correctly write out an 


Lack of space forbids our going into detail with this angle 
here, but Mr. Downey's able analysis will be found in 
::rTostage for July, 1916, page 23. It should be stated that 
he precedes the questions quoted by several others aimed 
to analyze the product, two of which have a bearing upon 
mail-selling: "Can competitive goods be procured from 
local dealers?" and "Can delivery be made to the home or 



establishment of the buyer more conveniently, or in better ( 

't:ST«S-rpr/havc bee„ acclaimed as the 
thfee Sto maiLder success and the irnportance of the 

E order has been emphasized i"-«'^-^^V"l„,^f°,7: 
l,ave been told how mail-order, houses offer leaders at a 

.irect advertising for other channels of distribution do not 
direct advertising 10 ^^ ^^^^^^ ordering or 

r •; /nd'ttu:^ dtHbution Richard Wightman be 

Set raXCof '^direcl aiertising may well keep 

^''"VSmpr'of A^roXposes Referred to in 
Sec ion x86 -With a brief resume of how various firms 
'Sdirect advertising for the accomplishmen of the 
eight general aims, or purposes, described in Section l»b, 

w shall be able to pass on to the next «"f « "^ ,^°«^j^ ;^t 
Mail-order houses use direct advertising to produce direct 
-,ales and orders. Not only are such «»"««- ^^/^^J^ 
Roebuck & Company, Montgomery Ward & Co^Panj and 
others of that class included, but P"W;fhers who sell boo. 
direct bv mail as well as "mail-order" departments ot re 
aiS, and manufacturers who solicit mail-orders where not 
already represented by salesmen or other agents 

Almost every user of direct advertising adopts it o pro 
duce inquiries; the only possible exceptions are those who | 
appeal to a large and widely diversified mass. 

As a generator of good-will, the American Te «Phone & 
Telegraph Company used various forms of f ^e^tj'dv^rl'^; 
ing-booklets telling of their profits and how ^P^nde^, 
indosures with bills that emphasized shortage of equipment 
during and after the war. Many firms utilize ad ^ect- 
advertising campaign solely to generate good-will without 



/hoping for direct inquiries, orders, or similar results. This 
is not a general rule, however. ** Discovering New Facts 
About Paper," described in Section 39, was issued largely 
to generate good-will for a paper manufacturer. 

The salesman who mails out an occasional piece of litera- 
ture between his calls does so for the purpose of keeping 
alive his prospects' interest. Firms do this frequently, 
and often without hope of direct inquiries. 
I Every form of advertiser uses direct advertising to sup- 
'plement publicity where any publicity is used, such as mag- 
azines, newspapers, street-car cards, and so on. 
I The Todd Protectograph Company and the National 
I Cash Register Company stand at the forefront in the use 
of direct advertising to pave the way for their salesmen. 
Used in this manner direct advertising shortens the time 
necessary for a salesman's call and thus reduces selling 

Firms selling through dealers are large users of direct 
advertising in order to secure lists from both wholesale and 
retail distributors. Direct advertising is also used to cor- 
rect lists. 

A Southern merchant early in the fall of 1920 found him- 
self overloaded with men's clothing. He realized that to 
make a special sale announcement in the morning paper 
would bring on a similar or better one in the afternoon 
papers from one or more competitors. Direct advertising 
was therefore chosen to carry a private announcement to a 
large list of possible prospects. The special sale was al- 
most a secret — direct advertising had been chosen because 
of its peculiar strategic value. 

igi. Analysis of Appeal to Be Used. — If you were 
going to call on a minister of the gospel to sell him your 
product you would be careful of your dress, your speech, 
and you would try to appeal to this particular minister. 
If you were trying to secure his interest (order, inquiry, 
or the like) by direct advertising you should follow as 
careful a procedure. 

The example is an extremely simple one to indicate the 



necessity for studying several angles of appeal. For all 
practical purposes the appeal in direct advertising is made 
either mentally, or mechanically, or by an admixture of 
both approaches. 
These appeals are made in three ways : 

1. By "copy," language used, including personalization of 

the appeal. J 

2. By "illustrations," the pictorial treatment. j 

3. By the "display," including headlines, color, „ captions, j 

typography, etc. 
These three main methods of appeal vary with the differ- 
ent people to whom they are addressed. An appeal to 
juveniles is naturally different from that made to their 
elders. It takes a different appeal to reach women buy- 
ers than it does to reach men ; factory hands and factory 
engineers; and so on through the gamut. 

In some instances, as we shall see in Chapter XV, the 
paper stock upon which the appeal is made may be called 
upon to assist in making the right appeal. Since this fac- 
tor is not so generally recognized, and because some appeals 
seem equally successful on any one of several paper stocks, 
we shall not go further into this angle now. 

A strategy of appeal that should be used wherever pos 
sible is that of sampling. In fact one national producer 
of direct advertising makes this statement: '*We have 
tried the sampling method on everything from automobile 
tires to paper-shell pecans, with equal success on each of 
them and all items in between. If more users of direct 
advertising were to try the sampling method, the results 
would be far greater and more advertising would be used." 

Where the product itself cannot be sampled, parts of it 
may be sampled (see Section 445) ; where not even parts 
can be sampled, novelties may be made up to suggest the 
product; and every effort should be made to find some 
method of making the appeal tangible to the prospect. 
Y'ou can talk a week about the fine rubber in the golf balls 
you make, when one sample ball would prove your point at 
comparatively small expense. 


Among the things that the writer found being success- 
ully sampled, in the preparation of an article for a direct- 
advertising publication were: screen wire, malted milk, 
corduroy for men's trousers, wallboard, hay, chewing gum, 
book binding, suit-case materials, together with such easily 
sampled products as paper, printing, poster stamps, and a 
myriad of articles of this nature. 

[ Since the ultimate in direct advertising is the utmost per- 

I sonal appeal that can be made between two persons, it logi- 
cally follows that the style of appeal is highly important 
and must be based almost entirely upon knowledge of the 

Jperson, or persons, addressed. To clarify: any one of our 
leading magazines may have on its subscription lists the 
butcher, baker, and electric-light maker. In writing 
**copy'' (the technical term for the written content of an 
advertisement) to appeal to the subscribers of that publi- 
cation you would try to make the appeal such that it would 
reach closest home to the largest number possible. In the 
case of -using direct advertising, you would write one 
*'copy'' appeal to reach the butcher, another to the baker, 
and a third to impress the electric-light maker. To the 
first you might talk the language of the ice box; to the 
second, the oven, and the third ohms, amperes, currents, 
and similar terminology which would be familiar to the 
electric-light company or person with an electric-light com- 

In appealing to a dealer your ''copy" would differ ma- 
terially from an appeal to the user. In the first case you 
might talk ''quick turn-overs," "long profits," and other 
monetary appeals, while to the user you might talk of "long 
wear," "no repairs," "time-saving," and similar indirect 
money appeals. The product sold would be unchanged, yet 
the appeal would be radically changed. 

The actual writing of "copy" will be taken up in Chap- 
ter X. What we want to emphasize here is the necessity 
of analyzing the product and the prospect and the planning 
of an appeal which is "the one best method." 

I The analysis of your average prospect is closely inter- 




twined with an analysis of your market. John C. White- 
side advertising manager of the Pattcrson-Kelley Lom- 
nany, water heating engineers. New York, has "gotten 
away" with a series of "jazz" letters in appealing to 
average laundry-owners. If he wished to appeal to war- 
made millionaires recently moving to Fifth Avenue he 
would have used a much more dignified appeal even though 
they were the same persons originally addressed m the 
slan^-y scries quoted in Section 409 a. 
' The man who is responsible for planning a direct-adver- 
tisin- campaign must study at first hand the average pros- 
pect" You cannot with the aid of Roget's Thesaurus and 
some out-of-date "literature" build a result-bringing cam- 

^^Y^u must see the product made if possible, study all 
about its raw materials and methods of manufacture^ 
Then see the product in use or operation if possible, ialk: 
with a sufficient number of possible buyers to form a reli- 
able gauge of the average "prospect" (see Section 2ZZ). 
With this knowledge of prospect and product you can 
then plan a campaign that will turn the prospect into a 

purchaser. . • i_ •»* i 

192. Effective Campaigns Are Campaigns Which Make 
a Personalized Appeal.— There is no "prestige" about the 
average piece of direct advertising or regular campaign. 
It has to stand or fall on its merits. The "personalized 
appeal is the effective one in direct advertising, always. 

The first and as yet primary method of personalizing the 
appeal is illustrated by the circular or "form" letter, with 
the name and address of the prospect "filled-in to match. 

Fig. 11 D is an example of a form letter filled in to match. 
Note^in this case that neither name of individual nor de- 
partment has been filled in. The firm addressed receives 
hundreds of letters daily and the mail clerk had to use 
his own judgment, after opening the envelope, in determin- 
ing where to send this circular letter. This is the lowest 
form of personalization. 

Finding out the name and initials of the advertising man- 





ager and filling them in would have made Fig. 11 D more 

Fig. 11 B illustrates the strictly personal appeal. This 
example is personally typewritten, though it was probably 






Fig. 52. — Two different personalized appeals are made in this 
cut. In the one, hand-lettering is used; in the other, both firm- 
name and individual name are printed. 

sent to a fairly large list of prospects, only the name and 
address being changed. 

Fig. 52 illustrates the use of the personal appeal in the 
case of printed direct advertising, not letters. In one of 

these the words ''for Robert E. Ramsay" have been filled 
in with a pen and ink, though not noticeable as such with- 
out a careful examination. In the other, "Art Metal Con- 

Fi/iA i4cenae. IVcsiSide. Corner ^fS 5th SUcd 

•n *•<*> >>*•* 

ca^ UM44 , Ctrl onOUA Y^ 

Fie 53— Here you see in full size the birthday greeting^ 
»hiA a large New York retailer sends ""**'>.»'- .^-*°X: 
children when they reach the age of two. It is printed on a 
sheet twice the size shown, folded once like personal station- 
ery and mailed in an envelope half the size of sheet shown 

struction Company" and "Mr. Lyons" have both been 
filled in with printed characters. See also 1^ ig. 1^- 

These methods of personalizing are by use of name and 
firm name. Other methods of personalizing the appeal are 



by birthday, wedding anniversary, and the like, as well ^s 
by business; by vocation; by sex; also appealing indus- 
trially ; or geographically, by town, city, state, section, na- 
ion, or even hemisphere. Fig. 53 illustrates the birthday 
ippeal of a New York retailer. See also Section 196. 

The appeal directed to a single individual, addressed to 
him, marks the one extreme in personalization, and the 
appeal to every one in a hemisphere marks the other. 

193. Does It Pay to Personalize the Appeal?— No con- 
vention or group of two or more advertisers ever assembled 
to discuss direct advertising even indirectly without asking 
this ever-present question: ''Does it pay to personalize f' 
It costs more money, of course, to fill in the name and ad- 
Iress, likewise more money, proportionately, to make 
printed-appeal personalizations such as denoted in Figs. 
52 and 132. No general reply can be given to this ques- 
tion. The one sure way is to test it and find out for your- 
self whether it pays. 

Charles W. Hoyt, a New York advertising agent, author 
of ''Scientific Sales Management" (which deals largely 
with the use of direct advertising in handling salesmen 
successfully), in speaking before the Toronto convention 
of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, in re- 
'sponse to a direct question, reported a test case of 1,000 let- 
ters which were carefully filled in and mailed out under 
two-cent postage, and of 1,000 not filled in and mailed 
under one-cent stamp. The former produced 14 per cent 
replies, the latter only 2 per cent. In this case the letter 
not filled in was sent to the same list and as a follow-up. 
The letter was purposed to sell a book. 

O C Harn, of the National Lead Company, who followed 
Mr. Hoyt, told of a test of three lists of 5,000 each, one 
piece being an ordinary printed circular, another a fiHed- 
in letter, and the third a non-filled-in letter. In this test 
the printed circular won by a large percentage. 

These two instances show how wide a variance there may 
be when the testing is handled by experts in their line as 
Messrs. Hoyt and Harn are ; at the same time they serve to 



reemphasize our solicitation that every direct advertiser 
Lake tests for his own benefi^t on this oft-discussed subject 
nf "fill-in versiis non-fill-in." 

One of the big motor-car companies made a very caretul 
test as to the value of making the printed personalization. 
The concern found that it paid and paid handsomely. 
Sales were, in fact, made at a cost of 7 per cent. 

It is certain in the case of fiUed-in form letters that unless | 
the fill-in of the form letter is properly done it is almost 
LpIpss excepting perhaps when the class of people ad- 
reSd iTJuLlr wi^ modern methods of letter dupl. 
cation and therefore unlikely to notice the failure of fill-in | 
and body of letter to match properly. On this fillmg-m of 
form letters see Section 333. ^ ^ 

Whether or not any form of advertising pays can be 
proved, in many cases, only by tests, and no general rules 
can be laid down as to " personalizing. " It depends upon 
mar-in of profit, class appealed to, perfection of the fill-m, 
what others are doing in the same field; in short,^on many 
things, though as long as personal letters are held m the 
high esteem that they are, the more nearly you can per- 
sonalize" your message the more certain will it meet suc- 
cess, all other things being equal. 

194. Variations of the Personal Appeal.-An examina- 
tion of Figs. 10 and 11 E will show variations of the per- 
sonal appLl. In one case "Good Morning ! "takes the 
place of a fill-in, and in the other case "Dear Reader is 
used. Sometimes letters are addressed this way : 

To the President 

of the Advertising 

Club Addressed: 

which does away with necessity for fill-in and yet has a 

partly personal appeal. ^ n ,. „;i 

One automobile firm increased its sales by aJ)Ooklet ad- 
vertising the use of its car by doctors. Such a booklet 
appealing to a single profession was personal to that pro- 
fession and naturally more successful than a general book- 
let would have been. 



One truck manufacturer got up a series of booklets en- 
titled ** Motor Trucks for Municipalities," *' Building 
Better Highways,'' *' Speed up the Coal Deliveries," and 
the like. Each booklet appealed to some one personalized 


Another varied this appeal by contriving the series illus- 
trated on Fig. 54. A bottling house receiving a book ad- 
dressed to the business it represented would feel that it was 
PERSONAL, naturally. 

One of the specialty manufacturers effects a degree of 
PERSONALIZATION by having a large number of booklets 
(over 200 in fact) covering a wide range of businesses the 
locations of which are scattered geographically. Then an 
inquirer receives the booklet about the business that is 
located nearest to the inquirer from the geographical stand- 
point or from at least a firm in the same line of business. 
Fig. 55 A shows another method of dodging the neces- 
sity of having a fill-in, and yet to the one who does not stop 
to analyze the letter has an appearance of being addressed 
to some one. This is a clever form of appeal which is 
strictly relevant, and Mr. Sherbow says that this particular 
circular was very productive. 

Fig. 55 B illustrates still another method of varying 
the fill-in, the words: ''The Fitzgerald Book & Art Com- 
pany, of Holyoke," being filled in instead of the prospect's 
name and address. This gives the addressee exact informa- 
tion as to where the book described can be purchased and 
although obviously a circular it suggests to the recipient 
that the sender thought more of serving the prospect than 
of selling him. If more letters sent out in response to 
direct inquiries were filled in this manner I believe more 
prospects would be impressed. As a rule the place where 
you can buv the phonograph or potato masher you saw 
advertised and for the details of which you wrote, is tacked 
on the bottom of a long form letter as if an afterthought 

(see Fig. 59 A). . , 

The expense element of personalizing a printed direct aa- 
vertising appeal, such as those used by the JMarmon auto- 

Ficr. 54. — TTorp are four of a series of booklets personalized l)y 
industries. These are pul)lislied by the Packaid Motor Car Co. 



mobile makers, will be interesting. Their Mr. Rogers in 
Teaking at the Detroit convention said their list cost them 
be ween three and four cents per name to personalize by 
printing the name and address on both the letter and en- 


"' .^- f "^ — ...i>i» v,U u • 


Fis 53 —Two different methods of giving a letter a personal 
Jch«'lhout filling in name and address of the «<='?'«"*• ^J™"; 
tice which is overdone in many cases A. Appears as if filled in 
is novel without being too clever. It produced good results, b. 
Serves the prospect and is therefore effective. 
Consider it from the mail-order angle. Here is a Mont- 
gomery Ward & Company catalogue. It measures 91/4 x 
131/4 inches. It contains 1038 pages. Yet they get over a 
personalized appeal in this manner : Page 1030 is headea : 


No fewer than nine additional catalogues are pictured 
and offered on that page. There is a catalogue on Auto 
Supplies," one on "Plumbing," a third on ' Lighting Fix- 
tures," i fourth on "Groceries," a fifth offers "Over 100 



generous samples of Wall Papers," a sixth is restricted to 
-Monuments'' (Tombstones), the seventh .s a beautiful 
pi^ce Idi ct advertising offering "Windsor Pianos and 
I ayer Pianos," the eighth is a "Paint" ca'alo^e and the 
ninth "Electric Light and Power for Country Places. 

AU of thes'e linesVe listed in the big (main) catalogue to 
be sure but these keen merchandisers realize, that, for ex- 
aLl, heir- few pages on pianos and player pianos printed 
on cheap news stock would not stand up well against 
specific (personalized) appeals of companies specializing m 
these product^hence the specific catalogues. In offermg 
these personalized catalogues note this copy : 

You may have any of our special catalogues free of charge 
by simpTwriting u's a postcard telling which ones you wan 
or by checking them on the handy coupon on pages 1031 
and 1037 of this book. 

Before ordering Special Catalogues, however please make 
su7e that what you want is not listed in this big ca alo^ue^ 
Consult the Index Pages; usually you will find just what 
you want and can order without delay. 

In some lines our stocks are too large to list completely m 
this biecatalogue so we show only those items frequently 
called for The others we show in the Special Catalogues 
devoted to these particular hnes. 

You will find our prices in special catalogues are just as 
, „= in this bie book Always we aim to save you money. 
Aid of ^out our guarantee o/"Satisfaction or Your Money 
Back" applies to everything we sell. 

Making the booklet or other piece appeal to one of the 
sexes is of course, elementary, but changing that appeal to 
Sx to apply to th; slim, stout, short, fat, aged, or the youth- 
M as t'lie case may be, makes the direct advertising more 
successful simply because it is more Pf f "^1. • ■^. 

It is a fundamental law of nature that f If-™^^';*'^* . " 
planted in all of us; in some more strongly than in othe^, 
Tohe sure, but we all respond to that which most affects 

Tf upon this law that pkesonauzation is based. In- 



numerable changes can be rung upon the subject; indeed 
?he field has hardly been touched as yet by shrewd direct 
advert sers. A mailing piece specifically aimed at every 
nhab ant in the state of South Carolina starts on its way, 
in addressed to South Carolineans, with a air chance 
:' Uention. Mail that same piece to South Dakota and it 
will fail utterly. But you can make a piece that will 
rnneal to the farmers in both states by making your per- 
S ation upon that angle. It will lack streng h, how^ 
Tver because the farming activities in the two states have 

"tl^craddress people in the South, the East the N^w 
England states, and even all the -people o^h^ Un ted States 
and appeal in some' degree to personal self-) interest 
Salesmen's advance cards, as well as maihng Pieces to be 
followed up by salesmen, are often personalized by impr nt 
ing upon them a picture of the salesman who will call (see 

VW 64) 

Pieces' sent to dealers have been personalized by the use 
of their own photographs, pictures of their «tore« or win^ 
dows, and even by the use of pictorial representations of 
the city or town in which they are located. 

iq/ In Most Cases Syndicated is the Opposite of Per- 
sonalized Direct Advertising.-Syndicated direct advertis- 
ing, in Lost every case, is the opposite of personalized 

direct advertising. . . „v,iio tiip 

A personalized piece approaches individuality, while the 
syndicated piece is so general as to appeal to as many dif- 
ferent people as possible. . . 
On Fig. 25 is an example of a piece of syndicated direct 
advertising. Its content is so general, based entirely upon 
the presidential political fight of 1920, that it could be used 
by manufacturer, retailer, wholesaler; in every line of busi- 
ness. Fig. 56 illustrates the six pages of a syndicated 

inclosure for business colleges. , , , t „i,„„t 

On Fig. 43, on the other hand, is shown a booklet about 
milk. This particular piece does not happen ^o be syndi- 
cated, but it will serve to illustrate our point. The booklet 


« , 







referred to was put out in Massachusetts. With no change 
other than that of the firm name and address it could be 
used almost as well by any other good dairy in any part 
of the country. 


italiHutly \\n\ will wmil In fliM*tiNrfrr 
yirijr (tulK^ cftU-Kiitly uihI lhonMi>H>ly- 
'nKtt, tiMt. Ihihiiicm iiKii hrtkc Cfiiie 
to i-xjicct MM>n- fnHii tli(^ ^-hiHil Ouin 
ju%l %tuHi|{n|tlK'r\ iir lMNikk4.*t-|icni or 
t'lirkv <hir Kratliititc^ ha\i- k^vcii \\% 
m n.|mliitMHt for ttmtitutf rvni I<ii«iih-«ii 
Men mi^l |{ii\iiK-x» \Voiiwii--cii|jal>lc 
i*f ilci-i«liii|CfltiiliiriHiiii|{ii|iiMt Iht'ikx-** 

kNNI» IIUhIc. 

Srryv \hf\ u|>|Mirtiiiiily tii fgL-t ahout 
<;i»c y»HirM.lf an c\cxiilivc\ ImiiiinfC- 
ItifiriiN.' iHH.' <>r -llhin: innHK ivJmhic 
jihlpmfit* roMtitM fttr tumdhiHg. 

SihI in y(Hirnpt>lHailitiii nnw— • lUy 
•n\iil Hi llic hlnrt \% ii iLiy savcil at the 
finivh. Si* Intrklntc ymir iki'iHHui iiilii 
miHHi. Miiki- ft otuiit- mm\ vtc'W lu-tp 
vii«i to iimLv^ fiilnrc ilci't^KNts ItniiK 
as HtiH.'li ^*n\ MKii'v^ bimI imM|Hrrity. 

'"Ilic ilit't^Mtii llmt |Miy4 ia Ihr uiie 
thai ia mrtfd apm." 

SvimI ui yiHif a|>i*ticatHMi imw. 

'Phorouch coukses 
Kecocmzkd facilities 


Rotable faculty 
Individual progress 







• ES. WE ACCEPT ywir prop- 
tMitinn," anj the talesman 
cbccrfuJIy dused hit jwrtfolKK 
His sale was maJe. 
The manager in maLina the purcluur' 
did not have to hesitate, nof ask advice.' 
H« keen lense of selection, hacied hv 
'judgment and eiperienee. drndr^ 
Uavinjr decided it was natural to ad. 
A dmsioQ that pay* piust be ooe 
that IS followed by action This is t 
business nilc — cnminonly accepted and 
KciieniUy oltserrcd. I'ntil a ttecision 
is translated into action il t% as useless 
aa a luachine withiHit power. 

Voii have the abtlrty to il?ct«Ie — 
which trainiii|e will ilerclop an<t ex pen- 
cncr luake sure it i^ the most valuable 
faculty a hiisinesa man or woman can 

nnasctf— pmridinff the riecuinna niaric 
become potent tliau action. 

))ti5iiieu concerns pay eitonnnus 
aalarics to executhres, «-ho are nothin|{ 
more than persons traine«l toilecidc and 
to see thpt action follows the decision. 
Vital affairs arc entruUed to these 
executives — whose decisions will be 
nidit and whose jndf^fents rarely, if 
e*ef, fail They shoulder heavy rr* 
spmisihility and consequently cuni> 
■naiid larife salanes. 

Ynu must reiilr/e the limadcr oppor- 
lunilies of business work. I'he enrrera 
of the litgprst men and wonien in the 
world pnlve heyiHid a ifuevtion of doubt 
that it doesn't matter irAerr ym $tari 
so loiift as Tftii can nmkr the riKht dcci- 
aionandthdiocfonif The lower ranks 
•R full uf smart oien and women - 

worlirra who decide but lark the 
courage or initiative to act. The lop 
ranks are full of e»ccii1ivc» — peo|»lc 
who do thtngt and who acL 

This school fTives traininfE to individ 
iiala — not to classes While there are 
dass periods, of course, the work of 
every mdtvulual student n wslclinL 
prugress rrcordrd, and indtvidual meth- 
ods broupiht to bear 

Why IS this done' It i» more costly— 
it rrqtiircs more teac^ien. and iiiorc 
pain<btakiiig cffort. 

Siniply bccausei — when ymi step 
<Hrt to take a k^kmI pmition with suiirr 
l>ninui>ent concern you will want to I* 
100 percent Tnnnctl Von will lie r\ 
nectctl to use jmlfniteitt and inilialrvc 
Sou may be enlmsted to make pur 
chaaei.of t'ogive inatructionslo others- 

Fig. 56. — An example of syndicated direct advertising. See te-xt 

for details. 

At Christmas, graduation, and other occasions when gifts 
are presented retailers frequently use booklets and other 
pieces of direct advertising which have been syndicated. 



The ''copy" for these is always made sufficiently general-- 
which is its weakness, of course— so that the druggist in 
New Market, Ohio, can use them as well as the pharmacy 
in New York, New York. 

Direct advertising to reach banks' customers is probably 
the most generally syndicated, because "thrift" has a uni- 
versal appeal in the first place, and, secondly, because a list 
of banks (about 30,000) is so easily secured. 

Florists, dentists, etc., have used syndicated house organs 
to advantage. 

196. Timing the Appeal.— It stands to reason that an 
appeal to sell ice in New England stands a much better 
chance of success if made in the summer time, despite the 
fact that a few families may take ice all winter. This is an 
elementary form of "timing" the appeal; reaching the 
prospect at the obvious time of realizing a need. 

Analysis shows us that your direct advertising appeal 
may be timed: 

1. As to hour of delivery. 

2. " day " 








event— birth, death, wedding, fire, promotion, etc., 
or coupled with a holiday, or nation-wide adver- 
tised "week," etc. 

In the case of the hour and day delivery the close coop- 
eration of the post-office department is necessary, and fre- 
quently it cannot be secured for obvious reasons. 

The planning of a campaign so as to reach the prospect 
at a certain season, during a certain month, or preceding or 
following a certain event— birth, death, wedding, gradua- 
tion, fire, promotion to a new job, etc.,— is of course easily 
accomplished and self-explanatory : This is also a method 
of PERsoNxVLiziNG the appeal. Compare with Section 194. 

Timing the appeal by the event is largely used by retail- 
ers because manufacturers and others located at a distance 
are unable to tie up their appeals with events while the 


events are still timely, unless, of course, tliey plan their 
appeal far enough in advance to anticipate known events. 
They cannot anticipate events like *'card parties,' 
*' deaths " "promotions," and so on. In connection with 
this read Section 465 telling of successful timed appeals 
of retailers. One shrewd campaign planner uses the 
weather reports to ''time" his appeals by making personal 
references to wind or rain in the home town of the ad- 


More and more are national advertisers making use of 
the ''week" and "month" idea. We have national "apple 
week," "sausage week," "straw-hat day," and many others 
too numerous to mention. All of these occasions offer 
splendid opportunities for the manufacturer, wholesaler, 
and retailer to get out timed direct advertising. 

Holidays such as Easter and Christmas offer easy meth- 
ods of timing appeals, though it should he noted that ex- 
perienced mail-order concerns have found that the buying 
public does not anticipate Easter, for example, though the 
public plan for and anticipate Christmas. For further de- 
tails on this particular point see Printers' Ink, April 4, 
1918 page 99, though this paragraph summarizes what is 
set forth therein: "Numberless mail-order gift houses 
have issued catalogues of birthday gifts, some of them very 
handsome affairs with pages for records of birthdays, etc. 
But these booklets seldom if ever pay for themselves be- 
cause they are bucking that same buying habit." 

It should also be borne in mind that the time of produc- 
tion and mailing of a direct-advertising campaign is a 
strong point in its favor. W. G. Clifford, in "Building 
your Business by Mail," cites a most interesting examp e ot 
a wholesaler who at two-thirty one afternoon received in- 
formation of the reduction in price of a much-used staple 
article By five that same afternoon he had mailed l/w 
postal cards, after having had them printed and addressed, 
notifying the dealers of a special offer on this item. It was 
ten days before the firm's competitors awakened to the sit- 
uation and reduced their prices. Being the producer as 



well as distributor of the medium gives the advertiser a 
Trong advantage. Had this wholesaler referred to desired 

use newspapers, or trade-papers in that section, days, 
even weeks, would have gone by before the advertising 
could have appeared. This single instance of the value of 
TIME in the direct-advertising campaign will serve to show 
the strategic value of this form. 

107 Results of Timed Campaigns.-The results of 

timed campaigns will prove the importance of this feature. 
A most successful letter for an electric-light company 

was mailed at 3 p. m. so that it would be delivered and read 

at homes under gaslight^see Printers' Ink, September 14, 

^^The^StTndard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, 
got 10 per cent replies from what appeared to be an ordi- 
nary form letter because it was timed to reach the prospect 
when he needed more of the company's product. 

Striking evidence showing the importance of timing cam- 
paigns was given by Charles W. Hurd in the issue of 
Printers' Ink for April 22, 1915, when he recounted how 
one advertiser had mailed a form letter to several hundred 
prospects in the downtown district of New York and was 
chagrined to receive only a- small percentage of replies, it 
had been mailed to reach each prospect in the morning de- 
livery. A switch was made. The same letter was mailed 
so as to reach the prospects-a new list but much like the 
first one-in the afternoon delivery and the returns in- 
creased ten-fold. Arriving with little competition after 
the main part of the day's work had been disposed of m 
the morning, the recipients were in a receptive mood and 
the letter got attention— and action. 

The University Extension Conservatory of Chicago nave 
one very effective selling letter which is termed their "ram 
letter." It is mailed to rural inquirers and uses the old, 
familiar subject, "weather," for a point of contact. iHe 
opening paragraph reads : 

If the rain is pouring down in your town as it is in 

Chicago this morning, you will be glad to see the sun shme 



soon. We have seen the sun only a few days during the 
month of April, as we have had rain, rain, rain ! 

On a dark, gloomy day, a person must stay indoors, and 
that is the time when an interesting book or magazine is a 
lot of company. Good music also is company and makes one 
forget about bad weather.. It also gives one the greatest 
pleasure in good weather. 

We believe that the study of music . . . 

Since sooner or later it always rains this letter is uni- 
versally timely ! It is also tied up w^ith the service to be 
sold— music. {Advertising d: Selling, August 7, 1920). 

198. Continued Appeal Compared with "the Follow- 
up."— Attention should be called to the fact that planning 
a campaign such as we are considering may mean one mail- 
ing a month for a year, or every week for a month, and so 
on. In these cases the first mailing and the last are both 
part of the original campaign or appeal and should not be 
confused with the follow-up as described at length in Chap- 
ter IX. It is true that the second, third, and later mail- 
ings follow the first mailing, but the appeal, as a rule, is on 
a different basis from what is known in the advertising 
world as the '* follow-up, " as set forth in Section 206. 

199. Timing the Appeal as to Length of Campaign.— 
In Section 186 we emphasized the fact that in planning a 
direct-advertising campaign you must bear in mind that 
what is to be done is to get somebody to do something. No 
hard and fast rules can be laid down as to the length of time 
for a campaign, or the length of time over which it may be 
spread. The time between appeals, the number of appeals 
in a campaign— both are changeable with every business 
problem. To sell the writer refills for his safety razor 
now would necessitate an appeal once every six months. 
Before he bought a stropper the appeal should have been 
timed about every three months. The time for other men 
will change with their individual habits. 

The house organ is, almost universally, either a weekly 
or monthly ; the weekly for salesmen and perhaps for em- 
ployees, the monthly for prospects and dealers. 



Much direct advertising should be timed to coordinate the 
anneal with the appeal in magazines, newspapers, on bill- 
boards and other forms of publicity, which may be made 
weekly, fortnightly, monthly, or seasonally 

It is also admitted generally that no direct-advertising 
mailings should be planned to arrive from Friday to Mon- 
day, inclusive. Saturday is usually a half day and on 
Friday many persons are prone to -put off'' until next 
week Most concerns get so much mail on Mondays that 
anything that is not urgent is cast aside. Whenever pos- 
sible, time your mail to arrive from Tuesday to Thursday, 

'"^Likewise avoid the end of the month and the first of the 
month— bill-collecting time. ^ -,- «i,^„f 

If you are aiming at householders and writing about 
milk try to have your direct advertising arrive for a de- 
livery about breakfast time-if there is one— otherwise not 
until a late afternoon delivery. 

On the other hand, if you are appealing to business men 
a mid-afternoon delivery (where they get their mail by 
postmen and do not send to the post office for it) will tre- 
quently bring your appeal before the prospect at a time 
when there is little competition for attention. 

200. Analysis of Physical Mechanical Factors Which 
Affect the Appeal.— Our purpose here is only to allude to 
the effect that physical and mechanical factors may have 
upon the appeal. Each individual campaign differs, we 
must repeat, but in planning the one you are working upon 
check up all of the physical factors in Part Two and all of 
the mechanical factors in Part Four of this work to see that 
you are using the very best physical and mechanical factors 

for your appeal. ^ 4. +i. 

Two examples, perhaps overdrawn, will illustrate the 
point : One paper manufacturer at a time when Paper was 
extremely scarce got out a series of broadsides. While 
there was every justification for the company's use of them, 
still their very size worked detrimentally. The recipients 
took violent exception to what they called "paper watting. 


L. ,, 




White is the mourning color of China, yet how fre- 
quently do manufacturers appealing to that trade use this 
color (mechanical as well as physical factor) in address- 
ing Chinese prospects! 

The Victor Talking IMachine Company issues an elaborate 
catalogue annually and then keeps it up to date by a series 
of ** supplements" (see Fig. 16). 

One correspondence school appealing to farmer boys put 
out its catalogue in the 4x9 pocket size until an analysis 
showed that farmer boys were not in the habit of carrying 
books around in their pockets, like city men who ride on 
street cars — one of whom had planned this catalogue — and 
then it was changed to a larger size. The new catalogue, an 
elaborate one, was so large, in fact, that it required a 
table to hold it, and it was found frequently upon tables 
in living rooms of prospects. Results: increased enroll- 
ments from the new and larger catalogue. Except that 
the physical size differed, there was no difference in the 


Another firm appealing to the city class found a case 
just the opposite. Its large house organ was too big for 
the pocket and got no attention, except possibly a glance 
upon arrival. By changing it to pocket size, however, re- 
sults improved; the recipients carried the smaller sized 
booklet about with them. 

Miniature booklets, about 2x4 inches in size, have been 
found to possess an intimate appeal which the regular 
ized booklets do not possess (see Fig. 12).- 

Some firms get out miniature booklets, catalogues, and 
the like for general distribution, or to bring inquiries 
for the full-sized book or catalogue from persons particu- 
arly interested (see Fig. 16). 

Size is a mechanical factor that, within certain limita- 
tions as to stock sizes and shapes, is entirely at the com- 
mand of the planner of direct-advertising campaigns and 
it will be well to avoid monotony in size of physical 
forms as well as in the forms themselves. 

Analyze what you want your prospect to do physically 



with your direct advertising and you will perhaps have 
several different sizes and forms of pieces in a campaign. 

201. Analysis in Advance of Possible Success through 
Tests.— You have a circular ''form" letter which you 
think will bring replies. You intend to send it to every 
bank in the United States. Why not take a list of a half 
dozen names picked at random from every state in the 
Union, for example, and mail out some 300 pieces and 
ascertain definitely what percentage of replies you get ? 

Perhaps you will get 30 replies— 10 per cent of which 
would seem very good at first glance. But i^ you analyze 
those replies further and find they come from west of the 
Rocky IMountains almost exclusively, you had better ex- 
amine and find out why your letter did not bring an equal 
number of replies from the rest of the country. 

This is a simple instance of using the test method of 
determining in advance the possible success of a piece of 
direct advertising. 

202. Tests Largely Restricted to Letters.— It should 
be admitted that tests are largely restricted to letters be- 
cause of their element of low cost. 

You can approximate the test, though, by reducing your 
mailing card, folder, or booklet to letter form and finding 
out which appeal pulls the better. 

W. Frank McClure, publicity director of the Fort Dear- 
bom National Bank, Chicago, while serving as chairman of 
the National Commission of the Associated Advertising 
Clubs at their Indianapolis convention (1920), gave this 
excellent piece of advice: ** Begin in a small way and 
concentrate your publicity activities within a deliberately 
chosen small field. Pick a particular class of prospects 
and then try various methods until you have found the 
one best method. This plan saves lai^e expenditures in 
experimental work and it brings your market to you in 

The truck manufacturers mentioned in Section 194, for 
instance, could easily have gotten out one of these person- 
alized books and carefully checked returns in that one field 





li '. 


to learn if the personalization paid for the increased cost, 
before getting out a large number of such books. 

F C Drew in Postage for September, 1918, tells of a 
test of two mailing folders, one of which brought 4 per cent 
returns and the other 14 per cent. The extra 10 per cent 
returns well repaid for the testing cost. 

203 "Order of Merit" Method of Testing.— Another 
means of testing direct advertising is that known as the 
'^ order of merit" method. Prof. Henry T. Moore, of the 
University of Minnesota, ably described it to the Minne- 
sota advertising convention in 1918 in this manner : 

-Suppose a firm has a mailing list of 1,000 names. Of 
that number fifty are known to be especially likely to be 
interested in the proposition. Before beginning the cam- 
paic'n proper the firm writes to each of these fifty indi- 
viduals telling them that it is anxious to present the merits 
of its product from the consumer's point of view, and is 
asking the individual addressed as a personal favor to pass 
iudgment on the order of merit of five different types of 
appeal to be mailed him on the following day. It is prob- 
able that the majority of the fifty people will be sufficiently 
flattered to give pretty close attention to the reading ot 
the next mail, and a double purpose will thus have been 
served. For one thing, five per cent of the prospects will 
have reacted in a really interested fashion : for another the 
advertiser will have a much better balanced set of ideas 
to work out on the other ninety-five per cent 1 his so- 
called order of merit method has already proved its value 
for the advance testing of appeals, and there is every rea- 
son to believe that its use in one form or another will be- 
come more and more frequent. It takes more time, more 
money, and more trouble to launch a campaign m this wa}, 
but in the long run it will surely pay." 

John Howie Wright, editor of Postage, before the Cleve- 
land Direct Mail convention outlined another simpe 
plan of testing direct-advertising matter which is available 

to all ' 1.' 

''When you have written a wonderful piece of advertis- 



ing matter that you think will set the Hudson river on fire, 
make six copies of it, turn these copies over to the six smart- 
est people in your organization, preferably three men and 
three women ; offer a five-dollar gold piece for the best sug- 
gestion and another five-dollar gold piece for the best criti- 
cism. You will be surprised how much you will learn from 
people in your own office, and the ten dollars will be well 


Mr. Wright is a successful salesman-by-mail and his ad- 
vice on this score is well worth heeding. 

204. Haste in Campaign Planning Means Waste.-— 
Somewhere Gerald Stanley Lee remarked, without sacrilege, 
that Christ was crucified because the crowd was in a hurry. 
Not without reverence let us most emphatically say that 
more direct-advertising campaigns are crucified because the 
''crowd" (the advertiser) is in a hurry. 

Analyze, test, plan — ^these three words mean much to 
more effective direct advertising of all forms. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. State the principal weakness of direct-advertising campaigns. 

2. How can this be corrected? 

3. Give the five fundamentals of planning an effective direct 


4. Take some business or industry with which you are famiUar 
and write out a plan of study of the market and marketing con- 

5. State the three ways in which an appeal may be made. 

6. What is meant by "personalizing" the appeal? 

7. Give examples and state your own experiences of returns 
from personalized appeals. 

8. Wherein does syndicated direct advertising differ from per- 
sonalized appeals? 

9. For what would you recommend use of syndicated direct 

advertising ? 

10. How important is the timing of an appeal? State several 
ways in which this may be done. 





The man who once so wisely said, 
Be sure you're right then go ahead. 
Might, likewise, have added this, to wit: 
Be sure you're wrong before you quit. 

— Author Unknown. 

205 The Theory of the Follow-up.— Some psychologist 
is responsible for the statement that it takes at least five 
repeated impressions to implant firmly an idea in the mmd 
of the average human being. There you have in a sentence 
the theory of the follow-up ; it is the repeated appeal which 
is remembered just as the constant dripping of water wears 
away stone. Fig. 57, reproduced from the issue of Postage 
for May, 1916, originally prepared by J. H. Buswell, pic^ 
tures graphically how the follow-up works on the mmd ot 

the average prospect. 

206. Follov^-up Distinguished from Continuous Cam- 
paign.— Though the effect may be the same, yet for a clear 
understanding of the planning of the follow-up it should 
be stated that there is a difference between a continuous 
campaign of direct advertising and what the advertising 
man refers to as -the follow-up." Naturally if there is 
more than one piece in a campaign of direct advertising the 
second, third, and later pieces follow the first one but such 
a campaign is not a follow-up campaign, nor are the pieces 
after number one known technically as a follow-up, ana 
do not come within the scope of this chapter. . . 

A follow-up is the piece or pieces sent to an inquirer joi- 
lowing his or her original inquiry of the advertiser 

In other words, pieces sent out in a direct-advertismg 
campaign do not become follow-ups until after some one 
addressed makes an inquiry and evinces interest. This d^ 
tinction is necessary because the properly planned tollow- 


Up" leads to but one thing — crystallization into whatever 
action is desired of the interest already admitted by the 
prospect. The continuous campaign of direct advertising, 
when properly planned, has for its object to make the pros- 
pect evince the interest. 

207. Who Can Use the Follow-up? — Not all firms can 
use the follow-up to advantage. One of the large cement 
companies, after a most thorough system of recording re- 








/^"^N \/ 

Self- >^ 

/ Intro- \ i 

I'IncentiveX If 



■V spection ^J 

inspires VmI 


Is , 

I inflarces ^\ 

action ^l 


\imagina- / \ 

. / l\ 

z'" y 

The -^ V-Here. / 


the / 

or sale 

salesman / 


gets inx 



his X 



Fig. 57. — At point 1 the prospect cannot help himself. Every mes- 
sage can at least plant a tiny seed. At point 2 a "picture" of the 
profit, benefit and enjoyment to be derived from the purchase is 
called up in the prospect's mind. At point 3 the dynamic will to 
act is transformed into action. 

turns, has definitely abandoned the plan of following up 
those who inquire. Its reason is that cement is much alike, 
regardless of brand; the amount of sale is probably small 
and so the firm acknowledges the inquiry and refers it to 
its own dealer, if it has one ; if not, the company sends it 
to the dealer whom it would like to have for its representa- 
tive, then closes the file upon that inquiry. 

C. H. Clark, advertising manager of Goulds Manufac- 
turing Company, selling in almost the same field as the 
cement company referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
but selling pumps, showed in Printers^ Ink, April 3, 1913, 




how on a product which required educatioruil effort it was 
necessary for the manufacturer to get the inquiry and fol- 
"oTrur Explained, because dealers, jobbers, and often- 
times salesmen cannot be relied upon to dispense th.s edu- 
cational information in the same thorough manner that the 
manufacturer's own follow-up can ^i, w„ii„„i„„ 

208. Inquiries Worth Getting Are Worth Following 
Up.-If you mean to get inquiries by your advertising, 
whether by direct advertising or through any other form, 
then the man or woman who inquires concerning your prod- 
uct deserves not only a prompt and courteous letter of reply 
to the inquiry but a follow-up beyond that as is justified 
n your business. Any firm directly or indirectly seekmg 
inquiries by its advertising is under oW^ation at leas to 
follow-up (answer) that inquiry once. See Section 219 as 
to length of follow-ups. , 

Tal^e a busines.s like The Independent Corporation or that 
of the Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences 
each gets inquiries by publication advertising and since each 
has no salesmen or other representatives it must have a 

follow-up system to ^^^^^^^ ^^'''''TUI^^T4jhere 
209. Check Up Inquiries Through Salesmen Where 
Possible.-Wherever possible, the inquiries should he 
checked up through salesmen, though this is not possible m 
cases like those mentioned in the preceding section. Ky 
Tecking up through salesmen to find out just who has ■ 
quired Ihether he is a bona fide inquirer, or merely what is 
Sed a "curiosity-seeker" (on a . direct-advertising cam^ 
naien with a properly built list this class should be near 
S The Chain Belt Company, for example, explains n 
r ssue of Printers' Ink for July 8, 1920, how it ge s its 
sale men in reporting on inquiries to mark them e.the. 
'^hot prospect," "lukewarm," or "merely "i^"««»«^; J^^ 
the firm then graduates its follow-up in accordance wi h 
"warmth" of the prospect, ^'th the "lukewarm, th 
mailings are much further apart ; and with he merely in 
"rested," still further than for the "hot" prospects. A 
plan of this nature, checking up the inquiries through sales 



men, against rating books, from dealers or other reports, 
keeps the follow-up from being overdone. 

It must be admitted that the follow-up is often overdone. 
There is a case on record where a man inquired of the 
readers' service bureau of a magazine and received nine- 
teen pounds of follow-up material ! Here is emphasized the 
need for properly planning the follow-up. 

Letters are the usual form of a follow-up, though not 
necessarily. Fig. 58 illustrates a mailing card used as a 


Do you want to know why your Lawn is full of weeds, why you have 
a poor growth of grass under trees, why a Ught sprinkUng really injures the 
grass, how to get rid of weeds and moss? (Send for our free booklet, " Wttdleu 
Lawna. ") It tells how to prepare a new lawn, too, making the proper seed 
bed so that the grsiss will grow down as well as up. 

Place this with a dollar bill in an envelope and we will send you 
three pounds prepaid. This is an introductory offer. Larger quantities 
forty cents per pound. 

Marysville, Ohio 

Fig. 58. — A rather peculiar form of follow-up. It has been found 
effective by the seed house which uses it. 

follow-up by a seed house. The user reports that it is 

pulling well. 

Whatever form the follow-up is to take should be planned 
so as not to antagonize those addressed. Most important of 
all, once any one of the list buys, that buyer's name should 
be removed from the list; otherwise a satisfied customer 
may be turned into a violent enemy. No one wants to be 
eternally bombarded to buy this or that service or product 
after he has already bought ; it is an indirect questioning 
of the purchaser's judgment and he resents it. 

210. A Typical Folio w-Up.— John Doe, living in Rural- 
ville, Missouri, writes to the Blank Manufacturing Com- 




i ^1 



pany about the latter 's new type of talking machine, an- 
swering either a publication or direct advertisement. Out of 
this simple inquiry any one of several follow-ups may arise. 
The Blank Company may be a mail-order house and, fol- 
lowing the answering of Mr. Doe's inquiry, keep after him 
with a set follow-up to get his order. Or the company may 
refer the inquiry to Richard Roe, a phonograph dealer 
in Ruralville. Having done this it may or may not also 
follow up direct, at various times. 

Fig. 59 A illustrates how the Victor Talking Machine 
Company answers the original inquiry. Note especially 
how in the lower left-hand comer it refers the inquirer to 
three different firms. This is a multigraphed letter with 
date, name, address, salutation, and dealers' names filled in. 

A jewelry firm has an ingenious method of referring in- 
quiries to the dealers which should be mentioned. It is a 
mailing card which is sent to the inquirer and which reads : 

Jones & Brown, Jewelers, 
New Haven, Conn. 

This will introduce to you 
Robert Cole, 
who wishes to inspect your stock of Larter Studs, Links, and 
Best Buttons, and for whom we bespeak every possible con- 
Thanking you in advance for the courtesy, we are, 

Yours very truly, 

Larter & Sons, New York. 

This is not only an introduction, but also answers the in- 
quiry and in a neat way, with the name of the jewelers as 
well as the prospect neatly filled in on the printed card. 

Fig. 59 B illustrates a personal typewritten reply to an 
inquiry, and Fig. 59 C the follow-up on it which came six 
weeks later, also personally written. 

Fig. 60 illustrates the original reply and two follow-ups 
received in response to an inquiry made of a machinery 
package manufacturer. All of these letters were about two 
pages in length, but since they were presumably sent to 

Bmcxaob MAcamiEKirCanaMHr 



"" IS riUStSTi"! 

« M I. > ^«*«.« 



Fig. 60. — The original reply and two of the several 
follow-up8 received in response to an inquiry made of 
a national advertiser. Reproduced merely to show 
length of letters used. 


young men desiring to go into business for themselves and 
make money, their length is excusable. 
See also Sections 382 and 411. 

There are three different classifications of follow-up cam- 
paigns: the continuous follow-up; the wear-out or persis- 
tent follow-up ; and the term follow-up. 

211. The Continuous Follow-up Largely Used to Keep 
in Touch with Regular Trade.— Manufacturers use the 
continuous system of follow-up to keep in touch with their 
dealers (retailers), while the retailers, in turn, keep m 
touch with their customers by a similar plan. It is an 
intermittent campaign, of course, planned by seasons, events 
(birthdays, anniversaries, and the like), or for the purpose 
of introducing new products, styles, and so on. All kinds 
of businesses can use the continuous plan of follow-up. 

One of the leading advertising publications has a rather 
unique continuous follow-up. Some three weeks before 
your subscription expires you get one of its follow-up let- 
ters, inclosing an ''automatic renewal card." This follow- 
up letter suggests that you will not want to miss any copies 
and asks that you mail the card inclosed which authorizes 
the publisher to continue your subscription and ^submit 
you a bill. Since most of the subscriptions come from in- 
dividuals who want bills presented so as to have a charge 
record, this plan works very well. 
See Section 221 for results from continuous follow-ups. 
212. Wear-out or Persistent Follow-ups Frequently 
Antagonize.— The only thing that stops some follow-ups is 
the lack of returns to justify their continuance. ^One firm 
claims it follows up until the prospect either "buys or 
dies." In this form of follow-up each different piece is 
designed to appeal to some different angle of the prospect's 
mind, while it is usual in the continuous follow-up to have 
each individual piece make a complete canvass, since there 
is no telling when there will be another follow-up. 

There is a classic example of one follow-up of this wear- 
out type attributed to the National Cash Register Com- 
pany when the man inquired and no subsequent action 



could be secured. The twenty-fourth follow-up, the first 
paragraph of which was: '*Do you want your boy to be a 
thief?" brought action from the prospect. 

A coffee campaign of a "wear-out" variety, for it runs 
for 52 weeks, has found that the best paying piece in point 
of results for its users is the forty-ninth. 

A Chicago correspondence school has a three-page letter 
that is sent in answer to an inquiry on the day it is re- 
ceived. The next day it sends a one-page follow-up which 
starts off: **I am sending three inclosures omitted from 
yesterday 's letter. ' ' Both of these letters are signed by the 
assistant secretary. The seventh day, the vice-president 
sends a short one-page note supplementing some points the 
assistant secretary made. The seventeenth day the next 
follow-up goes out, and is two pages in length ; the twenty- 
seventh day another two-page follow-up; these two signed 
by the assistant secretary. On the forty-fifth day the vice- 
president sends a two-page follow-up. If no answer has 
been received by that time the inquiry receives no more 
attention until six months after, when another two-page 
follow-up goes out. 

213. Term Follow-up. — The usual form of follow-up to- 
day, perhaps used more often than the continuous and cer- 
tainly far more often than the questionable wear-out or per- 
sistent campaign which is so likely to result in arousing an- 
tagonism, is the term follow-up. 

In this case you are followed up for a certain term. 
Some firms follow you twice and stop, a few only follow 
once, a larger number three times, and a decreasing num- 
ber four times or more. In any event experience shows 
that, with few exceptions, few national advertisers follow 
up after a 90-day period. 

A typical term follow-up used by a house not sending out 
salesmen is that of the Pepsodent Company, which adver- 
tises in a large list of publications to send a ten-day test 
tube of its dentrifice. With the sample tube it sends out 
a one-page form letter. Then, timed so as to reach the 
prospect just about the time the ten-day tube is likely to 



be exhausted, there is sent a follow-up that suggests the 
purchase of a full-sized tube. There is no follow-up beyond 

^^Now and then a dormant term follow-up is reawakened 
either with a new follow-up after about six months or a 
year, or the name is used as a prospect for a new cam- 

^^2H* Term Follow-up Often Used in Connection with 
Salesmen.-The term follow-up idea is often used in con- 
nection with salesmen. The Burroughs Adding Machine 
Company was, I believe, the originator of a Club Campaign 
plan of follow-up in this way, as set forth in Section 403. 
Briefly, each salesman was permitted to send m titty 
names for the Club Campaign. The purpose of this cam- 
paign was not to obtain inquiries but to pave the way for 
the salesman to get orders. It took sixty days to complete 
the mailing of the campaign, and the salesman had to agree 
to follow up each of the names within a 30-day period with- 
out neglecting his regular business. Other concerns have 
used the *4eads," inquiries produced by direct advertising 
and publication advertisements, in much the same manner. 
215. Appeals Must Be Changed to Avoid Monotony. 
-In the olden days, when the patent-medicme men ruled 
the advertising world, the follow-up system fell into disre- 
pute for the "smart" mail-order advertisers got up a sys- 
tem of, say, six letters to sell a $50 - course, - orj service. 
Once a week for six weeks you were mailed another of these 
letters; the second one offered you the course for $40, the 
third for $30 and so on, until at the end of the follow-up 
you were almost presented with a check for buying the 
''service.'^ In many cases after the prospect had mailed 
a check for $50 he got the $40 offer-they crossed m the 
mails-and in a short time the wise buyers waited for the 
follow-up to run its course. Then the book-sellers modified 
the plan by using ' ' slightly used, " - shop-worn, off-color 
bindings" and similar excuses for cutting the price. 

While all these practices are against present-day business 
ethics, still the principle remains unchanged : if you would 






avoid monotony, * possible antagonism, in your foUow-np, 
change the appeals. 

One method of changing the appeal is by varying the 
letterhead, envelope, or other physical form used in the 
campaign. One concern alternates a series of six broad- 
sides every sixty days with a house organ published 
every other month. 

Another method of changing the appeal is to make a 
slight modification in terms of payment. This plan has 
been used for a long time successfully by Swoboda, the 
physical-culture mail-order specialist. 

The weakness of many follow-up campaigns is indicated 
in the use of too many letters which are too easily recoj]^- 
nized at first glance. One publisher of a well known maga- 
zine seems to have aroused the antipathy of every ad- 
vertising man of my acquaintance — upon whom he is de- 
pendent for business — by sending the same cheap shoddy 
form letters forever and forever apparently to the same list, 
sometimes to the same name several different times. 

The writer has on file a letter written by the sales man- 
ager for a machine. This letter is used almost exclusively 
for follow-up work; this is what he writes: "We have 
known cases where we have sent a series of twelve person- 
ally written follow-up • letters without receiving a single 
reply from the prospect; theii we mail him a small one- 
cent folder and get a reply by return mail. This really 
ioesn't prove anything but is sometimes very amusing." 

It does suggest that there has been too much monotony in 
many follow-up campaigns. Above all, the follow-up cam- 
paign should be planned so as to avoid monotony. 

*' Variety is the spice of life" is a good motto to place 
over the desk of every follow-up campaign planner. 

216. Writing the Follow-up. — Essentially the writing 
of the follow-up differs very little from any other class of 
direct advertising. If the follow-up is to be a letter, you 
adhere very closely to the instructions as set forth in Sec- 
tions 25 to 27 inclusive and Chapter X. 

The usual plan of writing is to emphasize different selling 



points or arguments in each succeeding piece and then in 
the final follow-up to give a general resume of the entire 

^^ AtTention should be drawn to the so-called standardized 
or form paragraph system of answering inquiries, espe- 
cially applicable where the follow-up is only one piece as 
described in Section 330. 

217 Handling the Follow-Up Campaign.— For the re- 
production of the follow-up see Section 329. For the me- 
chanical handling of the records of the campaign see Section 


2*18 Number of Times to Follow Up.— The length of 
the follow-up must be largely decided by tests which show 
which best suit the business under consideration. In Sec- 
tion 207 we read of two extremes, the campaign that con- 
sisted of a single follow-up, no record of the inquiry being 
kept ; and the campaign that persisted indefinitely. 

A few facts as to what is the common practice will be 


A manufacturer of detachable automobile chains, repre- 
senting a purchase of from $10 to $15, after a careful test 
has found that it does not pay to follow up more than 
twice At times he had sent out as many as five follow-ups. 
As against this the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Company, 
whose follow-up campaign was one of the prize winners in 
the 1919 Direct Advertising, Contest, has a follow-up of 

eight pieces. - ■, i. •+ 

A silo company which has had good results from its 

follow-up has six pieces in the series. 

G. Lynn Sumner, vice-president. Woman's Institute, 
Scranton, Pa., in reply to the direct question at the De- 
troit convention explained their system- of follow-up m this 
manner: "The follow-up extends over a period of six 
weeks from the time the inquiry is 'first received, and after 
that a seasonal follow-up is conducted. The prospect gets 
four follow-ups in the first six weeks, one on the average of 
every ten days, and we follow for two years and then we 






discard the names." Mr. Sumner's remarks are very much 
to the point because all of the Woman's Institute business 
is brought in by mail. The seasonal follow-ups go out at 
those periods of the year which their accurate records show 
them as high-points in way of returns. 

One firm in Virginia had to triple its plant to care for 
increased business brought in by a series of three inquiry- 
bringing letters, plus a modest 32-page catalogue, and 
by a series of 12 follow-up letters. {Postage, May, 1918, 
page 12.) 

An insurance agent found a series of four letters to ob- 
tain the best results in selling insurance. {Mailhag, May, 
1917, page 10.) 

The National City Company of New York in follow-up 
work on inquiries about bonds keep at the prospect once a 
month for six months. {Advertising & Selling^ July 
12, 1919.) 

George B. Sharpe, now with the Cleveland Tractor Com- 
pany, formerly with DeLaval Separator Company, at the 
Cleveland Direct Advertising convention said he followed 
up a prospect ''six or seven times." 

219. Duration of the Follow-up. — The subjects of dura- 
ion of the follow-up and the number of times to follow up 
ire closely akin. Mr. Sharpe, referred to in Section 
218, stated that the DeLaval people sent out their separator 
advertising about the first of January each year, and the 
next piece about January 25th, and ''then we would begin 
to close up a little and when we got near the end of the 
campaign we would be running ten days apart, because as 
we got into the actual selling season we speeded ijp." 
While in this quotation Mr. Sharpe is referring to a direct 
campaign and not to the follow-up, strictly speaking, his 
arguments are sound and will hold good in any business 
that is seasonal. 

Another experience showing the length of time between 
follow-ups, strictly the following-up of an inquiry devel- 
oped by publication advertising, is that drawn by J. C. 
Buckbee, Jr., secretary. Federal School of Commercial De- 

signing, Minneapolis, Minn., who in an article in Advertis- 
ing & Selling for June 7, 1919, said: "We have prob- 
ably carried our policy of a persistent follow-up farther 
than is usual, and have not yet come to the unprofitable 
limit on inquiries received four years ago." 

Margin of profit, method of selling, class of people ap- 
pealed to, whether the product is old or new, and amount 
involved are all factors which enter into the decision as to 
length of the follow-up. Naturally one would hesitate 
longer about buying a home, or an automobile, than he 
would if about to buy a new brand of tooth-paste. 

220. Duration of Time Between Follow-ups.— The 
duration of time between follow-ups should be such as to 
permit opportunity for your prospect to consider thor- 
oughly your arguments so that these may be driven home 
without antagonizing him. One contractor bombarded a 
school board daily with follow-up material after it had in- 
quired as to his services. He lost the job by a follow-up 
which was too intensive. The usual time between follow- 
ups is from 10 days to 2 weeks, and the length of time after 
the first two or three follow-ups is usually longer in propor- 
tion to the time since the inquiry was received, except in 
seasonal products like those mentioned in Section 219. 
Though in the case of the seasonal products, oftentimes they 
are followed up again the following season. 

W. A. Shryer, author of "Analytical Advertising," in a 
magazine article gave the results of a test made on five lots 
of inquiries followed up for a month and a half at intervals 
of one day, two, three, four, and fifteen days, with the fol- 
lowing percentage of cash returns, respectively : 

Per Cent. 

One day 0414 

Two days 0654 

Three days 0473 

Four days 0591 

Fifteen days 0686 

In this test he also tried out the thirty-day interval, but, 
he writes : * ' This showed a very low percentage. ' ' 



Mr. Shryer's was a mail-order proposition entirely, and 
his results were most interesting, but, as he says, others 
will have to analyze and test for themselves. 

Based upon the law that we retain longest that which we 
get the strongest impression of, most follow-ups start off 
close together and get further and further apart as time 

goes on. ^ ^ „ T. 

221. Results from Various Classes of Follow-ups.— It 

will be interesting to note some of the results which have 
been achieved by follow-ups : 

J. M. Gasser Company, florists, of Cleveland, have been 
wonderfully successful in following up the anniversaries, 
birthdays, and similar events by reminders which their 
customers have been taught to expect. Between five and 
six hundred Cleveland business men out of five thousand 
appealed to are thus followed up, according to Mailbag, 

June, 1917, page 79. 

H. M. Graves, of Montgomery Ward & Company, the 
Chicago mail-order house, before the Chicago Direct Ad- 
vertising Convention told of a follow-up after those cus- 
tomers who had not ordered as much as $5 worth of goods 
in a year. One of these follow-ups mailed to 518,000 
names produced 8 per cent replies, more than $65 000 
in cash returns, and over 40,000 requests that the firm 
continue to send its catalogue to those customers. 

Knowledge, in its issue for March, 1915, relates the 
story of a follow-up series of 12 pieces, which had for its 
object the raising of $100,000 on a prospectus previously 
prepared. As it prints the story: *'To the tenth letter 
we were $80,000 off, $20,000 only having been received. 
Oversubscription of the remaining $80,000 was received 
on the twelfth and final letter." 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Is there any difference between the follow-up and following- 
up with a continuous campaign of advertising pieces? Explain 

fully. -JO 

2. What is the follow-up? How long should it extend? 



3. Is the follow-up always of letters? 

i What is the objection frequently offered to follow-up cam- 
paigns and how may this be avoided? 

5. Give the three classes of follow-ups and define each. Name, 
if you can, firms other than those mentioned in the text which 

use each of them. 

6. What, in your opinion, should be the number of follow-ups 
for a campaign offering a fairy-story booklet on chewing gum? 

7. Suppose Question 6 be appUed to cover the purchase of a 
baby grand piano? 

8. What is the usual time between follow-ups? 

I I 





That writer does the most good who gives his reader the utmost 
knowledge and takes from him the least time. — Author Un- 

222. Importance of "Copy" and Its Relation to Other 
Parts of Direct Advertising. — In advertising parlance, the 
reading matter of a letter or other piece of advertising is 
termed ''copy/' In the eyes of the uninitiated this prob- 
ably seems the most important part of advertising since it 
is the method of conveying the message to the reader. 
f Considered from the standpoint of the maker of direct ad- 
/ vertising, however, it is comparatively important, of course, 
yet secondary to: 

1. Choosing the right list; 

2. Analyzing the market and marketing conditions; - 

3. Deciding upon proper psychological appeal ; 

4. Planning the campaign and choosing the right physical 
piece or pieces. 

It will be noted that in the book you now read, all of 
these factors have been dealt with before consideration of 
the actual writing of ''copy." With these four vital 
factors thoroughly understood it is, comparatively speaking, 
easy to write the copy. 

The last paragraph is not intended to convey the impres- 
sion that writing ''copy" is merely a matter of grammar 
or syntax, though that is important. As Harry Tipper 
said before the Association of National Advertisers in one 
of the most able analyses of copy ever made, copy has 
four essentials: ''Knowledge of the audience. Knowl- 
edge of the subject. Knowledge of the language. Sincerity 

of purpose." 




(a) Knowledge of the audience, or knowing the people 
to whom the appeal properly should be made, as set forth in 
Sections 187, 188, and 191. Here are a few questions which 
you may ask yourself, to crystallize the knowledge of 
those you are addressing: 

Who are the possible buyers? 
Where are the possible buyers? 
What are the possible buyers? 
How can they be classified? 

— either by different grades of products, 

— or, by the entire family of products. 
What do they already know about these goods? 
What do they already know about other similar goods? 
How will they order? 

— direct, through salesmen or retailers? 
What is the size of the average order? 

(h) Knowledge of the subject, or knowing the product 
or service, comes of intensive study and investigation. 
Here are a few questions which will help to secure that 
knowledge : 

Is the product something new in formation or function? 

Is its use familiar to possible buyers ? 

Is it a necessary? 

Is it a convenience ? 

Is it a pure luxury ? 

How does it compare with competing products? 

Does it represent a complete sale? 

Does it represent a sale involving an accessory or additional 

Can its use be illustrated, or must it be described ? 
Is the product an experiment, subject to change in form, or 

nearly perfect? 

(c) Knowledge of the language means more than a study 
of the rules of grammar, rhetoric, and literature. The 
writer of literature may write to express his thoughts, while 
the writer of direct advertising writes to impress the reader 
of it. One product is written to be sold, speaking com- 
mercially, and the other product is written to sell othet 


0. Henry in one of his stories wrote : ''There is a hotel 
on Broadway that is deep and wide and cool. Its rooms are 
finished in dark oak of a low temperature. Home-made 
breezes and deep-green shrubbery. ..." Yet it is not al- 
ways that class of literature, or what may be termed "fine- 
writing," that runs hand in hand with advertising. 

So study the language in order to know what words will 
impress readers. ''Knowledge" of words, paragraphs, and 
sentences— the raw material of copy— "is power." 

(d) Sincerity of purpose means merely being honest in 
your copy — obvious, but often a principle which is violated. 

(e) The purpose of all direct advertising is to get some 
one else to do what you, as the writer, desire should be done 
—whether it be the retention of a mental impression, the 
filling in and mailing of a postal card, the tearing off and 
sending back of a coupon or the going to the dealer for the 
product. In writing copy, then, bear in mind its purpose: 
to get the reader to act. 

One instance wiU prove the value of copy written on 
this basis: A charity in Maryland sent out five hundred 
appeals for contributions and received 90 responses with 
total returns directly traceable to the appeal of $1054 and 
about $2000 was secured by following up the written appeal 
by a personal call. Elsewhere, yet near to the first testing 
ground, the same appeal, but written in different language 
and sent to a much larger list— nearly 50,000— only secured 
a total of 117 replies with gross funds of $1700. 

(/) Specific copy appeals: Chapters XXIII to XXXV, 
inclusive, or Part Five, of this work are examples indicat- 
ing how certain specific copy appeals have been made ef- 
fectively to particular groups and classes. The remainder 
of this chapter, therefore, will consider only the general 

angles of copy. 

Fig. 61 illustrates the old, familiar five steps of a sale: 
(1) Attracting attention ; (2) arousing interest ; (3) creat- 
ng desire; (4) satisfying caution, and (5) inciting action, 
adapted directly to the writing of direct advertising, all of 
which should be borne in mind in studying this chapter, 

yritin^ Din2ctAdv€rtisina 

1 OyercomOtiicltms 

2 Fr/ce 

5 yerms 

6 Scry ice 

2 Benefit 

\ Jmnsp^jikft&afctdfie 
\pn)(fuet or semce /n hmrs 
\a/persaffj/ i/rterest* 

1 HcndencvBO 

2 Nove/fy , 

5 /msj/nj^hft 

Fig. 61, — This illustration gives the old, familiar five steps in a 
Bale, showing their application in writing direct-advertising copy. 



for some or all of the steps may be taken by some other part 
of the direct advertising? rather than the copy. 

223. Dimensions of Copy.— Tim Thrift, editor of the 
Mailhag, a journal of direct advertising, has supplemented 
Mr. Tipper's analysis of copy by dividing all copy into four 
dimensions: (1) Length; (2) Breadth; (3) Depth; and (4) 


''The dimension of length in copy depends to some extent, 
at least," writes Mr. Thrift, ''upon how extensively a 
product may have been advertised ; how difficult it may be 
of explanation, and the purpose to be accomplished— that 
is, merely to keep the name before the public or to educate 
that public in a given direction. 

^'Breadth in copy is no more and no less than compre- 
hension of the people and conditions you are addressing 
through that copy, coupled with a thorough understanding 
of the exact relation of the thing advertised to those people 
and conditions. The world bows to the man who knows. 
No less does the public bow to and respond to the man who 
knows— through advertising copy. In the breadth of your 
copy lies the conviction with which your copy will be re- 
ceived. Take up any advertisement and you can instantly 
detect whether the person who wrote it knew whom he was 
addressing, what he was talking about, and the relationship 
of each to the other. 

"With depth it is natural to associate earnestness, sin- 
cerity, honor, and truth. Go through your copy and see 
how well it measures up to these standards. Note whether 
it is shallow in content— whether it sounds as though writ- 
ten to fill space and not to fulfill an object. Whether it is 
straightforward and earnest ; rings true when you sound it. 
Whether it is sincere, or running through it is a false note 
that should not be there. Whether it was written with 
the honor of your house in mind. Whether it is true, or 
contains statements that now you know were stretched a 
point to make a point. 

"Pitch your copy key to be in accord and in harmony 
with your reader and you will have little occasion to mea- 


sure height. But how often we see technical facts, under- 
stood only by technical men, presented to the layman. In 
fact, the average catalogue of the average manufacturer is 
about as ' clear as mud. ' " 

224. The Three Principles of Writing Good Copy.— 
Three principles underlie all good copy, regardless of the 
form the copy appears in, or the language used to convey 
the impression. These principles are : Unity of appeal, get- 
im<r over into your reader's mind a unified, coherent, single 
impression. Claritij of expression, making your language 
so clear that it cannot be misunderstood. Correct empha- 
sis means placing the appeals in the order that will be most 
effective in reaching the largest number of readers. This 
mi'^ht seem unnecessary to some readers. *'If I have all 
the proper appeals clearly expressed, why is the order of 
their presentation of extreme importance?" One specific 
instance will prove the point. Read below the first two 
paragraphs of a letter sent out by a bond-selling house, 
to those to whom an elaborate book had been sent, upon 
request The plan of the advertiser was to induce action 
by asking for the return of the book after a twelve-day 
interval had passed without an order. 

Dgbx Sir I 

If you have decided not to accept the invitation to owner- 
ship in this company, kindly return the book which we sent 
you twelve days ago, in response to your request, postage 
for which is inclosed herewith. 

If you have decided to accept our invitation, you will still 
be in time to secure one of the Ownerships allotted to your 
State, if your appUcation is mailed promptly upon receipt 
of this letter. 

Results from the mailing of this letter (the first two para- 
graphs only are quoted) were not up to expectations. Then 
without any other change the second paragraph was placed 
first and the first second, which slight rearrangement pro- 
duced 40 per cent increase in returns with checks attached. 

Emphasis, it should be noted, is often secured by means 








other than copy ; in fact, more frequently by mechanical 
methods, as set forth in Chapter XIII. 

Such copy, then, as is built on these principles and based 
upon the dimensions set forth in Section 223 parallels the J 
sales appeal of the advertiser in so far as that is consistent 
with the sales policies and the campaign already planned. 
It is unified, by being concentrated on a single dominant 
idea. It makes the right and easily-understood appeal in 
the first paragraph, or headline, and follows this through 
the five steps of a sale (with the possible exception or 
adaptation of the fifth step), as shown in Fig. 61. As 
we will find in Chapter XI, this copy must be set up so as 
to read logically. 

225. Attracting Attention with Copy. — The first para- 
graph of a letter must attract attention (we are not now 
considering the outside of the envelope, or letterhead, of 
course). In Sections 25 to 27 inclusive, we discussed the 
writing of sales letters, and reference should be made to 
this section now. 

There lands on my desk a letter from a man absolutely 
unknown — even unheard of. Under his three names there 
is the mystic word ''Advertising." The letter is dated 
October 16, and this first paragraph so attracts my atten- 
tion that I read the rest of the letter : 

Bill Anderson was puzzled — perhaps, too, you are both- 
ered with the same problem; then you'll be interested in the 
way out. 

The next paragraph gives me a hint, but my attention has 
already been secured: 

With Christmas season fast approaching, Bill was up to 
his neck in work that would carry him over into the New 
Year. He had to buy a gift for his wife. . . . 

Folders, mailing cards, circulars, blotters, broadsides and 
poster stamps, to attract attention through copy, must nse 
headlines and subheads. 

Here is a folder ; opening it, this headline faces me : 
Have a Look at the First Motor Car Tires Ever Made. 

That headline must attract attention to the first folds of the 
folder. Going inside, I read the next headline: 

We are the Oldest Makers of Tires and Tubes— We Know 
Even though I do not read the copy, these subheads tell me 
most of the story : 

Guaranteed on a basis of 4,000 miles. 

Let us give you the name of the Nearest Agent or Dis- 

On the Job for more than Twenty Years. 

This folder indicates how a caption (copy) under an illus- 
tration may be used to attract attention, for there is an il- 
lustration and under it we read this attention-attracting 
copy : 

The first automobile built in America by Elwood Haynes— 

equipped with the first automobile tires made in America by 

the Kokomo Rubber Company. 

Booklets, envelope inclosures, bulletins, portfolios, and 
similar pieces to attract attention through copy must bear 
attractive titles, such as "The House that Jack Fixed" for 
a "jaek-of-all-trades" tool; "What Happened on Section 
11," story of a test of red lead; "A Roof that Saves Coal" 
for a roofing company; "The Black Mystery Box Ex- 
plained" for a primer on storage batteries, encased in a 
black box; "That Magic Thing Called Color" for a book- 
et on interior decoration with paints and varnishes. Where 
the house organ makes a claim for attention by copy, it, too, 
is largely by the appeal of its title, or name, as: ''The Salt 
Seller/' the name of a house organ for retailers of a table 

Imagine how little consideration was given a booklet re- 
ceived by an advertising firm, which had this on the cover 
in letters nearly two inches high : 








Established March 32, 1806 
(Illustration of 
involved seal) 


This booklet came unheralded and unsung — it had no 
teaser campaign ahead of it, it had not an accompanying 
letter to "sell" it. The advertising manager w^as not par- 
ticularly interested in Williamstown. (The names are 
fictitious but the piece, unfortunately, is not.) Such an 
''outside" as this surely did not arouse any interest. Even 
at the moment this page is written the advertising manager 
has not read the inside pages. He is merely keeping the 
booklet as an example' of how not to use direct advertising. 

''October Tenth" is the title of a one-color envelope 
inclosure which attracted attention. The title was the date 
upon which a certain business magazine would appear, 
"She threw the dish-water on him and broke his heart" is 
the rather long but attention-getting copy used on the 
cover of another inclosure. "Are your farm buildings 
fireproof?" represents still another type of "copy" attract- 
ing attention to an envelope inclosure. 

Do not misunderstand; there are many other ways of 
attracting attention, either physical, mechanical, or psycho- 
logical. In this section we are dealing only with attract- 
ing attention by means of copy. All attention is secured 
either by an appeal to the tendencies of the time — such as 
by a presidential election every four years; novelty, such 
as a novel mechanical appeal, or a novel statement as set 
forth in a preceding paragraph; and imagination, illus- 
trated by titles already referred to. While copy can be 
used to make all these three appeals in the ways indicated, 
there are other factors to be considered. 

See Section 246 for further discussion on the very im- 
portant topic of writing titles for booklets, inclosures, etc. 

226. Arousing Interest by Copy.— Attention having 
been attracted either by copy or other factors, the next 
step (see Fig. 61) is to arouse interest. To transfer the 
attention to the product or service in terms of personal 

interest. -r» • • i 

Hollingworth in "Advertising and Selling: Principles 

of Appeal and Response" gives these eight interest incen- 
tives : 

1. Novelty, bizarre effects, unusual devices and statements. 

2. Color: brightness, tone, and harmony. 

3. Illustration : cuts, photographs, sketches. 

4. Action : suggested activity on the part of persons or things. 

5. The comic: pictorial and verbal humor. 

6. Feeling tone: pleasantness, excitement, strain, and their 


7. Instinctive response: any appeal to a fundamental in- 


8. Effective conceptions: appeal to established habits and 


Not all of these can be secured in direct advertising, 
and many of them are secured by mechanical factors to be 
discussed in Part Four. 

W. S. Zimmerman, of the A. W. Shaw Company, in speak- 
ing before the Cleveland Direct Advertising convention, 
said that the first thing they Considered whether they 
were selling a man, collecting from him, or adjusting a 
complaint, was to "consider which one of the motives — 
love, gain, duty, pride, self-indulgence, self-preservation- 
will make that man think and act our way." 

But no matter what interest incentive is used, or motive 
acted upon, generally speaking all copy is to accomplish one 
or more of the purposes set forth in Section 186. 

Take the three cases already suggested in Section 225. 
Note how by copy alone, in the case of the letter, my inter- 
est is transferred from Bill Anderson's problem to mine- 
buying a Christmas present for my wife. 

Assuming that I have a motor car, my attention is at- 
tracted by the statement about the makers of the first motor- 

i i 


car tires, and then the headline transfers that attention to 
interest as indicated. 

Even the enigmatical phrase, ** October Tenth," becomes 
intelligible the moment I open up and read this headline : 



is out October 10. Kerens 
a glimpse of its contents. 

Now for one example where copy must start right in with 
appetite whetted by a high-degree, attention-getting title, 
*'She threw the dish-water on him and broke his heart." 
Jumping from attention to interest might seem hard to do 
there, but listen : 

Homer Croy has written a new novel and maybe you'll 
want to read it. If you have ever been a boy, or if you 
have ever been a girl, or know any one who has, you'll 
like it. 

Turkey Bowman — "Turkey" because he was as freckled as 
a turkey egg — loved a girl dearly but, when stealing to her 
window and looking up in the soft moonlight he sang to her 
sweetly and she threw the dish-water on him, the camel's 
back was broken for the last time. 

Whose interest would not be aroused by ''human" copy 
like that ? I know not who wrote this little inclosure but 
it is one of the few book announcements that I can recall 
ever reading in its entirety. In one color only, of ordinary 
set-up, with no illustrations it is an appeal entirely 


227. Creating Desire by Copy.— Our next step (see 
Fig. 61) is so to fan the sparks of interest that they become 
flames of desire. The eternal triangle of creating desire 
is formed by showing the reader: (1) Profit, (2) Benefit, 
(3) Enjoyment, or a combination of one or more of these 

i desirable things. 

That our illustrations may have the most practical value, 
we will again refer to pieces spoken of in preceding see- 


Every man wants to give his wife a Christmas gift- 
he may not be able to give her what he wants to give, but 
he has the desire— for her benefit. He also probably wants 
to get the best he can for his investment— profit. He also 
wants to dodge the responsibility of picking the gift— 
pnioyment. The following additional quotations from the 
letter we quoted in part in Section 225 will show how some 
shrewd writer of letters (copy) turned attention into inter- 
est and interest into desire: 

and he wondered when he'd get the time to look around. 
He needed a gift that would be valued, it had to be withm 
reach of his purse, but most of all he wanted somethmg that 
would be different from the general run of gifts that come m 
at Christmas. 

He had his secretary write me for the solution, told me 
how much he could spend and "passed the buck" to me, re- 
minding me to be sure it reached him before Christmas. 

The morning after Bill's letter came in I shipped him one 
of those sturdy, unique Navaho rugs-one of Wah-Pee-Tse s 
own creations; took a chance on the size and prepaid the 

228. Satisfying Caution by Copy.— The rug-selling let- 
ter we have quoted has by its copy already offset several of 
the inhibiting cautions that stop many actions already 
started. As we find in Fig. 61 the satisfying of caution 
is done by (1) Overcoming objections, such as objections to 
color of a rug, for example, or size; (2) price; (3) terms, 
and (4) service. The paragraphs (copy) already quoted 
have probably disarmed us on minor objections, such as 
Friend Wife not liking the rug, and yet the cautious man 
will be thinking: ''But was Bill Anderson satisfied? 
Listen to the remainder of the letter, note how it reaffirms 
the fact that price is not to be a deterring factor— the 
reader sets the price he will pay : and next, note how the 
final possible objection, lack of delivery on time, is swept 
away, and finally note the appeal for action (see Section 






His secretary has written me that Bill's been smiling se- 
renely ever since and doing the work of two men. I wonder 
if his experience might not lead you to decide your own gift- 
problems in a similar manner? 

May I not select a blanket or rug for you as would give 
you ample opportunity to find out how much better is such a 
gift and at a lower cost? Your order, then, started on its 
way to-day will soon bring the solution to that Christmas- 
gift problem. Will you mail it to-day? 

With all good wishes. 

Yours for a happy Christmas, 


In some pieces, of course, caution is not satisfied. Take 
the envelope inclosure about Homer Croy's book. The 
price is mentioned and instructions are given how to buy, 
but there is no satisfying of caution ; it is not necessary in 
this instance. The tire folder, however, satisfied our cau- 
tion by displaying as a subhead : 

Guaranteed on a basis of 4,000 miles 

and under this we read : 

Put out under a strong guarantee — a guarantee that is 
more than a high-sounding jumble of words — a guarantee 
that is backed up by practice — Kokomo tires are the tires 
you can recommend in the strongest terms. 

Then just a little farther down we read this satisfaction 
of caution about price, with a side-subhead (see Section 
285) : 

AS TO PRICE — our facilities for economical production are 
the best, no extra overhead here — our selling cost is cut 
right down to the lowest point by our special system of 
distribution — our costs are the lowest of any tire manufac- 
tured — and you get the benefit. 

229. Inciting Action by Copy. — ''Will you mail it to- 
day?" in the latter part of letter quoted in Section 228 
is copy that incites the reader to action. That letter is a 
piece of mail-order copy ; its aim was to get a direct order. 

The Kokomo tire folder had for its aim only to get the 
reader to inquire for the name of the local agent, and we 
have a subhead : "Let us give you the name of the Nearest 
Agent or Distributor," followed by an arrow leading our 
eye to a postal card which reads : 

Kokomo Rubber Company, 
Kokomo, Indiana. 

Gentlemen: .• . -. 

Please send me the name of the nearest agent or distribu- 
tor of Kokomo tires. 

There is space for signature and address under the above 

copy. . . ^. . XT,- 

The Homer Croy book inclosure incites action in tnis 


If you can't get a copy at the nearest book store, send us 
$1.90 and we'll see that Turkey is yours. 

''October Tenth" has for its purpose impression only, 
not action, and incites no action by its copy. 

''Are your farm buildings fireproof?" in several ways 
incites to action, direct and indirect. Within on the main 
display pages we find heavily displayed this copy : 

Build with Natco Hollow Tile. 

In the index fing:er pointed to this we find displayed, 
smaller, this action-inciting copy: 

We have plans for farm buildings of many kinds. Write 
us to-day. 

On the back fold more action-inciting copy : 

Send for Natco plans — free. 

We have plans for many kinds of farm buildings and will 
help you— free. Tell us what you intend to build. 

In all direct advertising except mail-order or advertising 
which only aims to get inquiries, the fifth step of Fig. 61 
is taken by the salesman— retail, wholesale, or manufac- 
turer, and not by the copy. 





Copy which will make your readers take some or all of 
these steps may be broadly classified into: Information, 
News, Educational, Human-Interest and Reason-Why copy. 

230. Information Copy. — Railroad time-tables, menus, 
and the like are information copy in the direct-advertising 
field. Here is an envelope inclosure which informs me 
that I can use the Boston & Maine railroad to and from 
Buffalo, Nia^rara Falls, Detroit, and Chicago. It is not a 
new train that has been announced ; it is an old one, there- 
fore not ''news," and since the piece contains no selling 
copy of any class, it is a pure announcement, or informa- 
tion copy. This is the lowest form of advertising, though 
it may be valuable. One of the Western railroads in- 
creased dining-car returns by putting an announcement 
(information copy) in each seat prior to the train leaving 
the terminal in the evening. 

231. News Copy Plays Up News Features. — **The New 
Standard Dictionary" defines "news" as ''fresh informa- 
tion concerning something that has recently taken place." 
News in the writing of copy is not necessarily of recent hap- 
pening provided it is not an old story to the audience to 
whom it is addressed. 

House organs are, of course, large users of news copy and 
readers are referred to "Effective House Organs" for a 
thorough analysis of gathering news for use in house organs. 

While the campaign for the Republican nominations of 
1920 was in progress, the Metropolitan magazine issued a 
blotter bearing the illustration of General Leonard Wood 
speaking and this copy under it: 

The candidates concentrate their work in one state; the 
next primary may be in a state two thousand miles away ; and 
the one following as many miles back. 

It goes on to announce (information copy) that General 
Wood will write an article, "Primary Laws and Public- 
ity," in the next number. 

Because of the interweaving of "fresh" information this 
blotter is a good example of the news copy angle. 

232. Often Educational Copy Is Also Called Institu- 
tional Copy. — "Discovering New Facts about Paper," pre- 
viously referred to in Section 39, is a piece of educational 
direct-advertising copy. Sometimes this is referred to as 
institutional copy, because it primarily endeavors directly 
or indirectly to create interest in the institution getting it 
out through an educational appeal. A catalogue which in- 
cludes data of general interest is educational to that extent. 
For example, "The Book of Better Business," illustrated on 
Fig. 16, is an instance of an educational catalogue which 
was placed on file in a large number of libraries. 

233. Human-interest Copy Appeals to Human Nature. 
—Instead of writing out a cold, clammy announcement 
(information) about the train referred to in Section 230, 
there could have been written a fine human-interest story 
telling how Engineer Thomas McSomebody, who had been 
running that train on time for some ten years, was still on 
the job and would be glad to serve the reader on his next 
trip to Buffalo, Detroit, or Chicago. Human-interest copy 
is an appeal to the senses or emotions of the reader. The 
letter about a Christmas present for your wife, quoted in 
preceding sections of this chapter, is a fine example of 
human-interest copy. 

Read these few sentences from a human-interest sales 
letter, by Louis Victor Eytinge, who is a specialist in this 
line of copy : 

Dad's upstairs with a trained nurse watching him. Al- 
though he is improving rapidly, he cannot be bothered much 
about business. 

He broke two ribs and one leg in an auto accident. In 
avoiding a baby's go-cart, the machine skidded into a tele- 
graph pole and the doctors say . . . 

Do you want to read the rest of that letter ? That proves 
its value as an interest-creator and holder. (The complete 
letter and many others of a like character will be found in 
Postage for March, 1917, page 104.) Lack of space forbids 
our quoting it here in full. But Dad's daughter, who sent 


out this letter while Dad actually was in the hands of the 
trained nurse, produced by means of this human-interest 
copy $27,000 worth of business in one month or about 


OF THAT ORGANIZATION. This appeal to the heart was fol- 
lowed by an appeal for orders: ''Make your orders this 
month just as heavy as possible; I can show him a sales 

sheet " etc. 

In 'chapter XXI you wUl find the story of a wonderful 
result produced by an appeal to human interest, "heart 

copy. ' ^ 

234. When to Use the Human-interest Appeal.— Let it 
be recorded, though, that human-interest, or heart, appeals 
will not always be best. We know of a campaign to sell 
real estate which was based entirely upon the heart, or 
human-interest appeal. It failed miserably. Whereas a 
famous New York operator in western Canada at a cost of a 
little over $40,000 sold $475,000 worth of real estate, paving 
the way by direct advertising, based entirely upon a money 
appeal— "How to make money in real estate." The latter 
campaign was based on "reason- why" copy, which will be 
explained in Section 236. 

Prof. George Burton Hotchkiss, of the New York Univer- 
sity, and author of several text-books on advertising, has 
analyzed human-interest copy as appropriate for: 

1. Products for personal use, such as toilet articles, jewelry, 

clothing accessories. 

2. Products for family use that help in the enjoyment of Ufe; 

musical instruments, toys, and the like. 

3 Products that touch upon personal safety or Hfe and health 
of the individual or members of his family, such as insur- 
ance, safety windows, revolvers, fire-fighting equipment, 

4. Products purchased frequently such as gifts, silverware, 
books, fiowers, and the like. 

5 Nearly all foods and edibles, including smoking materials, 
especially when purchased for enjoyment rather than 
for nourishment. 



234A. Human-interest Appeal May Be Made from the 
Standpoint of the Advertiser. — In Sections 232 and 233 
we dealt largely with using the human-interest appeal from 
the standpoint of the addressee, but you may also use the 
human-interest appeal from the standpoint of the adver- 
tiser. Burton Bigelow, in Postage for November, 1917, tells 
a very interesting story showing how human interest was 
used primarily from the standpoint of the automobile re- 
pairman. A personality was conceived for the "Repair- 
man," a picture represented him, and a mechanic's hand- 
writing created a strong appeal to human interest. 

235. Several Methods of Making an Appeal to Senses 
and Emotions.— How you are to apply the human-interest 
copy to your problem depends upon what you are adver- 
tising. If it is a perfume, you appeal to the sense of smell 
through words and pictures. If candy, to the sense of 
taste, and so on. These appeals may be made by picturing j 
or describing how some one else enjoyed the product or \ 
service, thus putting the appeal indirectly. Copy which 
aims to inspire the reader to ''go thou and do likewise" is 
a human-interest appeal. 

"If the Fire Bell Rings To-night" as a headline for a 
four-page illustrated sales letterhead is an appeal to the 
fear of the individual and therefore a human-interest ap- 
peal. Sometimes such an appeal is justifiable, as suggested 

in Section 234. 

236. Reason-why Copy Appeals to the Reader's 
Reason Rather than to His Senses or Emotions. — Some 
maintain that there is a larger field for the use of reason- 
why copy than for human-interest. As nearly as we can 
find this is largely based on the claim that reason-why 
copy is almost always *'safe." The writer is inclined to 
agree with E. G. Weir, who, in speaking at the Indianapolis 
convention of the Associated Advertising Clubs, emphasized 
the fact that there were just two ways of conveying a defi- 
nite impression : By 

a. Power of direct suggestion, or 
6. Power of indirect suggestion. 





Of these two Mr. Weir believed the second (b) to be the 
more powerful method. He said : ' * When a sales appeal is 
made to the seat of judgment (reason) the prospect is 
prompted to ask the price at once in order to safeguard 
his personal interests and the sale is often lost." While 
he added: ''When the appeal is to the feeling-mind, fa- 
vorable attention is aroused; develops interest, impels in- 
vestigation; and stimulates desire, without arousing the 
question of price, because the question of price is not the 
determining factor in the feeling-mind. 

Since our feeling-mind is dominated by love of self, love 
of family, love of friends, pride, comfort, and the like, 
human interest is a powerful form of copy, when properly 


Reason-why implies deliberation, and a decision. The 
copy must make the reader recognize the need ; then make 
the reader's mind admit that the product advertised will 
supply that need; prove that the product investigated fills 
the need better than any competing article; and finally, 
make the decision to buy. 

257. Testimonials and Other Evidence Used in Reason- 
why Copy. — Patent-medicine businesses were built and 
grew, like the bay tree of olden days, upon testimonials. 
Testimonials are evidence that some one else has used your 
product and found it satisfactory. As Charles L. Collette, 
advertising manager of the Kewanee Boiler Company, wrote 
in an article in Printers' Ink, October 29, 1914, ''The 
opinion of the man who has tried a product has always 
been and will always be a very important factor in any 
sales or advertising effort." Yet, as he instantly added: 
". . . there is probably no advertising possibility that is 
more often misused and abused than the use of testimonial 

letters. ' ' 

The value of testimonials, written or implied through pic- 
ture or other illustration, is based upon him who gives the 
testimonial and what he says. In other words, a good testi- 

monial should be specific. Not, "We have used your prod- 
uct with satisfactory results, ' ' but if possible : "By using 
your adding machine we saved the time of one bookkeeper 
at $1,000 per year." 

Mr. Collette in the article referred to hit upon one of the 
weaknesses of many testimonials when he said: "We do 
not believe in sending testimonials out of their field of^ 
natural influence." In other words, localize your testi- 
monials, or PERSONALIZE them by vocations, sex, or in some 
other way bring them home to the reader. 

238. When to Use Reason-why Copy.— There is of 
course considerable argument possible as to just where to 
use either human-interest or reason-why (or their combina- 
ion), or news, educational, and information copy, but hav- 
ing quoted Professor Hotchkiss' rules as to use of human 
interest in Section 233, let us set off against them his rules 
for the use of reason-why copy: 

1. Products bought for investment purposes, such as real 

estate, advertising, and the like. 

2. Products bought for building purposes; roofing, wall- 

board, lumber, etc. ^ 

3. Products bought for business, industrial and agricultural / 

uses, such as machinery, tools, office devices, etc. , 

4. Products bought not for their own value but as accessories; 

automobile accessories, tires, boots, shoes, etc. 

5. Products in fields where competition is keen, such as auto 

mobiles, etc. 

239. Most Copy Partakes of All Five Forms of Appeal. 
—Most good copy partakes of all of the five forms of copy 
appeal covered in Sections 230 to 238, inclusive. The fol- 
lowing copy quoted from an issue of The Larkin Idea, a 
house organ of Larkin Company, a mail-order house, under 
the heading : ' ' New Catalogue Being Mailed to Every Sec- 
retary," is an excellent example of skillful copy-writing 
^hich partakes of all five phases of copy : 

In the same envelope with this "Larkin Idea" is our new 
Spring-and-Summer catalogue. And what a catalogue it is! 
From first page to last it is brimful of interest to every one 







of our customers. There are fifty-eight new products and 
a big: number of attractive new rugs, beautiful new lamps 
and electric fixtures, new storage chests, and an assortment 
of smart spring wearing apparel that will delight every one 
who sees it. 

We have mailed this new catalogue to you for two reasons : 

First — We want our secretaries to be the first one to 
have the advantage of our new offers. 

Second — We want you all to know as soon as possible 
how Larkin Company has solved the great problem that is 
confronting most manufacturers to-day — namely, the diffi- 
culty on account of the European war of getting the mate- 
rials with which to make our goods, and the increasing 
prices which we are compelled to pay for many of these 

Have we had to discontinue making any of our products? 
Have we had to raise our prices like the stores have done? 

Yes, we have had to discontinue a few of our products 
on account of the difficulty and the increased expense of get- 
ting the materials with which to make them. When market 
conditions improve, we hope to offer these products again. 

On other articles affected by the war, we have worked and 
worked, until we have found ways and means of still offering 
them to you at but slightly increased prices, and maintain- 
ing the usual standard of Larkin quality. Take your old 
favorite. Sweet Home Soap, for example. This is a prod- 
uct which we have always sold to you at pretty nearly what 
it cost us to make it. Then came the war with its great de- 
mands for tallow and other materials of which soap is made. 
They are being used to-day in making ammunition. In 
Russia the people are even eating tallow in place of butter. 

Think of it! 

Of course, the price of these materials has gone way up 
and some of them can scarcely be obtained at all. Tallow, 
for example, which is the chief material used in making soap, 
is costing us far more than what it did formerly. And what 
is true of Sweet Home is equally true of our Maid o' the Mist 
Floating Bath Soap. Knowing this, you would naturally 
expect that we would have to raise the price considerably 
in our new catalogue, just as other manufacturers of soap 
are doing or planning to do. You will be pleased to hear, 
however, that we have decided to raise the price only one cent 

a bar. When you consider that any one may buy Larkin 
products without premiums at one-half the list prices, this 
makes the actual increase in prices only one-half cent a bar. 

While this does not cover the increase in cost of soap- 
making materials to us, it will at least enable us to continue 
an offer of the only laundry and floating bath soaps in this 
country with which are given such big extra value as is 
represented by Larkin premiums. So too with our toilet 
soaps. Here again the cost of materials has gone Vay up, 
but we have increased the prices but slightly. 

And so you see the conditions that confront us and other 
manufacturers. Yet despite the tremendous increases to us 
in the cost of raw materials, we have increased the prices on 
only one-twelfth of our products! And it is all a result of 
our careful painstaking policy to keep our prices down, in a 
time when everything is scarce and "sky-high." 

This is something we want you to bear in mind and to tell 
all your club members when they learn that Larkin, too, has 
at last been compelled to raise some of its prices. Assure 
them for us that we have raised our prices only where present- 
day conditions have made it absolutely necessary, and show 
them that they always get premium-value with their pur- 
chases that almost doubles the return for their money. 

This house-organ article (copy) is information copy, for 
it announces a price advance. Unthinking copy-writers, or 
firms who do not get their business entirely by mail and 
herefore who do not know the value of thought in writing, 
would have written: ''Effective, January 24th, our prices 
will be advanced Umpty-steen per cent. Please change 
your catalogue accordingly." 

It is news, as the Larkin Company has handled it. 

It unmistakably carries an educational message to the 
company's "secretaries" who are its local selling agents. 

It has human interest, slightly ; note war references and 
the remark about Russia. All the price advance was 
hinged on soap probably because of its universal appeal 
and the Russian example. 

It also has reason-why for it appeals to your reason, your 






240. Humor Must Be Handled with Extreme Care.-^ 
When you write humorous copy in direct advertising you 
must use extreme care, for most people insist upon taking 
business as serious. Fig. 44 A shows how an addressing- 
machine company used the appeal. The following, taken 
from an envelope inclosure gotten out by a firm manufac- 
turing a packing material, was headed: *'A New George 
Washington Story": 

This has nothing to do with the Original Cherry Tree 

Tale, but, to use the words of a prominent American— it has 

the other "Beaten to a frazzle." 

Mr. George Washington, Chief Engineer of The Emery- 

Bird-Thayer Dry Goods Company ... 

The Patterson-Kelley Company, water-heating engineers, 
are users of what they call ''jazz" (humorous) letters to 
reach laundry owners and operators; these will be com- 
mented upon further in Chapter XXIV. 

The aid of the cartoonist is usually sought, as in Fig. 
44 A, to take the ''sting" out of humorous copy appeals. 

Fig. 62 illustrates the cover and one specimen inside page 
of a humorous booklet which was published by the Acme 
Motor Truck Company, Cadillac, Michigan. This was 
made up from cartoons which had previously appeared in 
their house organ (same size) and they report of it: 
* ' Proved to be a very effective piece and very much in de- 
mand by the dealers." Each page showed a different ac- 
complishment of "Al and his Acme." This handling is 
not only clever but effective. 

The cloak and suit industry in New York City eliminated 
several trade abuses by having a series of humorous letters 
mailed to the offenders in the trade. These letters were so 
humorous that almost without change they were subse- 
quently collected and published in book form by one of the 
New York publishing houses. 

W. S. Ashby, advertising manager Western Clock Co., 
makers of Big Ben clocks, whose advertising is full of 
human interest, 'in addressing the Detroit convention, made 
an excellent point against cleverness in copy when he said : 
*'I am afraid what too many men try to do, when they sit 



down to write direct advertising or letters, is to write for 
the advertising men, rather than for the box office; they 
are trying to get some advertising friend to slap them on 
the back and say : ' That 's a bully thing you got out ; that 's 



tutta UKO fir 

TME COHSOLIBATSO '^^<^t,^j>f^ 



Fig. 62. — The man who planned this booklet first ran the series 
in a house organ, and thus made a saving in engraving costs. The 
Avork of the cartoonist was used to "get over'' with its humorous 
appeal an unpleasant truth, 

one of the cleverest circulars or broadsides I have ever seen,' 
instead of trying to write direct advertising which sings 
'Home Sweet Home' to some of the wandering dollars. * 

7 ) 




You need not be *' clever'* to write human-interest copy 
— copy appealing to the emotions rather than the intellect. 

241. Cleverness in Copy Is a Two-edged Sword.— 
While a certain amount of what might be termed relevant 
cleverness in copy may be worth while, remember it is a 
two-edged sword and must be handled as carefully as humor, 
if not more carefully. There is always a danger when 
using cleverness that, to paraphrase the famous Simmons 
slogan, *'the thought of the cleverness will remain long after 
the buying impulse has been forgotten." 

A stencil-machine company got good results from a clever 
letter the first paragraph of which read : 

Are you slipping in your shipping room? 
H. McJohnston, in Printers' Ink (November 15, 1917), com- 
pares this with the following opening paragraph from a 
clever, too clever letter : 

Talk about — 


Yes, I'm full of it. 
Why shouldn't I be? 
My business is booming! 


242. Try This Test on Your Copy. — Can you eliminate 
your brand name from your copy and substitute another 
brand name and have both advertisements true ? Can you 
take out your product and substitute another and find the 
words will still remain proper? Read this as an outstand- 
ing example of *' trite" copy: 

The Blank combine^ artistic design, sound con- 
struction, and moderate price. It makes its appeal to those 
who appreciate utility when expressed in terms of beauty. 

The Blank here illustrated has a purity of line and 

a refinement of detail which make it suitable for any living 
room which is furnished in good taste. 

The price is very moderate, which is made possible by the 
cooperative buying of the companies fisted. They will be 
glad to show you this or to answer inquiries by mail. 


What is it advertising? What is it trying to sell? Aside 
from the reference to - living room" in the second para- 
graph I thought it was an automobile. This copy actually 
meant to sell an electric table lamp. But read it over again 
Tna substitute the word -phonograph." Note how every 
word fits. Read it again with davenport, morris chan-,^ 
bookcase and see how it is still good copy-to read. 

It is a fine example of how not to write copy. 

A study of the product; its raw materials; its use; the 
competing products; their advertising; what the sales force 
haTdtcovered, and what the trade journals in he field 
say would offe^ a bed-rock basis for making that table-lamp 
advertisement advertise table lamps and not everything in 

a living: room. . .„ , ^^ ^f 

243. Brevity in Copy.-Time and again you will hear of 
attacks on advertising copy because it is too long_ Yet 
frequently brief copy is like the familiar story of the sec- 
t oTsuperintendent who was continually -lied down by 
his superiors for writing long-winded reporl^s. Finally one 
day he found the river had swept away the roadbed, and 
he sent this report to his superior : 
"Sir— Where the railroad was, the river is. 
"How long should a letter be in order to be f ««t've1 
for example, was one of the questions asked at the 1920 De- 
troit convention and it is a perennial query^ ^he par ic^ 
ular speaker at whom this was tired was the advertising 
manager of Big Ben clocks and his reply is classic: One 
of the most effective letters we ever sent out bad about 
tifteen words; another equally as effective covered four 
pages. I think a letter should be long enough to say what 
it has to say, to tell its story, and as long as you can pre- 
serve that human interest which is created when the letter 
comes in, you are all right-keep going." Every writer of 
direct-advertising copy would do well to memorize this pas- 

Go back to Section 239, send for mail-order literature and 
note how those users of direct advertising who know 
whether or not a piece pays in dollars and cents use sut- 





ficient copy to tell the story, regardless how long or how 
short it is. Reread the quotation at the head of. this chap- 
ter. Give your reader the greatest amount of information 
in the least time. This briefly sums up the significance 
of brevity in direct-advertising copy. 

244. Copy for All Physical Forms of Direct Advertis- 
ing Practically the Same.— "Whether it is to be a letter or 
a booklet, a sales portfolio, or a folder, there is little differ- 
ence in the preparation of the copy. You have an idea that 
you want to implant in the mind of another, or you should 
not write the piece, regardless of its physical form; and 
in writing it, all you have to bear in mind is that in some 
forms (booklets, for example) you have the possibility of 
using illustrations to help in telling your story. What 
has been said so far in this chapter applies equally well to 
all forms. Section 246 of course only applies to the forms 
that have titles. 

245. Making a Good Writer of Copy.— ''The writer 
must be intensively enriched himself before he can enrich 
the mind of his prospect," thus Elmer H. Smith, of Henry 
Disston & Sons, Philadelphia, epitomized an answer to the 
query, ''Who makes a good writer of copy?" in Printers' 
Ink, July 10, 1919. 

Would you know how to write direct-advertising copy? 
"Develop the mind," replies Mr. Smith, in an authoritative 
article. ' ' How shall I develop my mind ? ' ' you ask. ' ' Ob- 
serve with your entire complement of senses. Turn the 
entire photographic machinery of your mind on the world 
about you. Use your seven senses to capacity (seeing, hear- 
ing, smelling, tasting, touching, and the muscular sense and 
that of temperature). Make your knowledge, your mental 
conception of things, just as vivid and tangible ds the things 
themselves. Good advertisement writing is the natural re- 
sult of a mental development hy which a man comes into 
possession of and males use of all the powers of his mind. 
Harry Collins Spillman, educational director. Reming- 
ton Typewriter Company, and author of the book called 
"Personality," in speaking before the Detroit Direct Ad- 

vertising Convention (October, 1920) gave precious advice 
to the writer of direct-advertising copy: "You should 
'see by the newspaper' for news; by Macaulay for clear- 
ness; by Scott for action; by Bacon for conciseness; by 
Franklin for common sense ; by Emerson for wisdom ; and 
for all of these in one you should 'see a great deal' by the 
large book on the center table that's seldom dusted or read 
except by our mothers. The Old Testament in particular is 
a prolific source of dynamic language." 

Martin L. Pierce, addressing the same convention, made 
an excellent point which should be borne in mind by all 
writers of direct advertising when he closed his talk with : 
"Finally, the effectiveness of Hoover direct advertising is 
attained because whether the piece be of one page or several 
pages, the message is always the same. The reader is made 
to understand that the Hoover beats as it sweeps as it 
cleans." See also Section 172. 

246. Titles, Headlines, and First Paragraphs.— The 
titles to your physical forms with covers, such as booklets, 
inelosures, and the like, the headlines both "outside" and 
inside of your folders, mailing cards, circulars, etc., and 
the first paragraphs of your form letters are the "sales- 
men" of attention, oftentimes of interest in your piece. 

They are of supreme importance. 

Greater care should be taken to get just the right title, 
headline, and first paragraph than any other part of the 
copy, unless it be the final paragraph of letters. 

You can test this for yourself. Pick up any magazine, 
note how you glance through it and how the headline (title) 
of the article "sells" the article to you; that is, gets you 
to stop and look further. If the first paragraph holds in- 
terest you probably read on. 

Bear this truism ever in mind in writing direct-advertis- 
ing copy. Not that you can afford to slight all the other 
parts, but put extra thought and care on titles, headlines, 
and first paragraphs. 

Title or headline, in my opinion and that of others who 
have studied it considerably, should relevantly epitomize 







the hig idea hehind the piece or advertisement , without giv- 
ing the reader more than enough of the story to whet his 

And if your booklet is to be used in direct advertising or 
otherwise, an alluring? title is a powerful asset. 

The following titles are excellent examples: 

Thirty Feet op Danger — a Nujol booklet. 

The House that Jack Fixed. 

Sparks from Flint — for a Flint, Michigan, automobile. 

How TO Pack It — for a corrugated box-board company. 

The Blazed Trail of Evidence — for a testimonial booklet 

where records were saved from fires. 
The Sport Alluring — for a trapshooting book. 

See also Section 225. 

Titles may be divided into four classes: (1) Curious, 
(2) Interrogatory, (3) Declarative, (4) Pictorial. The 
fourth class we will consider later. "What is Milk?" il- 
lustrates class two; and almost any ordinary title will 
represent class three : * ' The Hard Wood Catalogue, ' ' for 
example, which is merely a paraphrase of one actually in 

247. Headlines and Titles Are Valuable. — There is on 
record a case of one manufacturer running six pieces of 
copy in different pages of the same publication, the only 
change being in the headline. He secured inquiries at a 
cost varying from 8 cents to $1.54 each. This illustrates 
the value of headlines. Lister R. Alwood in Mailbag 
(September, 1917) stated that he had observed increases of 
25 per cent in volume of inquiries by using the right title 
for a book. 

Good titles are usually comparatively short, say not over 
six words ; seldom are the words long. 

Starch in his book, ** Advertising," lays down the rule, 
from an examination of advertisements that produce, that 
they be between one-tenth and one-twentieth of the height 
of the advertisement. This is primarily a mechanical fac- 
tor, to be sure, but interesting in connection with titles. 
Test your headline from a copy standpoint with these 

queries: Has it a definite, specific idea? Will the reader 
get it easily? Does it stress the central theme of your 
piece? Or is it general? 

The question is a good form of headline inasmuch as it 
causes your reader to try mentally to answer it if pertinent. 

248. First Paragraphs Are the Headlines of Letters. — 
Some authorities claim that the first paragraph of the form 
letter is the letter, which emphasizes its importance. As 
set forth in Section 27, the thing to do is to get in step 
with your reader and having taken step one of Fig. 61 
proceed to take the rest of the steps. 

Space forbids our quoting a large number of opening 
paragraphs. However, for those wishing additional refer- 
ences see Postage, May, 1916, page 36. 

Good, strong, solid, honest leather — 
That's the beginning of every Blank Shoe. 
(Used by a shoe-manufacturer.) 

A miner in the Homestake Mine in South Dakota — 

The Emperor of Russia in his palace — 

A newsboy in Toronto — 

The head of the U. S. Steel Corporation — 

These and 50,000 other men and women all over the world 
and in every walk of life, rich and poor, have bought the new 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
(Used in the successful Britannica campaign.) 

Soon be time to go fishing! 
And — you'll want plenty of good pipe bait! 
(By a mail-order tobacco company.) 

This is real money ! Feel it, smell it, test it any way you 

like, — then read the rest of the letter! 
(By a metallic packing company which had enclosed a crisp 
new dollar bill with its letter.) 

See also Section 286. 

249. Copy to Answer Inquiries or to Follow, Other 
Copy Must "Follow Through." — Advertising & Selling 
some years ago made an elaborate test of methods of turn- 
ing inquiries into orders and found that there were only 3 
per cent of the advertisers who continued the appeal of 


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Fig. 64. — Return cards must be planned to insure their 
back." Tliey should be in keeping with the rest of the piece, 
specimens, it will be understood, are all separate from the direct 
advertising which they accompany, 





their original advertisement in copy sent in response to 
inquiries or in following up other matter. A salesman who 
came in talking about palm-leaf fans and then proceeded to 
try to sell fur coats would be considered crazy, but follow- 
ups and other copy sent out to inquirers often do what is 
tantamount to this. 

250. Writing Copy for Return Cards, Order Blanks, 
and Other "Come-backs/*— The best *' come-backs" are so 
prepared that they are practically self-contained ; i.e., have 
all of the necessary facts there for the prospect to act upon 
vithout hunting up the circular which accompanied the 
jome-back. « 

In the main there are two forms of come-backs, (a) 
postal cards, and (b) order blanks. By far the large ma- 
jority are return cards. 

The rules .for writing the copy are few and simple, yet 
the failure of many come-backs to come back is due to dis- 
regarding these fundamentals: 

Resell your proposition upon the come-back. ^ 

Unless you are trying for a direct order (as in the mail- 
order business) be very careful that your copy explicitly 
states that sending back the card or other piece places the 
sender under no obligation. 

Use pictures, borders, and similar mechanical devices to 
• make the return card attractive, as set forth in Section 269. 

If your copy offers a free booklet or to send something 
on approval describe what is offered in tempting words 
which will create desire and incite action. Then show a 
picture of the booklet,. if possible. Use colors to ''dress 
up" the return cards and order blanks. 

Figs. 63 and 64 illustrate several return cards and 
other come-backs. 

See also upper part of Fig. 10. 

As an example of judicious copy read this on a return 
card sent out with a letter trying to get approval orders 
for a set of type charts : 



Dear Mr. Sherbow: . 

Please send us a set of Sherbow's Type Charts on free trial. 
We are to have the privilege of using them seven full work- 
ing days and will give them a thorough test. If we are sat- 
isfied to keep them, we may pay for them either at the cash 
price of ninety-six dollars (terms thirty days net) or in five 
monthly installments of twenty dollars each, or in ten 
monthly installments of ten dollars each. 

Otherwise we will return the Charts at your expense and 
we will owe you nothing. 

We shall not be held responsible automatically for the pur- 
chase of the Charts if by reason of neglect we fail to return 
them within the stated approval period. 

A careful analysis of this copy shows that it is nearly 
perfect. It plays up the approval idea ; disarms suspicion 
that the scheme is to get the charts out on approval and 
then if you hold them a second over seven days charge you 
for them (a plan worked by short-sighted mail-order 
houses upon occasion) ; it tells the story of the price and 
makes everything explicit Without more information you 

can fill in the card. 

One method of getting back return cards is to have them 
all signed and ready to be sent back, sometimes without 
even the necessity of aii O.K., at other times— for legal 

reasons— the words ''O.K. " folowed by a space for the 

initials are provided in the copy. See top card on Fig. 64 ; 
the front is ''personalized" as well as the back. 

Some firms get an additional return on their return 
cards by asking for names of other prospects : The Alad- 
din Company, for example, on their return card add this 

Please send a copy of the "Aladdin Homes" Book to my 
friend whose address is: 

Friend's Name > 

Address. . .^ 

' If your card is to get inquiries for a booklet center all 





efforts on doing that. If it is to pave the way — after its 
receipt — for the call of a salesman, it is sometimes advisable 
to make the copy have the prospect ask for "further in- 
formation." Now and then it is better to come right out 
and get the prospect to send for the salesman. One card, 
after carefully explaining that signing and returning the 
card entailed no obligation, adds this line: ''Read this 
before signing and there will be no repining. ' * Personally 
we think this went a step too far. 

If you are seeking confidential information, such as age 
for insurance policies, it is possible to make it unnecessary 
for the prospect to sign the card at all, or to have his name 
appear thereon, by simply numbering the cards which go 
out and keeping a record of the numbers. 

Maxwell Droke made a good point when he constructively 
criticized in a recent issue of Mailbag the return card of an 
architectural magazine with a general appeal. The card 

Dear Sirs: 

Enter my subscription to Blank Magazine for one year. 
Upon receipt of your bill I will remit $3.00 or within ten days 
authorize you to cancel the subscription. 

This copy could have read thus : 

Certainly, Sirs: 

I am interested in a home that is more than house. You 
say the Blank Magazine is a publication devoted to distinc- 
tively different dwellings. If that's true I expect to find it 
interesting. So you may enter my subscription for one year. 
Upon receipt of your bill I will remit $3.00 or, within ten 
days, authorize you to cancel the subscription. 

It requires no vivid imagination to see which copy would 
more likely bring the come-back back! 

Where order blanks are used they should be made almost 
human. It must do all that the good return card does 
and in addition make the process of ordering as easy as 
possible for the prospect. 

251. Testing and Checking Up.— While as a rule it is 
only the mail-order concerns which test their copy, yet as 
suggested in Section 201 tests can be made and should be 
made wherever possible. V. E. Pratt, formerly with Sears 
Roebuck & Company, in the issue of Mailhag for June, 
1919, gave the story of the very thorough tests that Sears 
Roebuck and others make of their copy. I have on file a 
letter from a house selling exclusively by mail which has 
enough tests on record now to enable the owner of the busi- 
ness accurately to forecast the returns from any mailing 
before it goes out ; that is, any mailing using familiar copy 
and appeal. These tests are simply small mailings with a 
careful keying of returns. Opinions are not valid in the 
great mail-order houses; they test and know. 

Montgomery Ward & Company, mail-order house, have an 
elaborate plan of censorship over their catalogue copy before 
it is allowed to go to press. It is usual in the trade, for 
example, to refer to a bronze finish door knob as ''bronze.'' 
Yet Montgomery Ward & Company refuse to hide behind 
trade customs; they insist that the copy-writer call such 
knob a bronze finish knob. 

For a check-up of your copy see Appendix E. 

If copy is to be used over a retailer or other distributor's 
signature see rule in Section 422. 

252. A Few Common Grammatical Errors. — Space 
precludes our going into detailed rules of grammar or stud- 
ies in rhetoric. S. E. Kiser, in Printers' Ink (February 
22, 1917), following a study of a large volume of advertis- 
ing compiled the following set of ''Don'ts" which will be 
helpful to all direct-advertising copy-writers : 

Don't write: "Our volume of business is greater than 
any coffee house in the country" when you mean "greater than 
that of any other coffee house in the country." 

Don't write: "The three last" when you mean "the last 

Don't write: "each other" when you are referring to more 
than two persons or objects. Example: "The eight cylin- 
ders cooperate with each other exactly." Eight cylinders 




may cooperate with one another; two cylinders may cooper- 
ate with each other. 

Don't write: "Badly needed." Nothing is badly needed. 
Many things are much needed. 

Don't write : "We have agents in every city and town who 
will supply you with necessary parts." This is a better 
form: "We have in every city and town agents who will," 

Don't write: "You will like it better, because it is differ- 
ent," Better than what and different from what? 

Don't write: "Every one may see for themselves." "Ev- 
ery one may see for himself," is correct. 

Don't write: "There is no one but what will agree that," 
etc. Say : "There is no one who will not agree." 

Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. What is the relative importance of copy as you understand 
it? Define "copy." 

2. Give the four dimensions of copy and clip examples illus- 
trating each dimension. 

3. Name the five steps in a sale. How many are taken in the 
ordinary piece of direct advertising? 

4. Write a piece of copy which will carry out the five steps of a 

5. Name the five classifications of copy and clip an example of 

6. What is a good "title" for a booklet ? Write several titles. 



In which we take up briefly the necessary mechanical 
parts of planning and producing a piece or a campaign. 
This section includes folding, die-cutting, typography, art 
work color, engravings, electrotypes, paper, and the many 
forms of reproduction. Then we discuss the handling of 
the reproduction, addressing, distributing, as well as the 
records which may be kept, showing forms for the purpose. 
Finally, in abridged form, we emphasize certain postal 
rules and regulations affecting direct advertising. 


Entire volumes, in fact several of them, have been 
written on the various subjects treated here m but a single 


It is necessary, in order to reduce the volume to a min- 
imum, to sketch in but few words the mechanical factors. 
Readers are referred to separate works on Typography, En- 
graving, Printing, Mailing and Distribution. Moreover, 
by means of a short visit to a printing establishment, an 
en-raving shop, and the mailing and distribution section ot 
any local firm they can get a working knowledge of these 

mechanical factors that will be invaluable. 

The Author 





There are wasters, there are misers, there are men who "hnow it 

Or they think they do — hut they are full of ignorance and gall. 
But the worst of all offenders, and the "chestnut" of the town, 
Is the man who wants his advertising printed upside down! 

— Fame. 

253. Interrelation of Mechanical with Physical and 
Mental Factors. — From the outset we have endeavored to 
emphasize the interdependence of direct advertising with 
practically all the other forms of media, depending, of 
course, upon the circumstances surrounding each indi- 
vidual case. Now we want to emphasize the interdepen- 
dence of the mechanical (see Fig. 65) with the mental fac- 
tors in their bearing upon the various physical forms of 
direct advertising. Fig. 66, reproduced here through the 
courtesy of Printers^ Ink Monthly and Furst Brothers & 
Company, Baltimore, graphically portrays the application 
of Fig. 65 to just one single problem — the getting out of 
a catalogue. We shall consider only the planning of the 
mechanical factors in this chapter, but the rest of them 
will be covered in succeeding chapters of this part of the 

Another example of the interrelation of the mechanical, 
physical, and mental factors is in the producing of 
the index page or pages for books, catalogues, etc. Page 
629 of this book represents a typical index page. Any 











^ I Size of Type 
1 S^le of Type 
3 Column Arrangemenf 
■4- Ra^ i4rran$enieni 

5 Irne^ularAtan^ement 

6 He3Cllines.««r&khfla<ls 

■ ■<> i {^ Hand l^tcrma 

l2Color S ///..•.....0.5 
I a Ink. 

b Rapei^ 



1 Mulp<fixiphi/>q 


^^ 1 1 Multiqraphintji 


I C. i^pcnSfencil 
. ..^ •• *v I \^ festal J^ttkf ^ . 

LMailOirecf lhZfl«ii£ n^t&»»,ti»A/ 
2. Enclosing fa K?// U^r^;^' 


Fig. 65. — In order that you may give attention to the principal 
mechanical factors when planning each individual piece of campaign) 
check it up with this chart. Copyrighted. 




FuRST Brothers agG^'ALrOC Chart 

I announcementL-, 

I till* tmpr ■ rditQrimt \ 







I cover""] — 



1 — I envelopeI 



\ layouts" 







\ proofs" 




r- i^LECTROTYpfsl 




Fig. 66. — How one concern not only plans the 
writing, but also the production of its catalogue. 

booklet, catalogue, house organ, or portfolio which is to be 
used as a work of reference should be thoroughly indexed. 
Some weeks ago the author received a mammoth book which 
was not indexed at all. As a consequence the book has 
never been perused beyond the first few pages. Had 
the index shown other manufacturers in the line of 
business in which the author is interested he would have 
looked them up. Or he might have looked up to see the 
recommendations of friends. A table of contents is also 





desirable in books with any great number of chapters. 
See page xi in the front matter of this book for an example 
of a table of contents. 

It is a safe rule to use an index, or a table of contents, 
in any booklet of over 16 pages. 

254. Even a Mental Appeal May Require Mechanical 
Planning. — Perhaps the best illustration of the fact that 
even a mental appeal may require mechanical planning is 
the growing use of "buying attention" by means of stamps, 
coins, and money. In Section 390 we refer to the use 
of a dollar bill as an attention-getter, in connection with a 
letter. A Chattanooga concern used the same appeal by 
inclosing a dollar bill inside of a folder. The outside of 
the folder bore this message: ''There is Some Real Money 
Inside this Circular for You." Tearing the seals you 
found the currency and this headline: '*We Wish to Buy 
Ten Minutes of Your Time. If the Attached Currency 
Will Pay for It Consider Yourself Engaged." Another 
method of supplementary mental with a mechanical appeal 
will be found referred to in Section 261. 

255. Evidence of Value of Mechanical Factors. — Simply 
by running the return cards through the addressing ma- 
chine and signing them for the prospect before they were 
mailed out— purely mechanical — (see Fig. 64) in the case 
of an Ohio manufacturer with a sales-book brought back 
30 per cent more inquiries than the same appeal and 
same return card without this "stunt" which saved the 
prospects' time. 

A Buffalo mail-order house has found that if, instead of 
slipping inclosures into the envelope loose with circular 
letters, the inclosure is clipped to the letter, it increases 
returns materially ; in one test as high as 20 per cent, in 

256. Planning the Physical Forms.— The following 
table will show the various mechanical factors most fre- 
quently met with and how they affect the ordinary physical 
forms as listed in Chapter III . 

Mechanical Factors: 

Mechanical Factors 

■ "~~ 

Kind of 

Number of 

Size of 



























House organs 
Catalogues . . . 






Bulletins .... 



Almanacs .... 



Inclosures .... 






Package Inserts 



Broadsides . . . 



Blotters i .... 


Poster stamps i 

1 Blotters and stamps have only Size as chief mechanical factor, though 
blotters may be coated on one side or may consist of blotting-paper on both 

The preceding table is valuable only as a check-up to see 
whether you have considered the "outside" fold, or cover; 
the number of pages, or folds; size of pages, or folds; 
method of binding, where there is to be a binding, and 
where die-cutting may be a possibility from the mechanical 

In bach and every instance the other factors SUCH 
AS illustrations, typography, kind OF paper, COLOR, 
method of reproduction — ALL MUST BE CONSIDERED AFTER 

Fig. 67 illustrates what is known as a ** stepped" book- 
let. The pages are arranged so that they are stepped, per- 
mitting the display of several items in a line. 

257. Planning Mechanically the Outside or Cover. — 
Chapter VI discussed in detail the outside of envelopes and 
auto-contained pieces. When a booklet, house organ, or 
other piece of direct advertising has no separate cover; that 
is, the piece folds up and first fold is used as a cover, it is 
termed self-contained, or self-inclosing. A sheet of 25 x 38, 
folded up to a sixteen-page form, makes a 6 x 9 self-inclos- 
ing booklet, for example. Covers may be divided into type 




covers, drawn covers, and photographic covers. ''The 
Digest and the Dealer" on Fig. 12 is an example of 
a type cover. "Humanizing a Great Industry" on the 
same plate is a drawn cover. The illustration part of 
The Kodak Magazine on Fig. 19 is an example of a 
photographic cover. All these classes of covers may 
either be: (1) Trimmed flush— that is, the inside pages 
and the cover pages all cut to the same size — as in the 
case of most small paper-bound booklets, such as ''Hu- 
manizing a Great Industry" previously referred to; or 
(2) Extended, where the cover extends beyond the inside 
pages, as in the case of "The Book of Better Business" 

James KcCreery & Co. 










Fig. G7.— How the stepped booklet looks as it 
reaches the prospect. It is a system of indexing. 

(cloth bound) on Fig. 16. In the case of the drawn and 
photographic covers, the cover may "bleed-off," which 
means that the design runs clear to the edge of the cover. 
The name explains the process; the cover design is made 
a bit larger than desired at the finish, and then the book is 
cut down by the paper trimmer to proper size, the design 
being cut until it "bleeds." Effective single-cover covers, 
especially on envelope inclosures, house organs, and so on, 
are made by the use of the bleed-off mechanical factor. 
"How We Lost That Bet on the Movies," illustrated on 
Fig. 44 C, is an example of a photographic bleed-off cover. 
The back page of this latter booklet is the same as the front 
except that it is without the title. 



Another method of securing attention to a cover mechan- 
ically is represented by "A Message from Marietta," and 
"The Optimism Book for Offices" (see Fig. 15). In the 
former case the lettering was printed on a paper stock and 
die-cut out to shape, then pasted on top of the cover stock 
of the booklet extending above the cover itself. In the latter 
case the cover was counter-sunk sufficiently to permit the 
pasting of the picture on a level with the rest of the cover. 

Each of the cases mentioned in the paragraph immedi- 
ately preceding is an instance of using the physical "feel" 
of the cover, produced by a mechanical factor, for a better 
mental impression. "A Message from Marietta" is bound 
in a heavy-weight cardboard and referred to as a " board ' * 
cover. The cover of "The Optimism Book for Offices," 
still heavier, is also a "board" binding. "DuPont 
Products," illustrated on Fig. 15, is an example of a book 
bound with a fabrikoid or imitation leather cover, while 
the Tiffany Blue Book, illustrated on Fig. 16, is an ex- 
ample of the use of actual leather as a cover. 

In all cases plan and order the envelope or other "out- 
side" or container when the piece is planned. 

258. Planning Mechanically the Number of Pages or 
Folds. — Speaking strictly from the mechanical viewpoint, 
a piece of direct advertising such as a mailing card or cir- 
cular, or inclosure, may be printed easily in 4 or 6 pages, or 
any other number of pages that is a multiple of 2. When 
you plan a 6-, a 10-, or a 12-page piece, care should be 
taken to adopt a size of page which will cut without waste 
from standard sizes of papers (see Appendices A and C). 
The reason for this is that, allowing the usual page dimen- 
sions and proportions, these pieces will not cut out of the 
standard size of papers as economically as the 4-, 8-, and 
16-page pieces. 

When you get to booklets, catalogues, and house organs, 
and you need more than 16 pages, the number should be 
24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, etc., having for the total either a 
multiple of 8 or of 16, preferably of the latter, as this size 
f)f form reduces the cost of press-work. 


For example, a 36-page booklet can be printed, but the 
extra 4 pages added to the 32 cost proportionately more 
than the others because they make what the printer terms 

an extra ''form.'* 

259. Planning Mechanically the Size of Pages or Folds. 
—The sizes of folds are guided by what is to be accom- 
plished in the way of "stunt" folds, or governed by mail- 
ing conditions, but in the main they follow the same rules 
as" applied to the size of pages. Booklets, house organs, 
catalogues, and other physical forms of this class may be 
made in practically any size that the advertiser desires, 
but as we have seen in Sections 257 and 258 it is well to 
choose a size that cuts without waste. Leaving aside for 
the moment the movement to standardize catalogue page 
sizes, there are two factors mechanically entering into the 
decision as to the size of the page : (1) Attractiveness and 
convenience from the reader's standpoint, and (2) a size 
that will fit snugly into a standard size of envelope (see 
Appendix B). 

The adopted standards of proportion for page sizes are 
that the length shall be one and one-half times the width. 
For example, a booklet that is 6 inches wide should be 9 
inches long. This rule is not followed slavishly, as will be 
observed in noting the sizes of the many pieces illustrated 
herein. In this connection see Section 283. 

Binding and die-cutting will be taken up in Sections 267 

and 264 respectively. .* 

260. Distribution of the Appeal.— As has previously 
been explained, it may have been decided th^t several dif- 
ferent physical forms are to be used in a campaign, or per- 
haps two or more physical forms in connection with a single 
mailing— letter, inclosure, and return card. In planning 
the pieces from the mechanical standpoint care should be 
exercised to distribute the appeal, yet to make all of the 
appeals consistent. If the letter emphasizes the desirabil- 
ity of sending for a booklet, the return card should ao 
the same, under ordinary conditions. 

I'ijI. 08. — These show how the meohanieal mannfaoture of a 
piece of direct advertising may be made to increase tlie effective- 
n«'-s of tlie appeal. 



261. Mechanical Methods of Increasing Effectiveness. 

— The use of the thumb index may add very considerably 
to the effectiveness of the booklet or catalogue which is to 
be referred to often. The indexing referred to here is the 
system of indexing by cut-out thumb spaces, or the like, sim- 
ilar to that common with dictionaries. 

Printers' Ink Monthly for February, 1920, tells of the 
use of a wisp of hay in a mailing piece used by a coopera- 
tive organization to increase planting of hay in Florida. 
The piece was very effective. 

Many other methods of *' sampling" like the wisp of 
hay have been adopted. A manufacturer of corduroy pants 
uses a sample. The makers of a substitute for leather sam- 
ple it as a covering for suitcases (see Fig. 68). Many wall- 
board companies use the sample idea, yet it is a form that 
has not been ' ' worked to death ' ' as yet and many pieces can 
be improved by this mechanical means. Fig. 68 illus- 
trates how the principles of die-cutting and sampling have 
been cleverly combined. The die-cut part suggests a book, 
and inside there is an actual sample of the book-cover ma- 
terial. A variation of this, and one that shows what re- 
sourcefulness will do, is the sampling of screen wire in 
two sizes of mesh by printing a house with windows and 
porch die-cut out and then putting small pieces of screen 
wire back of the die-cut spaces. See also Section 191. 

Another variation, only used once so far as the writer 
knows, is shown on Fig. 68 where a New York concern 
makes use of the ** serial" story idea by publishing its 
booklet in two parts. The second book was used as a fol- 
low-up of the first, a new physical form. 

When it comes to form letters there is not much you can 
plan mechanically to improve effectiveness. One simple, 
yet effective, form is the postscript. 

262. Folding. — With the exception of a mailing card 
such as Fig. 20 A or a blotter like Fig. 31, every piece of 
<iirect advertising must be folded. In planning direct ad- 
vertising try to arrange it so that the piece can be folded on 
a folding machine. In this connection it will be necessary 




Fig. 69.— You will find illustrated here just a few of the many 
folds possible in folders, or folded mailing cards. These are known 
as auto-contained pieces. 


to work with your printer, which is good advice to follow in 
regard to all the mechanical factors, by the way. The 
various models of one folding machine require a booklet 
of 16 pages just to list the 8-, 16-, 24-, and 32-page forms 

Fig. 70.— Eight different methods of folding 
multiple-page letterheads. See text 

the paper to make 
for details. 



which may be cut out of standard size sheets of paper and 
folded on the machine of this manufacturer. Application 
to folding-machine manufacturers will bring the data about 
folding operations. Fig. 69 illustrates just a few methods 
of folding and ways of making direct-advertising pieces 
inclose themselves through tongues, or tabs. This illus- 
tration is shown by courtesy of the A. M. Collins Manufac- 
turing Company, of Philadelphia. 

Even a simple sales letterhead may be folded in several 
different ways. C. H. Barr, of the Crocker-McElwain Com- 
pany, in the issue of Mailhag for August, 1919, shows eight 
simple methods of making the multi-page sales letterhead 
effective, beyond the usual four-page letterhead, as follows: 

A. A variation of a four-page fold, by adding an extra fold 

to the right as well as a fold down at the top of all pages. 

B. A legal fold, the hinge (fold) at the top instead of the 

left edge as usual in four-page letterheads. 

C. What is known as the French fold, which is taking a sheet 

of paper 17 x 22 and folding it once through the center 
and then once more on the left— combining the broadside 
and letterhead idea. 

D. A variation of the first by using only an extra half-fold 

added to the usual four. 

E. A variation of the second but folding so that the top 

sheet is much shorter than the under one. 

F. SUtting the usual four-page letterhead, the inside fold in 

the lower right-hand corner to hold the card or order 

G. Making a pocket in the inside fold to hold a booklet. 

H. A six-page by adding another fold to the right of the 
usual four-page letterhead. 

Fig. 70 illustrates these folds. 
262A. Folded Pieces Must Be Sealed or Otherwise 
Closed.— While the folded pieces must be open for postal 
inspection, as set forth in Section 374, they cannot go 
through the mails without being ''closed" in some manner. 
Fig. 69 illustrates how simply folders may be made to 
inclose themselves. A good rule to follow is to make the 



seal, or other method of ''closing," inconspicuous. Any- 
thing which detracts from your message is not desirable. 
263. The Folding Must Be Fitted to the Message, or 
Vice Versa. — The folding is, after all, a purely mechanical 
affair, like printing the piece after all planning is over, 
but there is one principle which must be followed in con- 
nection with folding and that is known as the "follow- 




coMmmcijk.1 • • •• BLOCK 

Commercial Blo<k 


Fig 71. — These drawings illustrate how the fold must be made to 
follow the message or the message to follow the fold. See text for 

through" principle. By follow-through is meant either fit- 
ting the message to the fold, or the fold to the message — 
not leaving awkward "cold" white spaces, or asking the 

I |i 


reader to turn the piece upside down and about like a 
picture-puzzle, to follow the copy, or pictures. 

Fig 71 (courtesy of the Zellerbach Paper Company) 
illustrates in simple style the follow-through principl.^ 

(A) represents the inside, or story side, of the folder. 

(B) is the appearance of the outside when laid out flat. 
In the illustration this is shown in reading position, but m 
printing or laying out a dummy (see Section 341) it would 
be necessary to place this side the other way on the reverse 

side of (A). 

(C) shows the folder ready for mailing. If a pr.- 
canceled stamp is used over the edge as indicated, it acts 
as a seal, and a seal would be preferable to the clip shown 

on the left edge. _ 

No good salesman would come into your office and put 8.ii 
order blank, or return card, under your nose before he in- 
troduced himself, yet by failure to watch the f ollow-throuc:h 
principle direct advertising pieces do this every day Cir 
they attempt to incite action (from the standpomt of 
the fold) when they should be at that moment, consi.l- 
ered from the viewpoint of the reader, trying to aroui^e 

In the piece illustrated in Fig. 71, note that the mailing 
address for the piece is also the signature to the return card 
—a double purpose being served by one addressing (in 
this figure the addressing is done by handwriting, it will 

be noted.) . „ j „,j 

It should be stated here that this piece actually produced 
better than 23 per cent inquiries, and of these inquiries 
70 per cent were sold when the salesman called. 1 He piece 
advertised tires, a highly competitive article. 

Alan C. Reiley, advertising manager of the Remington 
Typewriter Company, commenting on this principle, said : 
"We lay special stress on this point because far too manj 
pieces in the mail to-day have no logical ffr-''j'"°Sw- 

Good copy or display may offset the lack of follow 
through, but each is more effective with it. 

Fig. 72 illustrates what may be done in the way 

See niinf( System 
inside — 

(liven S'mtw 
.Vcrmi> Ctddt 

■.1 .i.i-( tr iK..tiit. CKftJUaUM^ 

Th* *-ran4l £" AJapUrki* 

hKth>d<uii Sai'iv I'Othi 

,W51«flURW»J . / 

• !"■. *i*.Wt 

■ .,4-*»!»« 

l# fndt^% Sv-xf*^ — ^ijf. 2 

\ -■'. : 


Svstem of 



I'ig. 72. — Here is an excellent example of a relevant use of clev- 
erness in preparinti^ direct advertisinjr. This booklet with its die- 
t''it pat^es graidiically demonstrates the advertiser's system of 
tilinjj. The upper illustration shows the outside of the piece 
^^■!!ch is die-cut. It is a perfect presentation of a filing cabinet 
^vith drawer partly open. 








Fi? 73.— Direct 

advertising which is to go tlirougii tue dealer 
or other distributor should he provided with proper imprini 
space. The imprints on Carter's Lead blotters, shown at the top, 
have been handled very skilfully. Booklets, catalogues, and even 
house organs, must be imprinted. 

bpecial folds and in fitting the message to the folds, as well 
as die-cut work. 

264. The "Cut-out" Mechanical Appeal and When to 
Use It. — As a variation in a follow-up, or in an original 
campaign, the '* cut-out" idea is worth considering. It is 
largely a mechanical appeal. Fig. 30 illustrates some cut- 
out pieces ; others will be found on Fig. 43. These, as well 
as an unusual piece like the one on Fig. 72, require the 
making of special dies, or cutting knives. Cut-outs are a 
"clever" method of approach but must be used with care, 
or the cleverness will offset the appeal of the piece. 
A firm specializing in cut-outs says this: "We will never 
consent to an odd-shaped piece unless that shape is sug- 
gested by the title, or the matter contained in it is appro- 
priate to or suggestive of the occasion. Neither do we plan 
for two or three pieces of odd-shaped literature to follow 
one another. Occasionally, though, a house organ can be 
gotten out in the same shape month after month and not 
lose any of its effectiveness. ' ' 

265. Binding Direct Advertising. — The auto-contained 
pieces of Chapter III do not, as a rule, require any method 
of binding, but booklets, house organs, catalogues — all re- 
quire bindings. In general, the binding is on the long side 
)f the page, known as the square binding style. Those 
bound on the short side of the page are referred to as oh- 
ong binding. The typographical arrangement and display 
usually guide the binding. The chocolate catalogue shown 
on Fig. 16 is bound the oblong way because the boxes are 
better suited for the wide than for the high page. 

266. Sometimes Catalogues or Booklets Are Loose- 
leaf. — As noted in Section 43, catalogues, occasionally other 
forms, may be loose-leaf. In those cases the methods of 
binding are various, frequently patented for the purpose 
in hand. The chocolate catalogue referred to in other 
places is bound by ordinary brass brads. Other methods cf 
loose-leaf binding are with cord, silk, shoe-string, ribbon, 
leather thongs, and the like. Where the publisher of a 
catalogue has a system whereby salesmen or other persons 




call regularly and keep the catalogue up-to-date, or other- 
wise when frequent changes are necessary, the loose-leaf 
idea of binding is very good. However, it should be bonie 
in mind that the average user of a catalogue will not trouble 
to keep a loose-leaf catalogue up to date. 

267. Styles of Binding Described.— Fig. 74 illustrates 
several of the usual methods of binding books, and we are 













.pi« 74.— This line engraving graphically portrays 
the four main methods of binding direct-adyeitising 
books, booklets, catalogues, house organs, and the liKe. 

indebted to the House of Hubbell, Cleveland, for the prep- 
aration of this helpful illustration. Fig. A illustrates the 
commonest style of binding small books, called ''saddle wir- 
ing'' or ''saddle stitching/^ The book in binding rides 
astride a metal '* saddle," half on either side, and the wires 
or stitches go right through its back to be clamped or tied. 

Fig. B shows a more complicated method. This is ordi- 
nary "sewing.'^ Each ''signature" (usually eight or six- 
teen pages) is sewed in such a way as to hold its pages 
together with the group of signatures which make up the 
book. This method is used in heavy books only and the 
cover must be pasted on to the back folds of the sheets. 

Fig. C is the method known as side wiring, which is 
much stronger than the method shown in Fig. B, but it has 
a disadvantage inasmuch as the book will not lie flat when 
opened. Here, too, the cover must be pasted. 

Probably the best method for the binding of a heavy cata- 
logue is sewing and pasting, with a linen back cover, and 
pasted down ''flies," or end-sheets as they are called (the 
sheets just inside the front and back covers). Fig. D 
shows a clever handling of this problem with the flies 
folded inside the first and last signatures, these being called 
"turned fly leaves." This method makes an almost perfect 
binding but is necessarily more expensive. 

There are some printers who make a so-called semi- 
permanent binding by an ingenious folding of paper and 
boards, but the above comprise the usual commercial styles. 

268. Imprinting a Method of Personalizing.— In plan- 
ning all pieces which are to reach the prospect through the 
hands of others, or if the purchase has to be made other 
than direct from the publisher of the piece, it is often desir- 
able and frequently necessary actually to imprint (to print 
on after the original printing), or provide space for the 
imprint of the local dealer, agent, salesman, wholesaler, or 
other distributor. 

Fig. 73 illustrates how imprint space has been provided 
on several different pieces. Shrewd direct advertisers try 
to plan the imprint space so that to the final recipient of 



the piece it does not look like an ''afterthought'' but as 
a real part of the piece itself. This pleases the distributer, 
of course, and makes closer working harmony and serves 
the recipient. 

It is not the rule of some manufacturers to imprint cata- 
logues. Where they do not imprint them and send them to 
the distributor for use the latter almost invariably rubber- 
stamps his name and address upon them. Progressive 
firms either imprint or provide ''presentation stickers" in 
the front of the catalogue or book, thus tying up the man- 
ufacturer with the local distributor. 

269. Planning Mechanically the Return Piece.— Tlie 
usual return piece is a postal card, since no envelope is 
required and it is easy for the prospect to fill out. Varia- 
tions of this are order blanks and reply-sheets. If the busi- 
ness is of such a nature that the prospects are not desirous 
of the public's knowing about it, do not use the return 
postal card; use order-blank and envelope. A fluid for re- 
moving superfluous hair advertised to women would require 
the latter plan, for example. 

On Fig. 64 there is illustrated the reverse of a timely 
return card inclosed with a Butler Brothers' house organ. 
Note the extra tab to the right. On the front of this extra 
tab there appears a miniature reproduction of the poster 
offered, printed in colors. 

By planning the mechanical appeal, improved results 
can be secured. On Fig. 63 the ' ' Lines ' ' card is an illustra- 
tion of an attempt to tie up the return card with a fishmg- 
season house organ. This is the timely appeal. 

The card of the Society of Poster Art (Fig. 64) shows 
how by adding colored borders (green in the original) at 
both ends of the return card it was given an added attrac- 
tiveness. While on Fig. 63 a method of mechanically making 
it easy for the prospect to fix a future date for the salesmcin 
to call, or to receive samples by mail, is shown. Ed. Wollt, 
advertising manager, David Adler & Sons Clothing Com- 
pany, in Mailhag for August, 1919, gave the results of two 
tests on return cards, and these tests showed that while 



the plain card pulled 14 per cent returns, the colored card 
brought back 22 per cent returns. . , ^ .<t3 ^^• 

C C Casey in an excellent article entitled "Putting 
Individuality into Return Cards" {Printers' Ink, Decem- 
ber 16, 1915) gave these five rules out of many years ex- 
nerience: "First. Give the return card individuality by 
making it fit the letter (piece) it goes with. Second. 
Give the card quality by printing it like the letter (piece) 
Third Filled-in names put extra 'pull into cards. It it 
costs too much, then leave off the fiU-in on the letter and put 
it on the card. Fourth. Use good quality of stock for post- 
cards Fifth. The net cost of return, cards, like the net 
post of everything else, is in the comparative efficiency. 

Fig 63 also illustrates the use of the humorous 

appeal to bring back the card. .,.. i? i- +v.ot 

Where a free booklet is offered, or anything free for that 
matter, picturing it helps to -increase the returns for it 
portrays to the reader what he will get. On Fig. t6 
there is shown how this has been effected on the order side 
of a return card. At top of Fig. 64 both sides of a return 
card are shown. Note how on the face of it use has been 
made of the left side of the card-allowed by postal rules 
and regulations (see Chapter XX) ; also note that this card 
was signed before being mailed out. Further than that 
note how the names of banks near to the bank addressed 
(New York state) have been imprinted on the card, thus 
localizing the appeal, making it more personal. This card 
is personalized in three ways, then : (1) An actual picture 
of the New York state salesman on the front; (2) names 
of nearby banks printed, and (3) the name of the individ- 
ual and bank filled in before the card was mailed out. 

There is shown on Fig. 64 also one side of a coupon- 
order blank such as is frequently used by subscription 

agencies. , «. 

See FicT 10 for an example of a double return card offer- 
ing an ea°sy way mechanically, for the prospect to act. ^ 

Fig. 75 shows how "differentness" as well as a service 
appeal has been given aTeturn card. The tab "Printing 

^ Willi % 


turns this 5x3 return card into a handy filing card. 

The space utilized by the salesman's picture in the caise 
of the Addressograph Company card is often occupied by 
a free book offer (see Fig. 64). 

Most cards read the long way of the card, but you will 
note on Fig. 64 one card which runs the narrow way and y<;t 
is mechanically attractive. 

If you build your return cards on this principle yoa 
will get back the maximum number of them: So plan the 
return card that it retells the whole story ^ that is, the BIG 
idea of the piece it accompanies; and let it suggest action. 




(If you are not now in the markft for printing, pat this card in your follow-up index) |^| 


On or about. 

.we shall 


he glad to see your representative. 

Our Mr 

.and would 

is in charge of such matters. 
Name of Firm, 


Fig. 75. — This cut shows how, by mechanical means, a return card 
can be given both a mechanical and a mental appeal. 

Then if the return card gets separated from the main piece, 
or is laid aside, the reader has the whole story there and 
will feel free to act, when otherwise he might delay by won- 
dering whether he remembered the original offer and in 
thinking it would turn up in due course. 

In preparing the return card (or other come-back) as a 
part of the mailing piece be sure that it is logically placed, 
.easily detached, and follows the rest of the rules set forth 
in this Section and in Section 250. 

Fig. 75 illustrates a postal card separate from the mail- 
ing piece but attached with a sticker, while on Fig. 76 the 
return cards are an integral part of the mailing pieces. 
If properly handled, experience shows that separate cards 
are more effective than attached cards or cards made with 
and as a part of the mailing piece. 

270. Watch the Size in Planning Mailing Pieces.— One 
mechanical angle so simple and obvious that it would seem 
unnecessary to mention is the planning of the size. Espe- 
cially should size be borne in mind when heavy weights of 
cardboard are used. Postmen fold heavy cardboard and 
break it. Watch a postman deliver his mail in a big city, 
see the strap he has about the different lots, and when you 
plan a piece remember that strap and its leverage. 

271. Mechanical Methods of Keying.— You ''key" di- 
rect advertising as a method of knowing the source of the 
inquiry. The original method of keying was by fictitious 
street addresses; 21 Main Street meant a broadside, while 
22 Main Street meant a booklet, and so on. Other meth- 
ods include the use of different colored cardboard, or dif- 
ferent colored inks on the same colored cardboard, or again 
by slightly changing the name of the booklet, or referring 
to it by name, number, letter, or by a peculiar description 
each time as "Our home-decorating book," "Our booklet on 
how to decorate a home," "The home-beautiful booklet," 
and so on. Most inquirers copy from the original advertise- 
ment. Dates, localities, salesmen's names (actual or fic- 
titious) are a few other methods of keying. 

Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. Wherein does this chapter differ from mater al in Chapters 
VIII and X? Explain. 

2. Give the several different kinds of covers. 

3. Would you expect to print a 13-page book? Why not? 

4. Explain the follow-through principle. See if you can find 
a sample of direct advertising which violates this principle. 

5. Would you recommend a campaign of six pieces, all cut- 
outs? How about three? 


6. Choose from any available source specimens of the varicus 
methods of binding: a book. 

7. At the local stores see if you can find some specimens of good 
and bad planning of imprint space. , • , • 

8. Give the principle for planning, from a mechanical view- 
point, return cards, and order blanks. 



The thought or idea to be communicated acquires or loses 
force, directness, clearness, lucidity, beauty, in proportion to the 
fitness of the typography employed as a medium. — George 

272. Typography Is the Vehicle of Expression. — ^You 
have a direct-advertising campaign all planned out in ac- 
cordance with principles previously laid down, but to ex- 
press — communicate — that idea to your possible prospects 
the various physical forms must be duplicated in some way, 
as we shall take up in Section 327. But no matter what 
method of duplication is decided upon the words, ideas, 
thoughts will be conveyed, at least in large measure, by 

**The New Standard Dictionary*' defines type as a piece 
or block of metal or of wood, bearing on its upper surface, 
usually in relief, a letter or character for use in printing; 
also, such pieces collectively. Even if the physical form is 
a letter, form or personal, it will be reproduced from type. 
Typography and display are inseparably interwoven, to be 
sure, and both are means of expression. The six main 
methods of display — which is in a way the emphasis we 
would use if we were talking our message — are : (1) Display 
type; (2) Body type; (3) Illustrations; (4) Color; (5) 
Margins and arrangements of pages, columns, etc., and (6) 
Hand-lettering, borders, ornaments, etc. 

In this chapter we shall take up only the matter of 
typography, the basic — and simplest — form of expressing 
and emphasizing our idea. 

273. Typography Not to Be Confused with Multiplicity 
of Type Styles. — In studying typography it should be 



emphasized early that there is no need for a multiplicity of 
type styles, and this book will not indulge in page after 
page of Piquant, Petite, Mon Petite, Paralyzing, and Pow- 
erful, families of type styles in all their different ramifica- 
tions of body, bold, italic, extended, condensed, extra wide, 
outline and the like. You can get an idea of the enormous 
number of type styles by securing a specimen book frcnn 
any of the large type-founders; there are as many styles 
of type as there are styles of men's collars, and at least 
a few new ones each season. We shall try to stick to the 
study of typography only ; or, rather, the expressing of the 
idea by the use of type. 

Perhaps the best illustration of non- 
necessity of the many different styles of 
types in printing offices is this paragraph 
taken in connection with the one which follows. 
This paragraph is set in elite typewriter 

This paragraph is set in pica 
typewriter type. With these two styles 
of type practically 100 per cent of all 
personal and form letters are 

Those experienced in printing will know that the exact 
size of actual (the preceding paragraphs are set in imita- 
tion typewriter type) typewriter type is not the same as 
of printer's type. Considering elite and pica typewriter 
type for the moment, Louis Victor E>^inge, in Mailbag tor 
May 1917, went on record as saying: *' Actual tests have 
demonstrated that elite type generally is more efficient than 
pica. Not only is it the most generally used style of type- 
face, but through its compactness and size it permits use ot 
larger margins and between-paragraph spacing. However, 

there are exceptions." -r. • • ou i.nw 

274. What Typography Must Do.-Benjamm Sherbow, 

author of ''Making Type Work," Sherbow 's Type Charts, 



and an acknowledged expert on typography, sums up what 
tvpography must do in two brief sentences : 

first: Attract the reader's attention to the message. 
Second: Hold the reader's attention until message is read. 

Every planner of direct advertising should make these 
two sentences a part of his working creed. 

275. Technical Details About Type. — For clarity it will 
be necessary to take up a few technical details about type. 

Almost without exception in every style or face (by this 
word we have reference to the formation of the letters in a 
style of type) of Roman type you will find: 


CAPS. ' ' 

3. alphabets of small letters known as "lower case." 


5. as well as italics lower case. 

''Case" is the compartment in which the type itself is 
kept by the printer, the "upper case" holding the capitals 
and the "lower case" the small letters. 

"Roman" in its capitals w^as derived from the archi- 
tectural alphabet of the Romans and in its "lower case" 
letters from the written books of Italian copyists. 

This line is set in Caslon Old Style (Roman). 

Most Roman tyipe faces may be placed in one of two 
classes: "Old Style" and "Modern." This paragraph is 
set in De Vinne, a Modern Roman type. Old Style, as a 
rule, shows a greater freedom of design. Old Style serifs 
(see Figure 77) are usually oblique, while Modern serifs 
are generally horizontal. For example, a lower ease "1" 
in Old Style types has the top of the letter finished off with 
a slanting stroke (or serif), while in Modern types this 
finishing stroke is horizontal. 

In addition to Roman and Italic, mentioned in the preceding 
paragraphs, we have Text or Black Letter and the misnamed 


"Gothic" type, devoid of serifs, primitive In design, and lacking In 
those elements of interest and artistic value usually found in other 
Roman type faces. Its blackness is offensive to the eye desp te 
the simplicity of the characters and it cannot be recommended lor 
general use. 

Ubis paraarapbls set In true Gothic ti^peftnown 
as XTcit, or JBlacF? Xetter. 

The preceding is rather hard to read, though it is sug- 
gestive of quality at times as in Figure 78C. 

Italic, to some extent an inclined Roman, in ''lower case," 
was introduced by Aldus four hundred years ago, and 
capitals later by Garamond. Italics are used for emphasis 
in body matter and for variety in type effects. It do(?s 
not present a legible appearance as a body type in solid 

This pajagraph is set in Antique No. 3 Bold, which is 
the very simplest form of display, but see Section 278. 

** Points" are the units upon which type sizes are based. 
They are now standardized by all type-founders. A point 
is one seventy-second of an inch. 

This is 6 point De Vinne. 
This is 8-point De Vinne. 

This is 10-point De Vinne. 

Among the other sizes of type are 12-, 14-, 18-, 24-, 30-, 
36-, 42-, 48-, 60-, and 72-points, though some faces are found 
in odd sizes like 41/2-, 5y2-, 7-, 9-, and 11-point. Wood type, 
used for large handbills, posters, etc., may be had in very 
large sizes, some of them inches deep. 

"The em" is a square, each side of which is equal to 
the height of body of that type. For example, a 10-point 
em is a square 10 points by 10 points, thus M. 

The 12-point em, known as *'pica," is always used as a 
unit to measure the length (or measure, as it is called) of a 
line of type, the width of an advertisement, or column. 
For example, a standard newspaper column is known as 
13 ems pica, or 2^42 inches. A few Metropolitan newspa- 
pers use the 12^2 ems pica column, however. 

"Quads" are pieces of type less than type height for 
making indentions, filling out lines, and so on. 

y'l^. 70. — ^Failinij pieces which have the return card as an in- 
tejjral part of the piece itself as represented in tlie above illustra- 
"on. Note, in tlie case of the St/stcm card, the use of the arrow 
to lead the prospect's eye. 


























7 „ 

*' Spaces" are blank pieces of type also lower than the 
type face. They are used to separate words and sometimes 
to separate the letters of a word. This phrase is 
'Metterspaced. * ' 

''Leads" are thin strips of metal, inserted between lines 
of type to "open them up" — and like quads and spaces 
the leads are not so hi^h as the type and therefore do not 
print. If they printed they would be in effect underscore 
marks. This paragraph is spaced with 1-point leads. It 
takes 12 of these leads to make a pica. 

This paragraph has 2-point leads, meaning 6 to the pica; 
other leads are 3-, and 4-point, referring, respectively, to 
4 leads to the pica, and 3 leads to the pica. When two two- 
point leads are inserted between lines of type the spacing 
is known as double leaded. 

Strips of 6-point and 12-point material are termed *' non- 
pareil" and **pica" slugs, respectively. 

Fig. 77 illustrates a small advertisement as it would 
appear locked up in a chase (the frame holding the type, 
quads, leads, borders, furniture, etc.). 

276. How Type May Be Set. — Originally all type was 
set by hand. That is, the individual letters were taken out 
of the upper, or lower case, with the necessary spaces, 
quads, leads, and so on, to make a form, as the printer 
terms a set-up advertisement, and then printed from those 
original types. 

In hand composition (the printer speaks of setting up 
type by any method as ''composition") the compositor 
"justifies" each of the lines to make them of equal length by 
inserting letter-spaces of varying thickness between the 
words so as to make them appear to the eye of the reader 
as equally spaced. Take a page of typewriting: note how 
sometimes two words seem farther apart than two others, 
especially where the words end with ''y" and start with 
'e," for example. This is because the spaces are all alike; 
in hand composition whether the letters seemed to fit in 
together or not the composition would make them please the 
eye by spacing. 





t ,' 

The linotype is a machine for setting type, a line at a 
TIME; the line when cast in melted lead and hardened by 
the machine being known as a slug. A linotype has a key- 
board somewhat like a large typewriter, and magazines of 
the various styles of type it will set, usually body typies 
only, from 6- to 14-point. If there is an error in a line 
of material set by the linotype the entire line must be 
reset. This book is set on the linotype. 

Monotype composition requires two machines. One key- 
board, operated like a typewriter, cuts perforations in a 
strip of paper, making that strip resemble the playing roll 
of a player-piano. This strip is then placed in a second ma- 
chine which casts and sets up the type one letter at a 
TIME. In monotype composition each letter or character is 
a separate unit, and corrections may be made of any char- 
acter in a line without resetting the line. 

Monotype composition is especially recommended for tal)- 
ular matter broken by rules, such as price lists, or where 
there is much ** running around" to be done. By ''run- 
ning around," the printer has reference to setting type 
to go at the sides or above or below a half-tone or other 

277. Experts Agree that Simplicity Spells Success in 
Typographic Display. — There is no typographic display 
expert who will not most empTiatically state that simplicii'ii 
spells success in typographic display. Hal Marchbank3 
says: *'A11 print is intended to convey a thought. The 
simplest way to convey a writer's thought in print is to 
arrange the message in a simple, direct, easy-to-read way." 
{Printers' Ink Monthly , January, 1920.) Edwin Hamilton 
Stuart before the Quotoright Club of Pittsburgh said: 
"Good typography is simple." Everett R. Currier before 
the New York (1919) convention of the United Typothetaei 
of America repeated: "When all is said and done, there 
is one word which stands out clearly above all others as 
the guiding star to good typography — ^that word is simplic- 
ity.'* Many others might be quoted on the point; these 
few will show their agreement. Benjamin Sherbow in 

speaking before the Philadelphia convention of the Asso- 
ciated Advertising Clubs made this quotation as, in his 
opinion, underlying all good typographic display: ''When 
an idea will not bear a simple form of expression, it is the 
sign for rejecting it." 

278. Securing Simplicity in Typographic Display. — 
Simplicity is secured in typographic display in this man- 
ner; namely, by using plain, legible type, and not by mix- 
ing up a half-dozen styles and shapes and sizes. Theodore 
Low DeVinne, the famous New York printer, first presi- 
dent of the United Typothetae of America, set forth the 
way to better typography through -simplicity in the issue 
of Printers' Ink, for January 7, 1891, when he said, in 
part : 

'*Too many faces of type are used in miscellaneous dis- 
play. If the compositor is equipped with a full series of this 
face [gothie] he has no need for antiques, titles, clarendon, 
or any other plain face. The greater variety of faces he 
puts on a page, the worse he makes that page look." At 
that time Mr. DeVinne, who is the author of several books 
on composition and other printing processes, expected that 
customers would object to this ''simplicity." 

Mr. Currier in the talk referred to in Section 277 gave 
this specific advice on the subject of securing simplicity 
through type faces now used: "We find among the old 
styles the recognized leaders, Caslon, Goudy, Kennerley. 
The modern faces provide us with our staunch friends 
Scotch Roman and Bodoni. The antiques give us the 
venerable Old Antique (or Bookman) which nobody can 
tire of because of its plain, clear, colorful simplicity." 

All of these types are old-style or Roman types, it will be 
noted, and Mr. Currier added, with reference to the bold 
types, "There are few bold faces that look anything but 
^gly, that do not disfigure instead of enhance the message." 
We then recommends as excellent bold faces, one modern — 
Bodoni bold (see Figure 78A) and the other old-style — 
Goudy bold. 




The three preceding paragraphs, set respectively in 10 pt. 
old-style Roman, 10 pt. old-style Bold, and 10 pt. Bodoni 
bold, illustrate the fact that there is much to be gained by 
simplicity and that legibility is secured by plain easily. 
read, not too heavy types. 

Through the courtesy of Ellsworth Geist and Printers* 
Ink Monthly we illustrate by Fig. 78 six different styles or 
faces of types, and cover in these types practically ev(;ry 
form of atmosphere any direct advertiser might want. 

279. Making the Typography Attract Attention.— In 
Section 274 we gave Mr. Sherbow's two essentials of typog- 
raphy. The first of these is to attract attention. He adds 
that there are two main ways of attracting attention tci a 
message by typography : 

(1) By good looks. 

(2) By liveliness. 

The first is secured by (a) making the printed message 
pleasing to the eye, by careful choice of type face, as well 
as other display, without overdressing; (b) conforming 
the physical dress of the printed page to the character of 
the message (see Fig. 78) ; (c) avoiding superfluous and 
distracting ornaments and decorations; (d) relieving the 
type by white space. 

The second comes from making the printed page appear 
to have an interesting uvely story to tell. Mr. Sherbow 
secures this in two main ways: (a) by lively display heads 
and subheads, using for display type any type which l)y 
contrast to the body type sticks out and calls attention to 
itself, and (b) by breaking up the page into short para- 
graphs so as to make the page sparkle. 

Quite frequently the main message is carried entirely 
by the display lines, and the display must : 

1. Stand out. 

2. Be clear and readable. 

3. Be good to look at. 

4. Be so arranged as to be taken in at a glance. 

5. Be well-dressed but not over-dressed. All emphasis is no 


The Locomobile 

Built to order for people 
who wish their own indi- 
viduality to exprcM itself 
in their car. The personal 
preferences in regard to 
motor vehicles may easily 
be gratified in thu car. 

Q&aftsmanship — 
A ^m Qrnglanb STraiiition 



Glenellen Pears 

Ripened in 





Economically, the most im- 
portant city in the world is 
Pittsburgh. The payroll of 
the district is over two-mil- 
lion dollars a day and bank 
clearings have trebled in six 
years. Pittsburgh is stirely 
the heart of industry. 


^est-knit Hosiery 

cA DELIGHTFUL uiloted fit 
—the beauty of which 15 much 
etihanced by a deep rich lustre 
that ii attained only by exclu- 
sive "Bfj/-*ni/" process of finish- 
ing— lending a charming touch 
of correctness to the well-gowned 
vroman's attire. 

A full range of colors in popu- 
lar weights and styles. 









Fig. 78. — A. Bodoni is an aristocrat. B. 
Antique type expresses utility. C. Cothic, or 
what is mere generally known as Old English 
or text type, must be used wisely. D. Cloister 
type is distinctly feminine. E. Caslon serves 
well everywhere. F. Forum type has classic 








280. Making the Typography Hold the Attention.— 
The other essential of good typography, as outlined by Mr. 
Sherbow in Section 274, is to hold the attention once it is 
secured. He claims there are but two ways of doing this— 
(1) By orderly arrangement, and (2) through ease of read- 

Direct advertising fails more often to follow the idea of 

orderly arrangement, especially in folders, circulars, and the 
like, than any other form of advertising. For orderly ar- 
rangement means absence of confusion. It means makinj^ it 
easy for the reader to follow your printed message in se- 
quence. Section 263 had reference to the importance of 
the ''follow-through" in direct advertising. That V7as 
the viewpoint of the mechanics of folding, but it is equally 
applicable from the standpoint of typography. No eyes, 
unless very much interested, will follow a series of con- 
tortions to keep up with an involved message. 

Ease of reading is secured by avoiding dark backgrounds 
for type display; by not setting long lines or paragraphs, 
or whole pages in capital letters ; by using sparingly italic 
or bold face for text or body type, for they are hard to 
read and tire the eyes. 

281. The Size and Face of Type Help to Hold Atten- 
tion. — If you choose a type that is good to look at, end 
every stroke of every letter is clear and instantly recogniz- 
able (you probably recall standing before the old family 
organ or piano and gazing with wonder at some Old-Style 
English lettering puzzling out whether the first letter was 
an '*M'' or a *'W") which means a design with which we 
are familiar through long practice of reading, you have 
taken the first step towards holding attention through easy 

The size of type is next in importance, and small t}'pe 
is not encouraging to the eye ; on the other hand, type may 
be entirely too large for easy reading. 

The length of the line is governed in a measure by the 
size of the type used ; the smaller the type, the shorter the 
line, as a general rul'^ 

Gilbert P. Farrar, in ''Typography of Advertisements 
that Pay," lays down these rules for the length of line: 

'*Do not set 6- or 8-point any wider than 3 inches (this 
is 18 pica ems) ; 10-point any wider than 4^/2 inches (which 
is 27 pica ems) ; 12-point any wider than 6 inches; 14- 
point, lyo inches; 18-point can go as wide as 10 inches." 

282. Judicious Spacing Helps to Hold Attention. — 
There are five methods of judicious spacing, according to 
Sherbow, which will help to hold attention: (1) Between 
letters, especially in lines of all capitals — where they are 
used (though their use is to be discouraged because they are 
hard to read) ; also at times desirably in lower-case display 
lines, but should be avoided in lower-case body type; (2) 
Between words and sentences; (3) Between lines, or lead- 
ing. Easy-to-read comes from permitting enough white 
space to show through to allow a clear passage for the eye; 
(4) Paragraph spacing; either by indention of first line, 
or white space where flush paragraphing is used; and (5) 
in the use of display, for display type needs plenty of 
"breathing space," which means white space. 

283. Margins of a Book Page. — The approved margins 
for a well-designed book page are that the narrowest mar- 
gin appear at the binding edge ; a somewhat increased mar- 
gin at the top of the page; a still larger margin at the 
outside edge, and the largest margin of all at the bottom 
of the page. These same margins may well be used in 
designing a good display of a form letter or personal let- 
ter, considering the right-hand edge as the binding edge. 
Margins for pages, or folds of folders, broadsides, and the 
like should follow the same rule as book-page margins. 

DeVinne, in ''The Practice of Typography," on the sub- 
ject of margins makes this statement: "The proportions 
may be roughly expressed by these figures for the plain 
octavo (see Section 493) : For visible back margin (after 
sewing) 4 to 5 picas; for head margin 5 to 6 picas; for 
front margin 7 to 8 picas ; for tail margin 8 to 9 picas. It 
will be understood that these are the measurements of the 
leaf after sewing and trimming. The width of the paper 




280. Making the Typography Hold the Attention.— 
The other essential of good typography, as outlined by Mr. 
Sherbow in Section 274, is to hold the attention once it is 
secured. He claims there are but two ways of doing this— 
(1) By orderly arrangement, and (2) through ease of read- 

Direct advertising fails more often to follow the idea (if 
orderly arrangement, especially in folders, circulars, and the 
like, than any other form of advertising. For orderly ar- 
rangement means absence of confusion. It means making it 
easy for the reader to follow your printed message in se- 
quence. Section 263 had reference to the importance cf 
the ** follow-through" in direct advertising. That was 
the viewpoint of the mechanics of folding, but it is equally 
applicable from the standpoint of typography. No eyeij, 
unless very much interested, will follow a series of con- 
tortions to keep up with an involved message. 

Ease of reading is secured by avoiding dark backgrounds 
for type display; by not setting long lines or paragraphs, 
or whole pages in capital letters; by using sparingly italic 
or bold face for text or body type, for they are hard to 
read and tire the eyes. 

281. The Size and Face of Type Help to Hold Atten- 
tion. — If you choose a type that is good to look at, and 
every stroke of every letter is clear and instantly recogniz- 
able (you probably recall standing before the old family 
organ or piano and gazing with wonder at some Old-Style 
English lettering puzzling out whether the first letter was 
an '*M" or a "W") which means a design with which we 
are familiar through long practice of reading, you hav3 
taken the first step towards holding attention through easy 

The size of type is next in importance, and small typ'3 
is not encouraging to the eye ; on the other hand, type may 
be entirely too large for easy reading. 

The length of the line is governed in a measure by the 
size of the type used ; the smaller the type, the shorter the 
line, as a general rule. 

Gilbert P. Farrar, in ''Typography of Advertisements 
that Pay,'' lays down these rules for the length of line: 

'*Do not set 6- or 8-point any wider than 3 inches (this 
is 18 pica ems) ; 10-point any wider than 4i/4 inches (which 
is 27 pica ems) ; 12-point any wider than 6 inches; 14- 
point, 7I/2 inches; 18-point can go as wide as 10 inches." 

282. Judicious Spacing Helps to Hold Attention. — 
There are five methods of judicious spacing, according to 
Sherbow, which will help to hold attention: (1) Between 
letters, especially in lines of all capitals — where they are 
used (though their use is to be discouraged because they are 
hard to read) ; also at times desirably in lower-case display 
lines, but should be avoided in lower-case body type; (2) 
Between words and sentences; (3) Between lines, or lead- 
ing. Easy-to-read comes from permitting enough white 
space to show through to allow a clear passage for the eye ; 
(4) Paragraph spacing; either by indention of first line, 
or white space where flush paragraphing is used; and (5) 
in the use of display, for display type needs plenty of 
"breathing space," which means white space. 

283. Margins of a Book Page. — The approved margins 
for a well-designed book page are that the narrowest mar- 
gin appear at the binding edge; a somewhat increased mar- 
gin at the top of the page; a still larger margin at the 
outside edge, and the largest margin of all at the bottom 
of the page. These same margins may well be used in 
designing a good display of a form letter or personal let- 
ter, considering the right-hand edge as the binding edge. 
Margins for pages, or folds of folders, broadsides, and the 
like should follow the same rule as book-page margins. 

DeVinne, in ''The Practice of Typography," on the sub- 
ject of margins makes this statement: ''The proportions 
Daay be roughly expressed by these figures for the plain 
octavo (see Section 493) : For visible back margin (after 
sewing) 4 to 5 picas; for head margin 5 to 6 picas; for 
front margin 7 to 8 picas; for tail margin 8 to 9 picas. It 
^ill be understood that these are the measurements of the 
leaf after sewing and trimming. The width of the paper 





lost by trimming or concealed by sewing must be estimated 
and allowed for in the proposed margin on the pattern 
sheet/* For pages other than octavo size the proportions 
4 — 5 — 7 — 8, at the back, top, front and bottom, respec- 
tively, may be regarded as perfectly correct. 

In mail-order catalogues we find type crowded to the edge 
of the pages, but bear in mind their lack of ease in reading 
is offset by their alluring copy and i^romise of lower 
PRICES. It may be stated parenthetically that mail-order 
catalogues permit shopping. 

284. Arrangement of Special Pages. — In the center of 
a saddle-stitch book, for example, you have two facing 
pages referred to as a center-spread. Special designs are 
often used in arranging these pages, especially in a house 
organ, or advertising booklet, but not generally for a cata- 
logue. Fig. 86 A illustrates the center-spread of an envel- 
ope-inclosure sized booklet, showing use of art-work in con- 
nection with typographic display. 

285. Laying Out the Title Page. — The title page is 
the threshold of the booklet, catalogue, and portfolio. If 
effectively planned it can be a big factor in making the 
booklet or catalogue successful. Its main purpose is to lend 
atmosphere to the booklet. Printers* Ink Monthly, lor 
March, 1920, laid down these rules: ''The less put in a 
title page the better. It should be simple, open, delicate 
and unaggressive. It should not be overburdened with 
detail. It should merely hint at the good things to follov^" 
Figs. 79 and 80 represent several excellent title pages. 

Study the title pages on Fig. 79 with the cover pages of 
the same books pictured on Fig. 13, and note how the title 
page leads the reader into the booklet. 

286. Headlines and Subheads. — Headlines are the sales- 
men of j^our "copy" or body (text) matter. Typographi- 
call}", headlines should be set so as to help sell the ided 
rather than to suit the printers' taste. This means ''break 
by sense." 

^Mg. 79. Tlie titlo panes of three of the booklets described and 
jHnstrated elsowlicro in tliis work. Note the use of hand-letterin<r 
hi ''aeh case. The tint Ithx-k used in the piano hookh't adds dis- 





Here is a folder, the outside display line reads: ''The 
Peacock is a Pretty Bird—" and inside we geX this: 

But it takes the 


to deliver the goods. 

Fig. 80. — Three title pages that show good balance and dignified 
appeal. Name of publisher should be on the one, "How Advertising 
Helps Salesmen." 




The headline i^ broken up into lines that read with sense. 
Compare the above with the following: 

But it takes the Homely Old 
Hen to DeUver the 

Subheads are not only placed in the same relative posi- 
tion as main heads, display lines, but also may be set at 
the side, or in the margin, or even cut into the body type, 
as illustrated in Fig. 81. 

Headlines and subheads in letter reproductions: "While 
except in printed letters, it is not usual to consider that 
there are headlines, or subheads in letters, the truth is that 
the opening paragraph is to the letter what the headline is 
to the printed piece of direct advertising as suggested in 
Section 248. Strictly from the standpoint of display and 
emphasis consider the opening paragraph as a headhne, 
try to arrange it mechanically so as to attract attention. 
This simple rule is a means of eliminating "We" 
as the opening word of the first paragraph of effective 

Short paragraphs may be utilized within letters as "eye- 

Likewise you can make the postscript a powerful piece of 
advertising display in the form letter. Some of the most 
efficient planners of letters spend more time on the open- 
ing paragraph and the postscript than they do on all ^he 
rest of the letter, for they feel sure that if they can get the 
prospect to read the first paragraph he will read the rest of 
the letter, and if the prospect reads the letter they plan 
on using the postscript as the "cracker" to the whip, the 
final urge to action. The postscript is also used for special 
offers or in making separate propositions. 

Other means of emphasis within letter reproductions is 
the use of all capital letters, though hard to read. Words 
may be spaced out as these words are, but this, too, 
makes the line hard to read. The underscore (with its lim- 
itations) is referred to in Section 336. 

Since two-color ribbons are being used more and more, 
form letters are often typed in two colors, the head- 


Exploslvei tnd Blasting Supplies 

TK« «UIb«i o* imnulicturen i» fto< intended lo r*' •" ^^ *" I 
ftcU tboMt »nd Ow diff«tne«t between th» vinoui eiplofcvei. I 
would t*ke loo much ipate TK»y rve the t»id« ntfna M*d ttvl 
menti tnd treifhu o( iticki »nd ho%r%. demmded by purchsWr^ • I 
pand on tSe i*«»po.(ttoB lK«t bl»rtpn and buyen ol eiplowvt* I 
Ikey nefd TKi buHrtin intltidc* eiplanatM-ta <^ the name* uil 
btailtngeiiploMvei are made and marketed, outlmea ihei/ propertiea I 
cWw the wofk tnd conditicw (oc which cacK grtdc u ulcnded u J 

TWit uv K«m ol iMerenI kinds ol «iplo«ve« nwde tnd lu I 
04 purpotc*. tnd nwny doreni dl difiefwit name* uted tot their I 
familiar njme of any exploaive in Amerwa ii dynami I 
familiar term n ptnader Othef nunea are ftnn po J 
HftDM powder, csntractor'a powia. coti powder, ftumpinc J 
•on powder. ftUxoL blt«Unff fthtJn, R R P . V* ■ 1 
oif pow^ wd dotow c< othert. I 

Nearly every one trf the cBpiottvea dengntted by the« M I 
HI aeveral itrenfttu- •«* m <|UtljUe« to wit rtryinf conditweifc i 
■en fifuru tnd olhcf mark) are atttched to the namei to dutmci I 
In addition to ihii aome et the name* are oaed to dttifnaU DO I 
Uit> e»plo"*e but leveral widely ddferent one*. Thw u pftrtJi 
the names dynamite and powder The leleetion o( nunes if i 
ptnfftph IS made for illustrative purpoaet. and >s not to be tak I 
M t rwommendaljon of those mploaives for tny purpow- 
dtttOM tre given m detail on other pages- 
Alt bUtfiiV ciploaive) are not made^^ 
differ t grt«t deal ut many e O*'_ 
undenlood, Youu"' 

-, re d«^*^ «**'* 


<T™" rJ^^-^"*'^'"* "" - ^- "" " 

-V ...v.--,^^ 

0* r:^:,:*-\r-^ 


















6-*^*^ *.--•, 

















The dnver o/ « ip.l:.i 
"/'O. ".vdhngn."^' PV~« • "'^V or OtJ,„ 
Wc of ,l,e m,dd?c or ,h,"::JL7r ''/"J"" ^ 
»•>« dn»CT of tli» i-.j •'"'." P«n of the hartiw.. 

o.»,™c, .N. c,'h':V«d"'fJt"' '"?" "« -^"^'r 

Oiimutnl ytn 

toi-ts Mother vtlucl. .t S,rw;if^ L^' "°' "'""P' 

« ■ o (, 

/•" "* mai f,-_ J — l_I_io» I 

t^«cr««d «.ov,™^/°°i^ =< Po«r^ 

^•"PO^Tf^^^^-^ov^* forth. 
I .'^r<« «.„ ; J^' ""d to h,brK«, 
/"MicfuJofoa-I^, •^P')'"* '"briotttt™/ 

f^ »«. .ad „„„^ J^"^ >»». for 

f — '**——"*'—• .ays / 





, K>«* 


Fig. 81.— This line engraving illustrates several methods of 
usinj subheads and sideheads. A. Examples of regular cen- 
tered subhead (Explosives and Blasting Supplies) and cut-m 
sideheads (Names). B. Here the subhead, in italics, is set in a 
line by itself at the side and not cut-in. C. Subhead is set m 
bold-face and placed in the first line of the paragraph. B. 
Subhead or sidehead entirely in margin. E. Same as exana- 
ple D except that subheads are cut off from page by rule 





lines and subheads (or the copy that would be equivalent to 
them) being printed in red. 

287. Initials, Ornaments, and Captions. — Ornaments are 
not in vogue now as they once were typographically. Fig. 
24 shows the use of an ''initial" I to attract attention to 
the beginning of the message. Fig. 11 C illustrates the use 
of a two-color initial with a printed letter. Personally we 
feel that the initial used is several sizes too large for Ihe 
letter. A comparison of the various inclosures on Fig. 25, 
with and without initials, will show how one is lost by reason 
of the large amount of white space, while a second is oj: a 
different face of type and inharmonious. Fig. 24 repre- 
sents good use of the initial and also of the ornamental rule 
at the top. Initials should not be too far away from the rest 
of the word and they should not conflict with the rest of the 

Captions under illustrations are a form of typographic 
emphasis often overlooked by users of direct advertising. 
Where an illustration is used very frequently, the adding of 
a strongly written information caption will make the illus- 
tration more effective. Usually captions are set in italics, 
though this is not necessary. 

288. Planning the Typography. — Four things to con- 
sider in planning the typographic layout of any direct ad- 
vertising are : 

(1) The character of the copy, and the adaptation of a 
face of type which will harmonize with the business of Ihe 
advertiser, if possible. For example, a more stolid type 
is necessary for advertising labor (see Fig. 78 B) than in 
appealing to the ladies (see Fig. 78 D). 

(2) The audience appealed to; that is, men, women, chil- 
iren; and various subdivisions such as business men, pro- 
fessional men, housewives, mistresses of mansions, etc. 

(3) The proportions of the type page, or fold. Remem- 
ber the golden mean is as 3 is to 5 ; Figs. 79 and 80 are all 
in proportion to the golden mean. 

(4) The surface of the paper on which the job is to he 

Pif? 82.--A(l(Hiio- tlie illustration to the letterliead produced 
nreased roiurn from letters sent out to the same prospects. S 
^*'^t for details. ^ ^ 





Here are a few questions you should ask yourself in 
planning the typography of any piece of direct advertising : 
What must this piece do? How can I so plan the typog- 
raphy as to attract most quickly the reader's attention? 
most easily hold it to the end? How can I make it easier 
for the reader ? 

]Mail-order houses test most carefully their catalogues to 
find out the pulling power of various typographic arrange- 
ments, and one mail-order man in Printers' Ink for October 
17, 1918, made this statement about the mail-order cata- 
logue: **If the catalogue is to pay, it must be compact — 
it must show and say as much as possible in the smallest 
space possible, without sacrificing readability." 

One thing every user of direct advertising should get 
firmly fixed in mind with reference to typography and that 
is the fact that more than a few words set in all capital 
letters are very hard to read. With some capitals occur 
awkward breaks between letters because they are not formed 
for such use. Use capitals and small letters (''caps and 
lower case" the printers call them) to secure legibility in 
headlines and subheads. 

Aside from the points we wish to emphasize, all of any 
advertisement may be set in body type, and in closing this 
chapter which has necessarily been very brief, let us quote 
this from Sherbow's ''Making Type Work," a most thor- 
ough and valuable guide to good typography: 

"Only remember what EMPHASIS is for: to place sig- 
nificant stress. If you try to emphasize everything, you 
have a tiring monotony of emphasis, WHICH IS NO EM- 
PHASIS AT ALL. As the typography of this paragraph 
shows. ' ' 

Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. Name the five methods of getting emphasis in direct adver- 


2. What must all typography do? 

3. If possible, visit a printing office and become familiar in a 
practical way with definitions in Section 275. 


4. In what ways may type be set? Give advantages of each 


5. What is the fundamental principle underlying all strcng 

typographic display? 

6. How may it be secured ? 

7. Describe ways of making typography attract attention and 
hold that attention. 

8. Suppose you had to prepare a catalogue for a mine shovel, 
what kind of typography would you suggest? For pearls? 


One picture is worth a million words — if it is the right picture. 
-Arthur Brisbane. 


289. The Appeal of the Picture Is Universal. — Head- 
lines, subheads, initials, ornaments, and the like have been 
treated in Chapter XII, and we will now take up the re- 
maining forms of display or emphasis in direct advertising ; 
namely, pictorial and color display. The appeal of the pic- 
ture is universal, and color is a powerful mechanical device, 
as will be set forth in Sections 299 to 302, inclusive. 

Reread the epigram of the acknowledged ''wizard of 
words" at the chapter-head to get a clear idea of the 
enormous power behind the right picture. 

Marshall Field & Company, according to R. A. Brown, 
in Printers* Ink Monthly, December, 1919, tabulated the 
reasons which readers of the Chicago American gave why 
they thought Field 's advertising dominated, as follows : 

Illustration, 22 per cent ; 
Appeal to saving, 21 per cent; 
General appearance, 15 per cent ; 
Impression of reliability, 14 per cent; 
Authoritative style, 12 per cent; 
Timeliness, 7 per cent ; 
Miscellaneous reasons, 9 per cent. 

Or, totaling illustration, general appearance, and impres- 
sion, we have 51 per cent. What was true in the case of 
Field's advertising would be true of almost any form of 
advertising; even the mail-order houses find pictures are 
powerful sales-makers. 

290. Pictures May Be Used in All Physical Forms. — 
Pictures, or, properly speaking, illustrations, may be used 





in all the physical forms of direct advertising. Fig. 81! 
illustrates how pictorial treatment has been added to the 
letterhead. C. E. McDaniel and A. S. Lee, in reporting the 
results of this addition to the letterhead in System for 
April, 1920, state that while the plain letterhead only 
brought 800 replies from 3,000 mailed out, three years 
later the letterhead with the house on the top of the letter- 
head and the same design on face — used for back — of the 
envelope, brought 2,200 replies. The other illustrated let 
terhead brought 1,200 replies from a list of 2,000 dealers, 
The same list was used in each test mailing, a period of 
more than a year intervening between tests. The same 
copy was used in each test, too. 

Fig. 83 indicates the use of a pictorial illustration on an 



Sax Rohmer Again 

Seven r«sn afo Coltier't Introduced 
to AoKTicB Su Rohmct, (AMter ol 
■lyfiefy.— Krettw ol iKc bskful, malrv- 
olent Dr. Fu M«nc hu, ihc mo« famou* 
crimiiul ot nMdrm ficnon. 
Now comet ikc 6ni ol arverd iww 
nonet by Mr. Rohmef ■. The Houte 
ol iW CoUcn JoM* in ihit week** 

Ilicte new ttorirt ire (He kind iK«l 
wd et t ihc world cwcT faivr (earned to 
ripcct Irom S«i Rohmer — Monei vtnd 
in detail, luHol ihecunHins and mjrt- 
tet7 of (be East and Um dvkncw ol 
Umdon't LimelKHMe; 
Read " Tbe House ol the GoUen ]a«* 
in Collicr't, TIk NaikmuI Wcck^. IM 
Aii(tttl 7. 


Fig. 83. — A. A complete printed letter. The drawing is made 
by the pen-and-ink process. B. The personal letter is typewritten, 
but the specimen advertisement is printed. The heading of the letter 
is die-stamped (embossed). 

ordinary form letter, and on a printed letter. Fig. 84 
illustrates how pictures are supplemented by a mechanical 

. . Stttting 
Whttit ^fd 

TH. kxx M.t»l Couatr., Co., 
I. Y. 


♦ - ^1. ^ ^* ^' ** ^*' nntualadTantage 
to eliminate a lot ot unneoeeeary 

Tlieretore. we'll skip right to the polw. 

yon that irSllaTrltio'n ^^0^0^^ sJ^'iiS V't ^''^' "^ "nTladng 
wonderxul saylm? to tou in -rm^ nf^Z T'^'^^ Eeterta would mean tT 
they -111 oale^s per?hf cS^teS h«l«'?t;"*%°'' i^ ^^^ '^'^ «»'108» 
ll<e rery »u«h to ^re Jlu^^.*"^^:^**^??^^ ^noloeed. and we would 

itx.r: °- - iJt^,\^t%Txn"^^??To^ « i5u^^rrur„-^:i—r" 

will orint"« ISe'cItll^oj!" " ^"»^«*«'^. <" <>» th. enoloaed oard 

Retort Ca 


Fig. 84. — To the pictorial appeal in this letter we 
have added the straight line as an unusual mechanical 
appeal. This makes almost too much display, though 
part was in a light color in the original. The other 
illustration represents the use of arrows to clarify a 
mechanical illustration. 






method of emphasis — the drawn line. This latter is what 
might well be termed a ''stunt." 

The use of pictorial display in all the other forms of 
direct advertising is usual, as is indicated by the specimens 
shown throughout this work. Occasionally, too, illustra- 
tions have been printed throughout the reading matter in a 
letter, but this usually distracts the eye and defeats the pur- 

291. Picture Must Be the Right Picture. — Not every 
picture, or any picture, will do ; it must be the right picture, 
as Brisbane so wisely added. All too often a "stock," or 
** syndicated," picture is used merely because it is a pic- 
ture, and the finished piece does not produce. You have a 
picture of a hand picking up coins and the phrase: 
* ' There 's Money in This for You. ' ' Thus a finely prepared 
piece of copy is wasted by a generality in picture form. 
The same idea pertinently tied up with the business ad- 
vertised might be just the right picture. The picture has 
another advantage as compared with type. The eye can 
only focus on one thing at a time and since the artist 
understands composition he in his work leads the eye from 
place to place in a natural way. What is to be the right 
picture is something which can only be decided in each in- 
dividual case, but this principle should help: The picture 
must help to attract relevantly the attention of the prospect 
and consciously or unconsciously help to turn that atten- 
tion into interest. 

This bit of proof reported by G. A. Nichols, in Printers' 
Ink Monthly, December, 1919, shows the value not only of 
pictures but of more pictures: A mail-order house usinof 
36 numbers on a single page (illustrated) as against 26 
numbers illustrated with larger pictures in its preceding 
catalogue brought double the returns. Another used 14 
illustrations of collars as compared with 7 and secured 25 
per cent increase in business. Still a third house by add- 
ing one more illustration to a number of pages which car- 
ried only two illustrations increased sales in a certain line 
30 per cent. 

292. Headlines, Borders, and Similar Devices for Em- 
phasis Often the Work of Artists. — The work of the artist 
and that of the compositor-printer often overlap. This is 
particularly true in the production of headlines and borders 
for the various physical forms of direct advertising. Fig. 
85 represents an entirely hand-lettered business card, to- 
gether with the same card as entirely set up from type 
without a border. These illustrations, by courtesy of the 
National Printer- Journalist, which might almost be classed 
as arguments against hand-lettering, point a moral. Use 
hand-lettering with discretion. Do not try to hand-letter 

New Name • New Address • New Phone 

James Advertising Agency 


450 FOURTH Ave. 


Phone Madison Square 22oo 

'-g.'3.'jB>& '-3-i 

MW ktmtta 

'^Advertising <iAgency 



4jO Pounh Aircnuf 

New Ttrk 

Fig. 85. — Compare the all hand-lettered card on thd left with the 
dignified card set wholly in tjpe on the right, to prove that one may 
get too much of even a good thing. 

an entire advertisement; it would be tiresome. Use hand- 
lettering for headlines, brand names, firm names, and the 
like. W. Livingston Larned, a famous artist, gives this 
rule: ''Use type if the artist's endeavor fails to incor- 
porate charm, character, animation — pictorial value. If 
there are more than fifty words, straight type is advisable. ' ' 
While Gilbert P. Farrar, a typography expert, in his 
book, ''Typography of Advertisements That Pay," says 
this: "Many all-type advertisements would be materially 
improved by the use of several 'spots' of hand-lettering. 
And there are many advertisements whose message is ma- 
terially weakened by the use of too much hand-lettering." 
Fig. 86 C shows good use of hand-lettering. The one word 
"kimonos" as it has been hand-lettered would "put the 
idea over." 

Frederic W. Goudy, the type designer, in Printers* Ink 
Monthly for September, 1920, answers the question now 


ihty write Am knm lo oA mim ikb yeir. 
TkM •d<i« more Inten to tke i|iiia. 
briaging tin total lo • rough 100,000. 

We •Mumc thil the letterhe»dl •« of 14- 
poond Ko<k (tlK "eight of the ikeet on which 
thil U printed)^ The e»»eloj>e med requirei prac- 
ticilly •> much peper t. the letten. coooting the 
Mfcuuy WMle in cimiog. tod in «<Uition to tl>i» 
we h«»e one or more— ijuiie often »evet»l— «»f- 
boo copies •• well u eitra copie» midc « th« 
time of originJ writing. The cirboni ut mide 
00 lighter paper 10 be lore, b«t we feel that w« 
•re con«er»»ti.e when we multiply the originil 



with which Is incorporated 
"Statlar's Tails to His F^trons" 



ligste by 3 lad Snd ihil 600,000 ihcctsof papa 
•re BJed » eorreipondence ilooc 

Since it tJla ipproiimetely • cord of wooJ to 
mahe tbout 1 ,000 pound* of wood-polp, end tince 
•bout 75,000 liniihed ktietbendt cm be foitca 
out of that reduced cord, then Alfred's company 
will UK thia year about jH cotda of wood fcr 
their correapoodence. 

WHIRt 00* ronfTt CO 

We can otimate, roughly, I90 litea oa aa 
acre of ground and 1 5 cordi of virgin wood 10 
the acre. That means that their correspondence 
has coat about 97 tieel WITHOUT REASON. 
Foe they could Ut« ucd a rag.«0MeM paper 



Fig. 86.— A. How the artist has inclosed the 
center-page spread of a small advertising booklet 
by drawing a border. B. Statler gets a contin- 
uous appeal through using the same standard- 
ized border design on all his advertising (book- 
lets, magazine advertisements, etc.). C. Here 
the one word "Kimonos," even without the sug- 
gestion of the Japanese girl, would have "put 
over" the idea. Type could not do this. 


probably in the reader's mind: "Why use hand-lettering 
at all?" in this wise: ''Hand-lettering is demanded in 
places where the artistic sense is better served by it than 
is generally possible by the use of set and fixed type forms. 
When harmonious with the type it is intended to accom- 
pany, it becomes a decorative element. The artist has the 
opportunity of shaping his letters with more freedom, of 
placing them where he likes and spacing them more exactly 
than type allows.'' 

293. Borders, Arrows, and the Like Aid the Reader. — 
On Fig. 84 there is reproduced, greatly reduced, an ar- 
rowed illustration of an automobile chassis. These arrows 
are the work of the artist and simplify the illustration con- 
siderably. The reader's eye is often led from the offer to 
the postal card, or other inquiry form, by means of a hand- 
drawn arrow, or other similar display device. An exam- 
ination of the illustrations in this book will show how 
several pieces have been improved by use of arrows or sim- 
ilar leaders. Fig. 86 shows one use of the arrow. 

Fig. 86 A illustrates how a border was used in the center 
spread of a small booklet. Often each page of a booklet or 
catalogue is inclosed within a border, and frequently this 
is hand-drawn by the artist. Some borders are purely dec- 
orative or ornamental and others are suggestive either of 
the product, its uses, or to help consciously or subcon- 
sciously ''to put over" an idea or thought to the reader. 
Pig. 86 B, for example, shows the front cover of a small 
piece of direct advertising issued by the Statler hotels. The 
border design used on it is followed in all these hotels' 
direct and other forms of advertising. 

At Christmas season a piece of direct advertising which 
of itself has little to do with the season may carry by a 
holiday border design a suggestion of the Christmas spirit. 

In planning a series of direct pieces the border may be 
the only method of tying the individual pieces to the gen- 
eral series. 

294. Other Uses for Art Work.— Other things which the 
artist can do to help direct-advertising producers, and 



which are included under the general term "art work," 
are the retouching of photographs, sketching of machines 
from blue-prints when machines have not yet been built, 
and the like. Sometimes the entire background of a ma- 
chine — say a farm tractor — will be ''touched out" by the 
artist and the machine reproduced as standing alone. Or 
supposing the photograph of a tractor is taken on level 
ground, a muddy field may be "air-brushed" in under the 
tractor. Aside from cover designs, hand-lettering, borders, 
and retouching, the artist's aid will be found invaluable 
in making effective layouts, decorative treatments, and the 

295. Many Methods of Producing Artistic Illustrations. 
— There are many different methods of producing artistic 
illustrations, and new processes or combinations of old 
processes come up almost daily. 

Perhaps the simplest form of illustration is the photo- 
graphic treatment, such as is used to produce the cover de- 
signs of bulletins shown on Fig. 54 as well as to reproduce 
the entire piece in Fig. 87 H. 

Pen and ink, one of the more economical forms unless a 
great deal of detail is worked in by the artist, is often 
used. Figs. 83 and 86 A show examples of this style. 

Next comes the use of the pencil illustration, and in Fig. 
88 we find an example of a pencil-drawn design. Pencil 
illustrations are admirable for buildings, layouts, etc. 

Charcoal drawings are made by use of charcoal on a 
paper with a rough surface. The treatment is sometimes 
combined with pen-and-ink work and dry-point execution. 
The plain charcoal drawing is effective where impression 
is desired rather than a showing of sharp technical details. 
Combined with pen-and-ink work or with dry-point treat- 
ment, it is possible to obtain this impressionistic effect and 
yet secure the sharper details that characterize both plain 
photographic reproductions and line drawings (see Sec- 
tion 304). 

Closely approximating pencil and charcoal treatments 
are the results secured through the use of crayons, includ- 



T. c Tuc KC ra, - A*>i*«e I 

• ''^> 

From Victor Talking Machine Co. 
Camden. N J.. USA. 

To uri. Robert E. Ramsay, 

2157 Uorthampton St., 
Hoiyoke, Kass. 


■i \ 


Fig. 87.— Top. An example of the use of the photographic ap- 
peal. This entire piece a postal card reproduced from a photo- 
jj;rapliic negative upon sensitized paper. Below. Specimens of 
mailing stickers. Note the parcel post time-saving spaces on the 
N'ietor slip. See also Fig. 4o. 



"''**«*<.*:->. i^.* 

^'U-- '■■ ^"^ 'C"-^ 

Tig. 88. — A pencil drawin*; by Vernon Howe Bailey. From 
"Discoverin<r Xew Facts About Paper," a portfolio issued by the 
American Writing Paper Company, Holyoke, Mass. 



ing pastels, lithographic pencils, and similar mediums. Il- 
lustrations handled in this manner are particularly effective 
where sketchy, at the same time striking, results are de- 
sired. Many broadside-posters are developed by this means. 





Fig. 89. — A "rough sketch" developed from tJie report sent to 
a firm of artists. What the artist had to work from will be found 
in Fig, 90A. 



The use of the ross-board upon which to draw originals 
also produces many striking effects. 

^ Wash drawings are what might be termed for the layman 
imitation" photographic illustrations, for the artist has 
by use of air inrush and brush, simulated photographic' 
effects without photographic exactitude. Many machines 
and other devices are built up by the artist through wash 

By use of Ben Day, which will be described in Section 
310, pleasing and comparatively inexpensive effects may 
be produced. 

Lately there has been manifested a tendency to secure 
notably striking results by combining different artistic 
treatments. These are known as '^combinations." 

296. How Illustration Ideas Are Handled.— Fig 90 A 
shows how one firm sent an idea for an illustrated adver- 
tisement to a firm of artists. Fig. 89 shows a pencil sketcli 
of the '' layout" as the artist conceived it from the sales- 
man^s repor.t. Fig. 90 B shows the idea as ''dressed up" 
for submission to the advertiser with the wash drawing 0? 
the ship, hand-lettering of the headline and signature. 
Fig. 90 C illustrates the same sketch as returned to the artist, 
with corrections suggested by the advertiser marked upon 
It. Fig. 90 D shows the completed advertisement with copy 
set up in type and inserted. These several pictures re- 
produced through the courtesy of the Associated Artists 
of Philadelphia, portray graphically how intelligent co- 
operation of the advertiser with the artist produces a 
pleasing combination. 

297. Rules for Ordering Illustrations.— There is prob- 
ably more direct advertising ordered for the sale of some 
form of machinery or equipment than for any other prod- 
uct or service. No matter how thoroughly the customer 
himself, or his advertising man, may understand the work- 
ings of a device, it is extremely difficult to put that under- 
standing into words so clear that the artist who perhaps has 
never seen this particular machine at all will understand 
the minute details thoroughly enough to reproduce them 

Fig. 90.— A. The written de^^cription as submitted by the artists' 
salesman. (See V\». 80 for tlio first roiijih sketcli.) H. 'Ihe layout 
<'f the idea goes to the client for a|)proval. C. It is returned to be 
trimmed and dressed for pul)lieation. 1). The completed design. 



,,rfectly-wheel, cam and shaft-in paint, for example. 
We know of many cases where hundreds of dollars have 
been wasted on a single piece of direct advertising by laii- 
,,re to give the artist the necessary information. In taet, 
There is only one method of giving instructions so that any 
mechanical man can be absolutely understood and that is 


r^tir&'mSn-a greaf help to the artist, 
by using rough pencil sketches completely labeled. "No 

IZlo. rough and primitive they -^^^^'^J^^LI 
convey principles and details more quickly than any amount 
of exDlanation," writes one firm of artists. This firm sug 
gslrough sketches such as Fig. 91 (courtesy M^^^^^^^ 

Spoils Engraving Company) ^^^^^^^^^'Cd time 
available. These simple sketches will save ™o°7 ^■^'J time 
especially when there are complex systems o* P^P"*? "^ 
wiring, and will be valuable even when photographs are 

"ttl Principle for Using Various Methods of lUus- 
trating.-No general rule can be laid down as to which of 
the mfthods described in Section 295 should be used for the 
illustration of any form of direct advertising, hut a good 
safe principle can be suggested. That principle is to use 
some form of illustration other than that used by other 
firms, competitive or otherwise, when appealing to a similar 


list. For example, if you are distributing your pieces to 
school teachers, and some firm has frequently used pen- 
and-ink sketches so as to havg preempted them to their uue 
almost, while another firm is using photographic illustra- 
tions, try pencil, crayon, oil, or some other method of illus- 
trating your pieces sent to that list. 

You are dressing up a printed sales-maker when you 
design a piece of direct advertising, so do not consciously 
use the same cut and style of clothes worn by others in 
the same field. 

^^ In this connection see Fig. 92, illustrating how to get 
**differentness" in art work, published here in conjunc- 
tion with engraving processes. 

299. Color a Dominating Display Factor.— Nature in 
lavish with her colors and man responds more readily and 
quickly to color than to any other display factor. Fig. 4] 
illustrates how a second color may be used advantageously 
even in a form letter. The wording ' ' Save-0-says, " etc., 
shown on the left side, is all in red, the rest in black. A 
Chicago mail-order house issued two editions of its cata- 
logue, both identical as to text matter and illustration, ex- 
cept that in one edition every illustration of the firm 's wares 
was printed in natural colors while in the other the illustra- 
tions were printed in one color, black. These two books 
were mailed in equal numbers to different lists though to 
the same class of buyers. The edition with the colored 
illustrations sold fifteen times as much merchandise as the 
one printed in black only. 

An author in a recent issue of Postage said he found 
that by using an extra color on the wrappers of his mailing 
pieces he could produce as many replies from one-cent post- 
age as from two-cent postage and the ordinary 
* outside." 

W. F. Therkildson, of W. Atlee Burpee Company, re- 
ported in Pnnters' Ink, February 7, 1918, that whereas a 
colored page showing a new form of gladioli almost cleaned 
out their stock, the following year a full page in black and 
white produced 50 per cent fewer sales. 



300. Color May Be Secured by Use of Paper or Ink or 
Both. — The subject under discussion has not only in mind 
the color secured by use of different hued inks but also that 
obtained by changing the colors of the paper stocks used. 
It must be borne in mind that the color of the ink and the 




Wash -drawing 

Catolos and fine Printing 

Can be especially treatad 

for Publications 

and Epeedy Prindnc 

in Colors 

lasarts and Good 
Printinr Conditiona 

Color Process or One 
Halftone and Ben Days 

Posters and 


Cover and Speedy 
Printlns Cooditlana 

One Halftone Ben Days 
and Tooling 


Technical Publications and Catoloffs 
for Close Examination 

Halftone. Careful 
Toolinsr and Vimettins 

Line and Ton«i 

Brin«ii out Subject to be Sold in Tone 

and the Atmosphere In Line. Prlnta 

well under all Conditions 

Ben Day and Cot Out 

Frae and with 

Generally requires Good 
Printing Conditions 

Either Zinc or 
Copper Etchins 


Cover on Beavy Stock 
or Newspaper Printtn» 

Z<QC Etcblns with 
Screen Stripped 
Over Negative 


Any Printins Conditions 
If kept open enough 

Copper or Zine 
carefully Etched 



Especially Adapted to 

Feminine Publications 

and Prlntinir 

Copper or Zinc. 
Can use a Uttle Ben Day 



Adaptable for fine 
Printins Conditions 

Preferably Copper 
Zinc will ret by 


Crayon or 



Any Publicstion if 
properly Etched 

Hishli^t Halftone or 
careful Copper or Zinc 
straight Line Etching 




Halftone or Duotooe 

*^ig. 92.— -lA handy chart which will enable you readily to secure 
"differentness" in art work. Read the text for details. 





color of the paper must harmonize to. produce a pleasing 
effect upon the eye of the reader. 

Before us is a striking broadside of a motor car — an effect 
of white on black, which has been secured by making wliat 
is known as a reverse zinc etching (see Section 306) and 
printing this in black on the white paper. Every bit of the 
paper is covered with black excepting the car itself, a few 
shadows cast by it which are gray, and the lettering of the 
advertisement. This is the simple method of getting a two- 
color effect with only one printing. 

By using a light-brown stock' and printing on it with a 
dark-brown ink, a very beautiful two-color printing can 
be secured. 

Paper and ink are both factors in getting display by 
means of color. Some one has well suggested that * ' Paper 
is the body — ink the voice — ^your voice. ' ' 

For our purposes it will not be necessary to delve deeply 
nto the study of color and all its phases. The primary 
colors, in producing printed direct advertising, are: Red, 
yellow, and blue. The secondary colors : Orange, green, 
and violet. The orange comes from red combined with 
yellow; the green from yellow combined with blue; and 
violet from blue combined with red. The printer adds 
black to darken any of these colors and produces innumer- 
able shades. To get the lighter tints a light, even a white, 
ink may be added. 

Complementary colors, as we all know, are twa colcrs 
each of which when placed side by side appears at its great- 
est brilliancy. The three major complementary pairs are: 
Red and green; yellow and violet; and blue and oran<,'e. 
The five minor complementary pairs are: Red and 
bluish-green; orange and blue; yellow and violet blue; 
greenish-yellow and violet; and green and reddish- 

A large number of other complementary colors may be 
worked out, of course, but unless separated by either black 

or white — neutral colors — the following colors, when 


Xhey ''fight" one another and become darker or lighter 
as indicated below; 

























For the effect of various colors of inks upon various 
colors of paper, see Section 324. 

It should be emphasized that a good piece of color work 
in direct advertising does not necessarily require the use 
of all the colors in the spectrum. Much' excellent color 
work is composed of different shades or tints of the same 
color or closely related colors. 

Before us, for instance, lie several pieces of direct-adver- 
tising matter gotten out by a large national advertiser. 
The covers of the booklets are in various colors. One im- 
portant booklet on, let us say, shoes, has a mottled gray 
color — yet this company has invested several hundred thou- 
sand dollars in one national weekly confining its efforts en- 
tirely to two-color advertisements, one color of which was a 
deep tan. Why not use the same deep tan on all its direct ad- 
vertising to cash in on its magazine-advertising investment ? 

Sounds simple and obvious, doesn't it? But it is over- 
looked more times than it is followed. The color may be 
secured either by use of paper, or a solid tint block (a zinc 
etching covering the entire surface in one shade or tint) 
ini?:ht be run on plain paper in order to get the company's 
distinctive color scheme clearly before the prospect. 




Innumerable color charts are upon the market, but the 
one illustrated in Fig. 93 through the courtesy of The Lay- 
man Printer is at once comprehensive and simple. In this 
connection see also Section 324. 

301. Color Must Be Used with Discretion. — Just as all 
emphasis is no emphasis, so all color is no color. A too 
lavish use of color makes it ineffective. One artist has said 
he believes that one page in sixteen in colors is about the 




















































































































.... 1 









judgmg fDm 1 










some of the exam- I 









pies we see, many op- 1 









tical advertisers need «d- 1 










ucation along lines of coor 1 










combinations. Before you print 1 










your next booklet or circular, consult 1 










this cliart. 1 




















To delrrmine what color ink to utc wilb « riven tolor^A I 









ilock, And (he Xock color (or tbe oearetl color lo il) on 1 








citocr ciautncBijon ana loiiow unfii tbe propcrcombia«tion 1 







to be uwd will be fouDd in column lodjcaled bv ibe Iciicr 1 






"H. It ■ttrongcontrulit wtoted tueinkiBcolumn'Sk' 1 




C=Cood COmblOatl<» Bs=:R«i nnmk^j.lln. 1 




F=F«ir eombiiulioD^ H^Uanooox 1 



r— roor comDUUUoa 3=S(rong conlntl 1 











Fig. 93. 

right proportion for a catalogue. This is, of course, an 
opinion. Gilbert P. Farrar, in Printers* Ink, May 22, 
1913, wrote: *'The best pieces I ever came across v^ere 
printed in only two colors, while some of the least effective 
and most confusing mail pieces that came under my ob- 
servation had dollars upon dollars of art work, cuts and 
colors being smeared on every spare inch of space. ' * 

Henry Hale, Jr., of the Ethridge Association of Artists, 
New York, in speaking before the Cleveland Direct Mail 
Advertising Convention, 1919, told of a certain big florist 
who had an over-supply of bulbs and got up a finely illus- 
trated booklet in several colors, but it did not sell the bi^lbs. 

Next year a simple black and white piece sold them in 
short order. The reason given was that the first piece 
''over-sold" the bulbs, made the prospect feel that they 
were too expensive, while the second folder sold them be- 
cause it was simple and suggested inexpensiveness. 

Some uses for a second color in direct advertising are: 
(1) To show the specific uses of a product, or to emphasize 
some particular point; (2) to reproduce blue-prints to ap- 
peal to architects, engineers, and the like; (3) to introduce 
tint blocks behind machinery and individual pieces to em- 
phasize quality; (4) to provide eye-catching color spots; 
(5) to show products in almost natural colors, as ginghams, 
linoleums, and so on; (6) to feature prices, and (7) to 
''dress-up'' a catalogue or booklet by means of light tint 

302. Psychology of Colors. — ^William N. Bayless, in 
Mailhag, January, 1918, told of certain psychological tests 
made on human subjects regarding colors and submitted 
the following table indicating preferences of men and 
women : 

WissLER^s Table 





Preference Prejudice 

Preference Prejudice 






Orange . . 





Yellow .. 





Green . . . 





Brown . . 





Violet ... 





White ... 



. 8 

He also referred to the Allen test on savages, the Bald- 
win test on babies, and the Winch test on school children, in 
a measure corroborating the test quoted above. 

While harmony of color is important, even more neces- 
sary are data about the appeal of color. The following is 
copyrighted by Business Bourse, International, New York, 
and reproduced in this connection by permission. 

Difference in education, temperament, vocation, and sex 




affects difference in appeals, of course, but the following 
psychological appeals of various colors, the result of careful 
studies, will be found helpful : 

Bright Red or Crimson.— Heat, Fieriness, Tumult, Excite- 
ment, Boldness, Danger, Vividness, Virility, Strength, 


Dark Red, Terra Cotta, or Ma roow.— Pleasurable Warmth, 
Richness, Quiet, Luxury, Solidity, Firmness, Sedateness. 

Light Red or PmA;.— Daintiness, Delicacy, Freshness, Health, 
Softness, Festivity, Fragrance, Coquettishness, Tendemefis, 

Dark Blue.— Coldness, Distance, Haughtiness, Infinity, Depth, 
Mystery, Nobility, Morality, Intellectuality, Space; Heav- 
enly, Formal, Unsympathetic, Celestial, Beautiful. 

Light Blue.— Innocence, Daintiness, Coolness, Dependence, 
Tenderness, Fragility; Emotional, Cheery, Childish. 

Dark Green.— Rest fulness, Out-of-doorness, Coolness; Re- 
laxing; Spaciousness, Airiness, Comfort, Liveliness. 

Vivid Green. — Repellent; Intensity, Vindictiveness ; PoisoQ- 
ous, Venomous, Envious; Jealousy, Hatred, Sickness. 

Light Green.— Coo\, Appetizing, Tender; Freshness. 

Orange. — Lusciousness, Succulence, Warmth, Cheerineus, 
Stimulation, Optimism; Appetizing, Cooling. 

Yellow.— Heat , Light, Aggressiveness, Power, Intensity, 
Stridence; Noisome, Cheap, Tainted, Sickly, Active, Con- 
fusing, Vicious, Glittering. 

Pale Yellow or Lemon.— Cool, Acid, Refreshing, Appetizing, 
Restful, Cheering. 

Violet. — Fragrance, Fragility, Tenderness, Richness, Taste- 
fulness, Softness, Refinement, Shadow, Sorrow, Seclusicn. 

Purple. — Opulence, Royalty, Exclusiveness, Stateliness, Un- 
. healthfulness, Unapproachability, Decay. 

Brown.— Vtility, Soberness, Sturdiness, Solidity; Appetizirg, 
Mellow, Aged, Weather-beaten, Wholesome, Tasteful. 

Black. — Darkness, Sombemess, Heaviness, Contrast, Strength, 
Intensity, Bigness, Mystery, Apprehension, Villairy, 
Mourning, Curiosity, Calamity, Fatality. 

^^^^—Quietness, Mildness, Sedateness, Primness, Neutral- 
ity, Age, Softness, Serviceableness, Dependability. 

White.— Cleanliness, Purity, Space, Coldness, Negativeness, 
Feebleness, Rigidity, Emptiness, Superiority. 

As Professor Frank Alvah Parsons so well says in "Prin- 
ciples of Advertising Arrangement," **What would you 
think of 'A Trip to Alaska' advertisement with orange, 
red, or yellow for a background? Would you think of 
advertising *A Trip to the Equator' in the same colors as 
*A Trip to Alaska'?" 

Analyze the selling problem; the audience; their reac- 
tions to color, and then use the color or colors most likely 
to strike the ** happy medium" without losing any effects. 

Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. Describe in your own words the power of the picture. 

2. Select some piece of direct advertising where the wrong pic- 
ture has been used; the right one. 

3. How can the artist help out in planning effective direct 
advertising ? 

4. Take some line of business with which you are familiar 
and suggest some style of illustrative treatment that would not be 
hackneyed in that field. 

5. Why is color such a dominating factor in display? 

6. Make some suggestions as to effective colors, regardless how 
secured, to advertise funeral parlors. Restaurant. Toilet wa- 
ter. Talcum powder for babies. 




■ 4 




He who calleth a spade a spade lives in the riches of his in- 
telligence, hut he whs calleth a spade a pick, it were better he 
he cursed into everlasting silence. — Author Unknown. 


303. Mechanically Reproducing the Picture.— Our pre- 
ceding chapter was devoted to the illustration, or the pic- 
ture. Yet the picture cannot be printed from type. When 
it becomes necessary to use an illustration, some kind of a 
plate must be made so that when it is inked we get the 
picture upon the paper. This chapter is therefore very 
closely tied up with the one which has gone before and with 
the one which is to follow on paper stocks. 

Let us first explain in layman's language how a plate 
transfers a picture to the paper. Suppose you took a 
square block of metal and inked it on your rubber-stamp 
pad and then impressed it upon paper. You would get a 
plain red or blue square — depending upon the color of the 
stamp pad. Suppose, however, parts of that solid square 
are cut down so that the ink of the stamp pad will not reach 
those parts, then when impressed upon the paper part of 
the square would be red or blue and the rest white— if 
imprinted upon white paper. This illustrates the general 
principle of making engraving plates — dots are used to cat 
down the ink surface and increase the light of the paper 
showing through. Of course these dots are carefully plac(id 
and massed so that we get the picture from the plate. 

304. Relation of Engraving and Art Work.— Quite 
often the art work referred to in Chapter XIII is done by 
the engraver. You can send a tea-kettle to the engraver, 
for example, and order a certain engraving made and tlie 


engraver will photograph, retouch, and work with the tea- 
kettle until a good engraving has been produced. 

Through the courtesy of Advertising & Selling, we are 
able, in Fig. 92, to reproduce a graphic chart which shows 
the interrelation of engravings and art work and their 
connection with paper stocks. 

This chart was originally prepared by the head of an 
organization of artists. All drawings (see Section 295) 
have been grouped by this artist under four main heads : 

1. Wash drawings and oil paintings. 

2. Pen-and-ink drawings. 

3. Texture drawings — charcoal and crayon. 

4. Mechanical drawings — as in retouched photographs. 

Each of these four classes of drawings is further defined 
under Textures. For instance, wash drawings can be 
made in four textures : 

1. Illustrations in colors. 

2. Poster and impressionistic effects. 

3. Mechanical finish — true to life. 

4. Combination line and tone effects. 

Following the chart across, the printing probabilities 
of each of these will be found. 

305. Classification of Engravings.— Generally speaking, 
there are three processes of making plates for illustrating 
direct advertising: (1) Line engraving, or zinc etching — 
occasionally made on copper; (2) half-tone engraving; and 
(3) wood engraving. The first two are spoken of as photo- 
engraving or process engraving, by reason of the fact that 
the process means transferring a design to a metal plate 
through photographic steps supplemented by etching or 
other means of cutting away portions not desired. 

306. Line Engravings or Zinc Etchings. — A plate made 
from a pen-and-ink drawing or from any drawing or 
print made of distinct lines, dots, or masses of solid color 
is called a line engraving, line cut, zinc etching, or some- 
times merely **a zinc.'' Sometimes when the design is so 



fine that it cannot be etched on the somewhat less pliable 
zinc, it is etched on copper. 

The picture portion of Fig. 83 showing the two men is 
an example of a line-engraving made from a pen-and-ink 

A zinc etching cannot be made from a photograph a 
wash drawing, a colored lithograph, any ''copy" contain- 
ing tints or half-tones or a natural object without first 
making a line or a stipple drawing. 

A regular zinc etching of a black and white drawing will 
make a black reproduction when printed upon white paper. 
Occasionally by using the positive print instead of a nej,'a- 
tive the advertiser makes what is known as a reverse zinc 
etching ; that is, this plate printed upon white paper makes 
the white letters upon a black background. 

Drawings, where possible, should be made on white paper 
with black india ink. Red, orange, dark blue, and dark 
green can also be reproduced where necessary. If shaded 
effects are necessary, they are secured by drawing fine lires 
or dots close together. These shaded effects, though, must 
BE DRAWN, for the print from the finished line engraving is 
always an exact duplicate of the original drawing. In a 
zinc which is to be made from an original containing gray 
tones, the gray tones would be reproduced either as black 
or white. 

Zinc etchings may be made with Ben Day treatment, and 
Fig. 94 A illustrates a line engraving with Ben Day tint 
made from a pen-and-ink drawing. They can also be made 
in connection with half-tones, in which event the finish<;d 
plate is called a "combination plate," as shown on Fig. 94 B. 
Zincs are less expensive than half-tones and can be used 
on any stock of paper which will take any printing plate. 

Fig. 95 B illustrates a solid color or silhouette zinc etcli- 
ing. Fig. 95 A the "reverse" etching, reproducing while 
on black. 

307. Wood Engraving Not Often Used. — Wood engrav- 
ings, which were the original form of engravings, are much 
more expensive than other engravings since because they 

ori!r rnl ;i;r i -u. ^yavin- w,tl, Ben Day tint added. In tl.e 
slJd^f V;V k'/^''' r'^ «^ ^^-^^^^ P'"«^^' «"d lamb wei^e 
l.eH.1 • , S?T ""^^'"" ^'"^ '^"^1 half-tone enoravin.^ Girl's 

show f„li '""V*""^ ^^''", ^^''> "'"''• ^^^''^ ^^•«'-f^^ "I^ife & Health-' 

',^0 full eolor of the rest of desi^jn is shaded with it ) 

^-- ^•, half-tones. Entire plat^ hy luUf-toI.e p.tL ^' 


are etched by hand on wooden blocks they consume a great 
deal of time. They offer an almost ''novel" treatment at 
the present time because so little used. The drawings of 
Franklin Booth, so often seen in publication advertise- 
ments, are excellently adapted to the wood engraving. 

1 i 

Fig. 95. — A. The black portion of this design was produced by 
means of what is known as a reverse zinc etching. What was 
black on the original drawing became white on the etching. B. 
The human figure in this design is drawn in silhouette. 

308. Half-tone Engravings. — The usual form of illus- 
tration is the half-tone, by the use of which every tone from 
black to white is reproduced. 

The original or "copy" from which a half-tone is to be 
made is photographed through a fine screen. This screen 
consists of two pieces of glass ruled with parallel lines and 
joined together in such a manner that the lines run at right 
angles, thus producing dots. The number of lines varies 
from 55 to 200 to the square inch. The more lines there are, 
the finer will be the half-tone, and the smoother will be re- 
quired the piece of paper upon which to print best results. 






t ' 

See Section 311 with reference to screens and their rela- 
tion to paper stocks. 

Half-tones may be made from photographs, wash di*aw- 
ings, and many other forms of illustration such as W£ter- 
color paintings, photogravures, lithographs, steel engrav- 
ings, and even direct from the object itself. A half-tone 
can be made direct from the object itself only when the 
object is nearly flat, so that all of it can be brought into 
focus. A comb, gloves, buttons, and the like can be used 
for making a half-tone direct. 

Half-tones cannot, as a rule, be made from reproductions 
of half-tones because the two screens will clash and givQ a 
blurred impression. If a very large reduction is being 
made this objection can sometimes be overcome. 

All of the plates in this book printed on coated paper 
stock are half-tones while those running on the regular text 
paper are zinc etchings, except Fig. 97 b. 

309. Many Varieties of Half-tones. — There are many 
varieties of half-tones. The following definitions are the 
standard trade terms adopted by the International Associa- 
tion of Photo-engravers : 

Square finish — A half-tone in which the outside edges 
are rectangular and parallel, and may be with or without 
single black line border. 

Outlined — A half-tone with the background outside of 
the object entirely cut away, leaving a definite edge with- 
out shading or vignetting. 

Vignetted — A half-tone in which one or more of ihe 
edges of the object are shaded from dark tones to pure 

Outlined and vignetted — A half-tone in which part of the 
background is cut away and part vignetted. 

Highlight half-tone — A half-tone plate in which the elim- 
ination of the dots in the highlights is accomplished bj' a 
photo-chemical process instead of cutting them out witli a 

News-tone — A name sometimes given to coarse-screen 
half-tones (55 to 65 screen) always etched on zinc and uJied 


for newspaper work. Also known as ''quarter- 
tone." Note: Usually half-tones are etched on copper. 

Metzograph — A half-tone made by the use of a grained 
screen instead of a cross-line screen. 

Duograph — Two half-tone plates made from one copy and 
usually printed in black and one tint, or two shades of the 
same color, the two plates made with different screen angles. 
Fig. 94 D illustrates how two half-tones have been used to 
secure two colors. 

Duotype — Two half-tone plates made from one copy, both 
from the same negative and etched differently. 

Two-color half-tone — Two half-tone plates, either or both 
of which are etched, containing parts or all of the design, 
to be printed in two contrasting colors. 

Three or more color half-tones — Same as covered in defi- 
nition of two-color half-tone, but using three or more etched 
half-tone plates. 

On Fig. 94 you will find illustrated four different 
methods of getting color work in illustrations. The illus- 
tration of ''Ruth Roland and Helene Chadwick" is made 
by two half-tones. "Life and Health" is made by using 
one half-tone plate and one Ben Day on zinc. The child- 
hood scene shows what can be done with two Ben Day zinc 

Three-color process plates — Printing plates produced 
from colored copy or objects to reproduce the picture or 
object in its original colors by a photo-chemical separation 
of the primary colors, and etched half-tone plates to repro- 
duce each separate color, usually printed in yellow, red, 
and blue (see Section 300). An approximate result may 
be obtained from one-color copy by using the skill of the 
workmen in securing the color values on the etched plates. 

The reader may wish to know the difference between 
three half-tones and three-color process work. In the case 
of using three half-tones the plates are printed in arbitrary 
colors of the artist's selection while in the case of three- 
color process work invariably the plates are printed in the 
three primary colors. 



! ., 

Four-color process plates— Bame as the three-color 
process, with the addition of a gray or black plate. 

Copy for the process plates should be in color, otherwise 
the engraver has little to guide him in getting the proper 
color values from each of the various plates. 

aio. Ben Day Process.— Literally hundreds of shading' 
effects, stippling, tinting, ruling, etc., may be secured by 
use of the various screens or films, the designs of which are 
transferred to the unetched plate by means of a machine 
invented by the late Benjamin Day. Fig. 96 illustrates 
just a few of these Ben Day effects, and Fig. 94 A shows 

Fig. 96.— Examples of the shaded effects possible with Ben Day 


how one Ben Day shading has been added to the drawing 
of a child so as to give "life" to the face, hands, etc. 

311. Relation of Screens to Paper Stocks. — In Section 
308 we found that half-tones could be made from 55- to 200- 
line screens. A screen for the cheapest and coarsest of 
newspaper may be 55- or 65-line, which is coarse enough to 
stereotype. But to electrotype you should have at least 
an 85-line screen. Neither of these will give a great deal of 
detail in the finished picture. 

A 110-line screen is better for detail but will not stereo- 
type satisfactorily. 

The 120-line screen is best adapted for electrotyping ; it 
shows much detail and may be used for much direct adver- 

A 133-line screen is the finest for electrotypes and brings 
out details clearly ; nothing coarser than this should be used 
for vignetted half-tones. 

Half-tones of 150-line screen are used for the best of 
coated papers but not for any dull-finished stock. 

Allowances must be made for differences in the subject 
matter and the character of the originals from which the 
engravings are to be made. A dainty face, a piece of silken 
fabric, or a delicate flower may possibly justify the use of 
a finer screen half-tone than that for an iron casting, an 
automobile body, or a steam-shovel, even though all of these 
are to be printed on the same grade of paper. 

**For ordinary purposes the following table may be taken 
as a safe guide to follow in ordering half-tone cuts for use 
with the various grades of printing paper, ' ' says the Whit- 
aker Paper Company in an issue of Paragrafs: 

For fine Enameled Book Papers Use 150 to 175 line plates. 





120 " 

100 " 

100 " 

85 " 

65 " 






For Dull Finished Stock 

For S. & S. C. Stock 

For M. F. Book 

For Bond and Ledger Paper 
For Newsprint 

A good rule, when in doubt, is to use a coarser screen 
rather than a finer one. 

In fact sometimes very attractive results can be secured 
liy using coarse screen half-tones on fine stock. Fig. 97b 
illustrates the pleasing effect of a 65-line screen on coated 
stock as compared with Fig. 97a on M. F. Book. 

312. Electrotypes. — An electrotype is a duplicate from 
a printing plate or type made exact size from an impression 
of the original. Remember you cannot get an electrotype 
unless you already have the original. Frequently advertis- 
ers will order ^'an electrotype from the attached photo- 
graph." Until a half-tone has been made (if it is a photo- 
graph) or a zinc etching (if it is a drawing), no electrotype 

I i 



Fig. 97a. — The 65-Hne screen is 
not necessarily restricted to half- 
tones for printing on rough -sur- 
faced papers. Certain subjects 
may be reproduced, in a novel 
manner, on a high-tinished stock, 
by the use o^ coarse screens. Com- 
pare this with the same plate on 
coated stock opposite. 

Fig. 97b.— The 6o-line screen is 
not necessarily restricted to half- 
tones for printing on roufrh-siir- 
faced papers. Certain subjects 
may be reproduced, in a liovel 
manner, on a high-tinished stock, 
by the use of coarse screens. The 
example shown would look even 
better on an india tint paper. 








Fie. 98.— (Right) How deckle-edged paper has been used to 
create atmosphere. (Left) A "wood" cover. See text for details. 


can be made. Both zinc etchings and half-tones can be 
used for printing plates, but it is safer, and usually the 
rule, to hold these originals in reserve and make electro- 
types of them from which to print. 

Occasionally pages or forms, including not only the illus- 
trations (half-tones and etchings) but also the type itself, 
are electrotyped. 

If a book or catalogue is to remain in use a long time and 
be reprinted from time to time, it may be well to electrotype 

all the forms. 

313. Miscellaneous Terms Defined. — In addition to the 
terms already defined, the following terms may be met with, 
in ordering engravings. 

Deep etching — Additional etching made necessary to se- 
cure proper printing depth (where this cannot be accom- 
plished by routing) and usually caused by the use of dense 
black lines, or line negatives and half-tone negatives being 
combined in one plate. If a half-tone is to be used on bond 
paper, for example, a deep etch should be ordered. 

Negative etching — A plate from which the blacks of the 
original copy will print white and the whites will print 
black. See ''reverse plate" of Section 306. 

Embossing plate — A plate cut or etched below its surface 
for the purpose of raising the image of the printed surface. 

Stamping die — A relief plate engraved on brass or zinc 
for stamping book covers or similar surfaces. 

Hand-tooling — Any work done by use of a tool upon the 
plate to increase the contrast of the etched plate. 

Mortise — The space cut out from any part of the plate 
for the insertion of type matter or smaller plates. 

Metal blocking — Plates are sometimes blocked on metal 
in place of wood when it is desired to insure extra fine 
printing. Metal blocking is more expensive than the usual 
wood base. 

Stereotype — Stereotypes are made by beating or rolling a 
moistened paper pulp substance against the type form, 
including any illustrations which are to be stereotyped. 
This forms a matrix upon which molten lead is poured, 






making an exact reproduction of the original surface— like 
an electrotype. Stereotypes are used almost exclusivel}' by 

3 13 A. Number of Impressions from Engraving PIai:es 
—Oliver L. Bell, then manager Robert L. Stillson Company 
of New York, in addressing the Technical Publicity Associ- 
ation of that city was sponsor for the following estimates 
as to the length of life of engraving plates. By length of 
life is meant the number of *'good" impressions possible 
from an engraving. 

A carefully made engraving, either half-tone or zinc 
etching, properly made-ready on a cylinder press, should 
run from 75,000 to 100,000 impressions. 

Many more impressions can be had from lead-moldud, 
steel-face electrotypes of half-tones than from the half- 
tones themselves. Mr. Bell spoke of having gotten as high 
as 425,000 impressions from such electrotypes, and of fre- 
quently getting as many as 200,000 impressions. 

314- Ordering Engravings.— The beginner must bear 
in mind that reductions are made photographically and in 
every case the size of the reduction will be in proportion to 
THE SIZE OP THE ORIGINAL. A drawing or a photo, 8 x 10, 
for example, cannot be reduced to 4 x 6 without cutting off 
part of it, or ''cropping," as it is called. Therefore you 
can specify only one side— height or width, but not both. 

To find the unknown dimension of an engraving use 
simple proportion thus: 

8 : 10 as 4 : ? 
Or if you prefer, use this simple method : 

Lay out a rectangle the same size as the extreme dimen- 
sions of the original (copy ) . Draw a diagonal. Lay out en 
the horizontal line the proposed width. Draw a vertical 
line to the diagonal. The length of this vertical line will 
be the desired height. Or if you wish to make the finished 
plate a certain height, reverse this last process. 

Fig. 99 illustrates simply this diagonal method of arriv- 
ing at the size of reduction from an original. In this ease 
the original was 8 inches wide and the drawing sho\^s 

the height which would be secured if reduced to either 4 
inches or 6 inches in width. Most engravings are ordered 
reduced to a certain width, letting the height come as it 
will. Attention should be called to the fact that as a rule 
plates are reductions from originals; the defects in 
the originals will show up ; especially is this true if enlarge- 
ments are attempted. 

Fig. 99. — This figure illustrates how you 
can find the depth of an engraving which is 
reduced to a certain width. See text for de- 

You should also remember that the block of wood or metal 
upon which the half-tone or zinc is mounted will be some- 
what larger than the face of the plate itself. 



HHT' fr 

It is not good policy to mark a photograph or other 
original ''Reduce one-third." Give the engraver actual 
measurements desired, and if you attempt to specify both 
height and depth see that the original scales to those sizes. 

Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. What is a line engraving? Zinc etching? 

2. Define a half-tone and describe how it is made. 

3. If I should send you a photograph of a power-house, could 
you have an electrotype made of it? 

4. What are electrotypes for? 

5. Suppose you were ordering plates for a patent-medicine 
almanac to be printed on a very cheap grade of paper, what kind 
would you order? 

6. See how many different varieties of half-tones and line 
engravings you can discover. 


7s not this a lamentable thing, that of the skin of an innocent 
lamb should be made parchment? That parchment, being scrib- 
bled o'er, should undo a man? — Shakespeare. 

315. The Least Considered Factor in Direct Advertis- 
ing. — W. H. Crow, speaking before the Philadelphia con- 
vention of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World, 
made this statement, emphasizing the words of Shakespeare 
quoted in the chapter head: ** Without a doubt, paper is 
the least considered of the various factors in direct adver- 
tising. Too frequently the attitude towards paper is that 
it is a necessary evil, an incident to copy, typography, en- 
graving, etc. It is chosen because it satisfies the bald neces- 
sities of appearance, price, and printability. Of course 
these are important considerations, but they are frequently 
not so important as the intrinsic qualities of the paper 
itself." Mr. Crow made this remark in 1916 and as this 
paragraph is written (late in 1920) the situation has not 
materially changed though many of the leading paper 
manufacturers have been conducting campaigns for the ed- 
ucation of printers and users of paper in paper values. 

The paper industry seems to be surrounded by a film 
of tradition which cannot be pierced to the extent of adapt- 
ing the same kind of educational publicity for a necessity 
ised in business every day — paper — which has been used 
for a soup or a soap. 

In this chapter we can but hope to arouse the reader to 
give a bit more consideration to paper as one of the 
mechanical factors which also has a physical, mental (psy- 
chological) ; yes, even a strategic appeal. 

We ourselves have almost stumbled into the rut by at- 







tributing to paper a place more or less purely mechanical, 
when it should more properly be classed among the physi- 
cal or mental factors. 

From the printer's standpoint paper represents about 
one-third of the total cost of an average printing job; for 
this reason, therefore, it was deemed best to place the chap- 
ter at this point though, of course, paper — which you are to 
print upon — is of primary importance. 

316. The Interrelation of Paper with Other Factors.— 
George French, a lover of printing for its own sake and as 
an expression of the principles of art, in his book, ''Print- 
ing in Relation to Art," said: **It is a complex and an 
involved process to select the proper paper for a given piece 
of printing, and the rightful decision of either of the com- 
ponent elements involves the rightful decision with refer- 
ence to each of the others. It is impossible to consider the 
question of paper apart from a consideration of the typog- 
raphy, the illustrations, the format, and the binding; and 
it is not possible to consider any of these elements apart 
from the literary motive, which must always be the founda- 
tion of the structure." Yet in another place in that sarae 
work Mr. French recognizes the necessity of making a start 
somewhere and says: *'It is good practice to select the 
paper as the first step in the planning of a book that is 
intended to be upon artistic lines and upon this foundation 
to build the typography and the binding, according to the 
rules of harmony and of proportion." 

These quotations emphasize both the interrelation of 
paper with certain other factors and lead us to the inevita- 
ble conclusion, taken in conjunction with Section 315, that 
advertisers have been prone to buy paper more or less 
upon a basis of quantity rather than upon quality. In 18S0 
statistics show that the demand for paper in the Unit(;d 
States was about 3 pounds per capita. In 1894 this had 
moved up to 5 pounds, while in 1919 it had jumped up to '13 
pounds, and in 1920 was estimated as in excess of 35 pounds 
per person. 

Before discussing the different classes of paper, there- 

fore, we feel it well to dwell at some length upon how to 
decide upon the paper stock to use in producing a piece of 
direct advertising as well as to touch upon the psychology 
of paper. 

317. Selecting the Right Paper Stock. — First having 
found out (Chapter VIII) the type of advertiser; having 
considered the character, standing, dignity, and nature of 
this advertiser's business; and having studied the class, 
means, conditions, occupation, nationality, age and sex of 
the persons advertised to ; as well as having given thought 
to the kind, quality, nature, distinctive characteristics of 
the product or service we are to advertise; secondly (Chap- 
ter X), having decided upon the style and tenor of our 
''copy" appeal; thirdly, (Chapters XIII and XIV), hav- 
ing arrived at a decision as to the process, colors, and 
methods of illustrations, Mr. Crow (see Section 315) brings 
us, fourthly, to the selection of the paper based upon these 
three main rules : 

1. Form. Considerations of economy, or elimination of waste 

on the part of the advertiser are thrown in the balance 
as against convenience, impressiveness, effectiveness, etc., 
with reference to prospective buyers. Form is also in- 
fluenced by the consideration of the effectiveness of the 

2. Symbolical or suggestive attributes of the paper. 

3. Physical characteristics of the paper. 

Under the physical characteristics of paper we must 

a. Surface. 

b. Strength. 

c. Durability. 

d. Printability. 

e. Color. 

Many subdivisions might be considered under each of 
these three main and five minor headings. 

By "form," reference is made to the use of a size of 
paper (standard) which will cut without waste for the job 





in hand. In this connection see Appendices A and C. 
Form also has reference to the weight of the paper used, 
which is covered in Appendix C. 

A simple example of the symbolical or suggestive attri- 
bute of paper would be denoted in the use of a golden 
orange or golden yellow paper for a manufacturer of 
creamery butter made in a golden color. This shows the 
use of the color — a physical characteristic — to suggest 

A banking house will find that for its letterheads a good 
crinkly "rich-feeling" bond paper — also a physical char- 
acteristic — makes an impression upon the recipient. 

The following quoted from an advertising folder of the 
Strathmore Paper Company will show how little it really 
costs, figured on a letterhead basis, to use really high grade 
paper : 

The Cost of a Letter 





OflBce overhead 



Paper and envelopes . . 

Total cost per letter 

Difference in cost . . 

Using Higjh 




Especially in the case of mailing cards, folders, broad- 
sides, and the like, the folding quality of the paper must 
be given careful consideration. 

In many instances excellent effects can be secured 1)}' 
using bond paper for booklets (there is a wide range of 
tints and shades available), and overcoming the tendeney 
of the printing to ''show through," on account of its send- 
transparency, by using what is known as the French fold — 

two pages uncut, and printing only on one side of the 
paper as illustrated in Fig. 70. 

318. Results from Proper and Improper Paper Selec- 
tion. — Speaking before the Cleveland convention of the Di- 
rect Mail Advertising Association, George F. McKenney, a 
practical printer, told of a specialty manufacturer selling 
to druggists who got up a very beautiful two-color booklet, 
printed on a heavily coated paper. The results were not 
satisfactory. After some study it was found that this glar- 
ing white paper when read under electric light was very 
hard on the eyes, and it was found that the class appealed 
to almost always read their mail under this condition. 
Druggists usually work long hours too. A new booklet, 
identical except that it was printed on a dull-finished paper, 
was prepared and, to quote Mr. McKenney, "the resulting 
business clearly showed that the change was worth far 
more than the expense." 

At the same convention, B. E. Hill, advertising manager 
of a firm wholesaling by mail, told of a test of two dif- 
ferent pieces, one of which, on colored paper, produced 
five times the results of the one on white paper. 

AVhile Charles S. Wiggins, a Canadian advertiser, at the 
same meeting recited the case of a mailing into Canada for 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica which was inclosed in an enve- 
lope of a highly finished, therefore brittle, paper. Travel- 
ing a long distance the contents worked through the 
envelope with the result that it was necessary to readdress 
the pieces in new envelopes before delivering them, in addi- 
tion to paying duty on advertising material which would not 
have been chargeable had the original envelopes held 

Postage for October, 1919, tells of a test made by an ad- 
vertiser using quality stationery on one lot of one thousand 
names and cheap stationery on another thousand. There 
was no difference in the copy or quality of list. The cheap 
stationery brought 20 per cent inquiries and the high-grade 
stationery brought 32 per cent inquiries. 

Many other interesting examples were cited, but one 





more, this one from the catalogue field, will serve to point 
the moral. 

T. R. Emerson, a shoe wholesaler, in Printers' Ink for 
November 26, 1914, told of a catalogue which cost $1.25 to 
produce, at that time considered a very high-priced cata- 
logue. This was his second venture into the field of de 
luxe catalogues and Mr. Emerson said of it : **It is pulling 
more strongly than the first one. The cost of selling shoes 
on the road is, roughly, 5 per cent. Even with a $1.25 
catalogue, which is high for the line, our costs run only 
from 1VL> to 2 per cent. It would be higher with a poorer 
catalogue, poorer mailing list, or a poorer line." 

319. The Psychology of Paper. — Aside from references 
already made in preceding sections little study has been 
given to the psychology of paper. It will suffice, to point 
the way, to say that in advertising a massive piece of ma- 
chinery your appeal will register better mentally with the 
prospect if the paper upon which it comes is strong and lias 
an appearance of durability. If you are advertising f ne 
laces, a delicate, though not cheap or flimsy, paper will 
help to impress Mrs. or Miss Prospect. If it is a highly 
polished piece of cut glass, or polished tools, you may need 
to use the highly finished coated papers. While if it is a 
baker's product you will find that offset papers aid the 
mental appeal. Offset papers also add to the eye-appeal of 
woolen products. A linen-finish paper makes an impres- 
sion upon women. Paper with deckle-edges seems to 
impress both sexes. 

Look at Fig. 98 and notice how the deckle-edge (the 
frayed part at the right of the illustration) has been effec- 
tively used to help create prestige and atmosphere for the 
Pierce-Arrow automobile. 

Fig. 98 also illustrates the cover of a house organ pijb- 
lished by a large industrial organization. This particular 
number featured the building of a town of their own in the 
wooded country of Virginia, where they logged the virgin 
forests. They therefore suggested their feature article with 
a real wood cover. It is an extremely thin film of wood, 

made by the Japanese from a species of soft pine known as 
Kiri. Think how effective this paper would be for the cover 
of a booklet on any subject closely tied up with the forests, 
or wood, such as furniture, homes, lumber, etc. 

Where it is desired to use the color of the paper to sug- 
gest certain ideas to the recipient, see Section 302, which 
applies practically as well to paper as to ink. 

In selecting the cover paper to be used on ''The Optim- 
ism Book for Offices,'' shown on Fig, 15, for instance, a 
paper was chosen which suggested an optimistic note. That 
is, the very paper itself suggested brightness, life, and 

William Aspinwall Bradley in ^^The Printing Art Sug- 
gestion Book" some years ago said: ''There can be no 
question that a slightly toned book paper is preferable to a 
dead white. For the toned paper certainly presents a more 
agreeable surface to the eye than white paper. It reduces 
the black and white contrast of the printed page which can 
be so painful." Yet few advertising men have followed 
the idea of colored papers in making booklets, catalogues, 
and the like. 

There is a rich, scarcely touched, field for development 
in the study of paper's psychological appeal. For an ap- 
peal to juveniles or to an uncultured class it may be found 
that the cheapest, most ordinary paper is a better invest- 
ment than the higher-grade and necessarily higher-priced 
paper ! 

320. Two Main Classifications of Papers to Be Con- 
sidered. — In the production of direct advertising there are 
two main classes of papers to be considered: (1) Cover 
papers, used not only for covers, but for mailing cards, 
folders, broadsides, and even upon occasion for letterheads, 
and (2) body or text stock. 

Either or both of these stocks may be used for making 
envelopes, wrappers, or "the outside" referred to in 
Chapter VI. 

Occasionally* a transparent paper is used either as an 
actual part of the cover of a book or as a book jacket to 





add "class'* to the book itself. **The Optimism Book for 
Offices" (see Fig. 15) made use of the loose transparent 
paper jacket to create a feeling of richness for the beautif il 
three-color process work on the cover. Fig. 15 also illus- 
trates a booklet, ' ' The Story of Silk, ' ' upon which a trans- 
parent paper jacket was used to add distinctiveness. 

321. Technical Terms Used in Referring to Paper. — 
Paper is usually quoted by the pound or by the ream. 
Cover stocks are sometimes sold by the ''sheet." The 
count for a ream is 500 sheets. 

In making up specifications for ordering paper it is the 
rule to name the brand or maker, the size of the sheet, the 
weight, the finish, and the tint or color. 

The weight signifies the number of pounds to the ream. 
For example, 3 reams of Best Plate Finish, 25 x 38-80, 
indicates that you require 1500 sheets of this grade, size 
of each sheet 25 inches x 38 inches, 500 sheets of which 
weigh 80 pounds. 

For sizes, weights, and other similar details, see Appen- 
dix C. 

322. Many Varieties of Cover Papers. — There are on 
the market innumerable varieties of cover stocks, and new 
ones are being brought out from time to time by the paper 
manufacturers. These differ in colors, as well as in finishes. 
The "finish" of a paper is its surface. There seems to be 
a persistent demand for ''something new in the line of cover 
papers" and the paper manufacturers cater to this de- 
mand. A few of the generally used cover finishes arc: 
enamel, antique, crash, linen, plate, and marbled. 

Enameled cover paper has a smooth and polished sur- 
face for the printing of half-tone engravings from 120-line 
to 200-line screen in some cases. This will also take line 
engravings, of course. It is usually obtainable in many 
colors. This cover stock lacks strength and should not te 
used where the piece is to be subjected to severe handling. 

Antique cover papers have a slightly rough surface and 
are strong and durable. They are made in many colors 
and grades, and though they will take type and line engra\- 

ings, will not, on account of their fuzziness, take half-tone 

^ Cms/i cover papers resemble crash cloth in finish or sur- 
face They are made in colors and will take line engrav- 
ings or type when not too small or too heavy in color spots. 
Linen cover papers are similar to crash except that the 

grain is much finer. ^^ , • 

Plate cover paper has a hard polished surface that is 
quite smooth and adaptable for half-tones and line engrav- 
incrs It is a widely used type of cover paper. Plate cov- 
ers are strong and durable and thus supply what enameled 

covers lack. . ^ ■,- xi, „+ 

Marhlcd covers represent a wide range including those pat- 
terned upon onyx, or marble, and many other novelties such 
as flecks of gold ; sunspots and shadows, giving a mottled ef- 
fect such as we often see in the sky or on the sea, and so on. 
There are cover papers which resemble wood, and even 
metal ; in fact, some are made of extremely thin sheets of 
wood. In selecting cover stocks— and the cover stock is 
often the salesman of the rest of the piece— bear m mmd 
these specific questions : 

Who are to get the piece? 

Where, and under what conditions, are they gomg to use it / 

What is the nature of the product? 

How much profit is there in the sale of the product? 

How long will the piece be used? 

Answers to these questions will help you to decide more 
easily upon the color, texture, quality, and weight of your 

cover stock. 

A piece containing but a few pages will be made more im- 
pressive by adding a heavy cover. A reciuest addressed to 
a paper merchant, printer, or paper manufacturer will 
bring, in almost every case, a liberal set of actual samples 
the description and illustration of which can only be ap- 
proximated in this book, restricted as it is to black and 

white engravings. 
323. Varieties of Text Papers Well Standardized.-^ 



! '[«. 



There are, of course, several varieties of text papers but 
they are comparatively well standardized. The usual 
classifications of text or body papers and their sub-classifi- 
cations are: Bonds, or Writings, including Linens; 
Ledgers; Book, including Machine Finish (M. F.)," Sized 
and Supercalendered (S. & S. C), Egg-shell, Offset, and 
Coated or Enameled Book. 

Bond papers are the text or body stock of most letters. 
Originally bond paper was of a character good enough for 
the printing of bonds, therefore made of rags and strong 
and durable as well as highly permanent. To-day the term 
*'Bond papers" includes those made of wood pulp -with 
little or no rag. These are very cheap in comparison with 
the rag bond papers. Bond papers may be glazed (smooth) 
and unglazed. 

Linen papers are bond papers with a linen finish like the 
Linen cover described in the preceding section. 

Ledger papers are smooth, plate finished ; originally they 
were made as sheets for ledgers and other account bocks, 
but are now used for letterheads and many other direct- 
advertising purposes. They are more opaque than the 
ordinary bonds. 

Machine Finish and Sized and Super calender ed^ or M. F. 
and S. & S. C, as they are known, differ only in finish. 
M. F. is the cheapest for any work that requires a finish 
which will take a half-tone. S. & S. C. costs a little more 
than M. F. and has a higher finish and consequently will 
take a half-tone of finer screen. 

For work that must show every detail of an illustration a 
good coated or enameled book paper should be used. 

Egg-shell, as the name suggests, has a surface somewhat 
like the shell of an egg. It is also referred to as "Antique 
Wove," or ** Antique Laid," as well as "Linen." The 
antique has a natural surface and the laid so-called laid 
marks, which run very closely together in the horizontal and 
about one inch apart in the vertical direction of the sheet. 

Oifset papers are especially made for the offset process 
of printing (see Section 334). 



For mailing cards varying thicknesses (single and multi- 
ple) of Iristol board are used. 

It is called bristol from the place of its first manufacture. 
This cardboard is suitable for mailing cards, posters, and 
the like. It is made by pasting together several layers of 
paper, the ''ply, "-2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 16-indicating the 
number of layers. Some manufacturers make a so-called 
folding bristol which permits of folding without breaking. 

For sizes, weights and the like, see Appendix C. 

324. Harmonious Color Combinations of Cover or Text 
Stock and Inks.— Not all colors of inks may be effectively 
used with all the different colors of cover stocks. In Sec- 
tion 300 we gave the primary and secondary colors and 
these must be followed in choosing harmonious combinations 
of colored stocks, cover or text, and the inks used on them^ 

As one rule to follow, any primary color may be used 
with that secondary color into the composition of which the 
primary color does not enter. For instance, there is no red 
in green, blue in orange, or yellow in purple. Therefore use 
red with green, blue with orange, and yellow with purple. 



Light Blue: 

Dark Blue: 

Light Brown: 
Dark Brown: 
Light Green: 

Dark Green: 
Light Gray: 
Light Red: 
Dark Red: 

Light Yellow 
Black ; 

Crimson red; navy blue; emerald green. 
Light red; dark blue, light yellow, and yellow 


Dark red and gold; light blue and white; green 

and orange. 

Dark brown and silver; green, gray, and lilac. 

Black and white; light drab; orange. 

Yellow and dark brown; gold and orange; dark 


Black and light green; gold and white. 
Dark gray and red; dark blue and gold. 
Olive and gold; rich green; blue and white. 
White and gold; dark green; orange and dark 


Light blue; red. 

Dark red; gold and white; light blue and silver, 




m I 

In carrying out this rule do not use both colors in light 
tones. Let the blue, green, or purple be dark in tone aad 
the orange, red, or yellow be light in tone. 

The table of combinations of paper and ink on page 381 
will be found helpful in studying color harmony. 

Of course care must be taken in selecting the tints and 
shades to be used. 

For dull-finished papers dull printing inks, as contrasted 
with glossy finished inks, should be used. 

325. General Method for Figuring of Paper Stock 
for a Printing Job.— In taking up this section it will be 
necessary first to read Section 345 explaining the ''impo- 
sition" of a printed form. 

Assume as your problem to find the stock in pounds for a 
64-page catalogue, using 25x38—70 stock, pages to be 
trimmed to 6 x 9 inches for an edition of 10,000 copies. 

First we must recognize that there is an allowance for 
trimming of i/4 inch front and % inch for top and bottom. 
Therefore 6 + 14 c= ey^ inches and 9 + % = 93/3 inches, 
giving you 614 x 9% as the untrimmed page size. 

4 pages X 4 pages on one side of sheet. 
16 pages X 2 = 32, number of pages to a sheet. 
64 pages in catalogue -^ 32 pages to a sheet = 2 <= num- 
ber of sheets to a catalogue. 

10,000 X 2 = 20,000 sheets, total number needed. 

20,000 -^ 500 = 40 == number of reams. 

70 lbs. X 40 ^ 2800 lbs. = amount of paper. 

In actual practice the problem would be modified some- 
what since an allowance must be made for make-ready (see 
Section 337) and printing waste. 

326. Printing-shop Waste Allowance.— The following 
table shows the usual percentage of printing-shop or factory 
waste allowance to be considered in connection with Section 


First Color 

Each Extra 


























Over 25,000 




Questions for Class Work or Review Purposes 

1. Why do you suppose paper has not been considered as a 
factor in planning direct advertising? 

2. Choose some business and make suggestions as to surface, 
color, or kind of paper which might be used by it. 

3. Give the rules for selecting the proper paper stock. 

4. What are "cover" papers'? Describe several kinds. 

5. What are "body" papers? Define each. 

6. Figure the stock needed for some booklet with which you 
are familiar. 





I shall not live to see it, hut I hope that the time will come ivhen 
the making of a good book, from the mechanical point of view, 
will be regarded as an achievement quite as worthy as the paint- 
ing of a good picture. — Theodore Low DeVixne. 

327. Classification of Methods of Reproduction. — The 
principal methods of reproducing the original dire(;t- 
advertising message, and it is the possibility of mechani- 
cally multiplying the original message that makes direct 
advertising, are: mimeographing, multigraphing, printing, 
offset process, lithography, photo-gelatin, steel and copper- 
plate engraving, and embossing. In the following sections 
we shall take up the definitions of these forms of repro- 
duction in conjunction with points of interest to direct- 
advertising producers. 

328. Reproduction of Letters Differs from That of 
Other Physical Forms. — Practically every one of the many 
physical forms described in Chapter III may be reproduced 
by any one of the methods listed in Section 327. Letters 
are occasionally printed (see Fig. 11 C as an example), but 
it should be noted that the methods of reproduction of let- 
ters, as a rule, differ from those employed in reproducing 
other physical forms. In addition to the forms of repro- 
duction mentioned, letters are occasionally reproduced by 
use of carbon sheets — a method that is slovenly, to say tbe 
least — by typewriting, making each letter an original, and 
by automatic typewriting. The latter is accomplished by a 
typewriter which is operated through a music-roll form. 
This form is first cut on the typewriter and then fitted to 
the machine ; it operates the keys automatically afterward. 


This, too, makes each letter an original and the date, ad- 
dress, and other fill-in — it being possible to stop the music- 
roll at any desired point and insert regularly typewritten 
words of any nature — exactly matches the rest of the letter 
because it is all written on the same machine by the same 

It costs considerably more money to reproduce letters by 
the automatic typewriter as compared with other forms of 
processing, but Postage for January, 1920, contains a 
report on the automatic typewriter showing how one firm 
by sending out 500 of these letters at a cost of $60 pro- 
duced 31 one-year contracts valued at $1,274. 

As against this, one large national advertiser after a 
thorough test of the automatic-typewriter method returned 
to the other forms of processing letters as paying more re- 
turns per dollar than any other method of reproduction. 

We shall therefore first take up the subject of repro- 
ducing letters in all its phases and then take up the other 
methods of reproduction referred to in Section 327. 

329. Duplicating Letters. — There are two main methods 
of duplicating or processing letters — mimeographing and 
multigraphing. Some few firms have been quite successful 
in printing regular typewriter type through a silk ribbon 
on a regular or special printing press. 

Mimeographing is accomplished first by writing the letter 
for other piece such as a bulletin, small internal or sales- 
man's house organ, or the like) upon a specially prepared 
wax stencil. This is then put on a drum, inked, and a few 
hundred copies can be run off. 

It is not the rule to fill in mimeographed letters. They 
do not match very closely actual typewritten letters because 
the transfer of the type to the stencil makes an entirely dif- 
ferent looking impression when ink is forced through that 
stencil upon the paper to get the mimeographed reproduc- 

Multigraphing is accomplished by setting up, letter by 
letter, the message to be duplicated, these characters being 
set on a drum and then a ribbon (inked) just like a type- 




writer ribbon is locked down over the metal type and a sli(;et 
of paper going through the machine imprints the metal type 
on to the paper almost exactly like actual typewriting. 
The only difference, in fact, is that in actual typewriting 
your type strikes the paper a direct driving blow through 
the ribbon, while in the multigraph the reproduction is 
made by the same kind of pressure you get in rolling a lead 
pencil across a sheet of paper — the tops of the letters of the 
individual types striking the paper first, the bottoms last, 
and the bottom of the letter last. 

By proper care these letters can be placed in a regular 
typewriter and the address, date, and other such ' ' personal- 
izing" features inserted so that the finished letter is to all 
intents and purposes a personal letter. 

Fig. 11 D is a multigraphed fiUed-in form letter. 

The novice can detect the difference between multigraph- 
ing and mimeographing by looking at the reverse side of 
the sheet impressed — in the former the periods and other 
sharp points strike through, just as with regular type- 
writing. This is not the case in mimeographing. 

Multigraphing is not used in place of printing to any 
great degree, though Fig. 100 illustrates the outside, open- 
ing folds, and inside of a piece of direct advertising whidh 
was entirely reproduced by this process. 

It is also possible to get regular type attachments and do 
actual printing upon a multigraph machine, but we need 
not consider that feature here, for it is so used largely for 
printing office forms. 

330. Form Paragraph Method of Duplicating Letters. 
— It may not be strictly a method of duplicating but the 
form or standardized paragraph system of replying to in- 
quiries comes near to it. 

By this system the advertiser has *' standardized" the 
very paragraph that will reply either to any direct question 
which may be asked, or which will put over in the best poi5- 
sible manner the selling point or points of the advertisers' 
product. Each *'form" paragraph is numbered or lettered. 

An inquiry comes in, the supervisor of inquiries either 



reads it over and marks the number or letter of the 
paragraph or paragraphs which will answer the inquiry 
and the stenographer or typist copies the standardized par- 
agraph from the paragraph book furnished her or, in some 


cm. TtLMPMOMt 


Commercial Letter Company 
busy office regulators 




Grand Rapids. Michigan 

Ar» you fo- 
iDC to receive your pro- 
portion of the aioney that »111 be 
spent for the coming Chrlstna*! Hat 
It occured to you this will depend largely 

on your efforts 
nets by offer- 
gettlons at the 
■entt Can you 
receive your 
onlett you take 
entitle you to it! 
clble way to clinch 
Ing the buyert that 
yourt altoti Could 
■ore clearly In a 
thru any other 
•hlcb It 

to present your . butl* 
ing a ft* timely tug- 
psychological mo- 
honestly expect to 
share of business 
an action that vlll 
It there a more for 
a sale than by show 
their Interests are 
you not demonstrate 
personal letter than 
form of advertising 
addc^essed to nobody 
in particular? Have 
you experienced the 
difficulty of detect 
ing ,our mechanical 
produced letters from ' 
genuine typewritten 
ooples! Do you know 
that the cost of our 
letters are but a 
fraction of a cent 
per copyt lill you 
call Citizens lUS 
A let us convince 
you that the ap- 
pearance of our 
work cannot fall 
to favorably im- 
press the buyer 
you desire 
to sent 

At your 

service first, 

last and all the 


UTTTKR CO. 605- 

06-07 Murray 

MiMooueiMt or eiTTSM eutiNiss Lamm 



Fig. 101.— A very unusual method of reproducing a form letter. 
In using such extremely "clever" appeals one always risks a possi- 
bility that only the cleverness of the form will be remembere4 
when the buying impulse has been forgotten, 



cases, the typist is merely handed the inquiry and she 
picks out the proper paragraph or paragraphs for the reply. 

331. Unusual Letter Reproductions.— Most letters fol- 
low the regular standardized form of a personal letter in 
the reproduction. Now and then a ''stunt" form of pres- 
entation can be used effectively, though cleverness in direct 
advertising must be handled with extreme care, as noted 
elsewhere in the volume. 

Fig. 101 is the reproduction of an unusual method of re- 
producing. The producers of this letter sent it just be- 
fore Christmas for the purpose of stimulating Christmas 
business from the local retailers, and they report it was 
fairly successful. Here then an old, old mental message 
was given a new life by an unusual method of mechanical 

A New York publishing house got out a variation of 
this when in the middle of a letter it inserted a paragraph 
that was arranged as follows: 


start up 





332. Comparison of Results from Different Methods of 
Reproducing the Same Message.— '' The Little School- 
master" of Printers' Ink, June 26, 1913, told of a test where 
the same message was reproduced in two different wavs ; 
one, a multigraphed letter on plain white paper but with 
a handsomely embossed letterhead, and the other a folder. 
'The results showed that the letter, though obviously a 
duplicated message, was the more effective of the two. ' ' In 
this connection see also Section 36. 

333- The Fill-in and Its Reproduction.— When two or 
more direct advertisers gather together, sooner or later 
some one says: ''Does it pay to fill in form letters?" 





This is a moot point. It all depends upon the copy, the 
appeal, the list, what others are doing with a similar list, 
and a thousand-and-one things modifying each case. AVe 
have already taken this up in Section 193 and we are now 
concerned only in the mechanical methods of reproducing 
the fill-in. 

One variation, a simple one, is to omit the fill-in entirely 
as shown in Fig. 11 E. 

Another is to insert the fill-in with a red ribbon if the 
body^ of the letter has been run in a harmonizing (lolor. 
Willard Hall, of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, in Direct Advertising, Vol. 4, No. 3, ;said: 
*'I have made repeated tests on letters sent out over the 
same mailing lists with a perfectly matched fill-in and the 
fill-in written in red, and have found the percentage of 
returns is, if anything, greater from the red fill-in. '^ 

A variation of the fill-in is merely an insertion of the 
word ''Gentlemen," or "Dear Sir," omitting all other 

Still another method is to make the fill-in unnecessary 
by a salutation like that shown in Section 194. 

The Buffalo Specialty Company, large mail-order se.lers, 
reported at the Cleveland Direct Advertising convention 
that the omission of the fill-in caused them loss in business. 

Charles Henry Mackintosh in speaking before the same 
convention told of a test which the La Salle Extension Uni- 
versity had made. This called not only for the fill-in in 
one case, but tlie addition of a pen-and-ink signature in 
place of a processed one. The filled-in letter with the pen- 
and-ink signature produced 352 replies out of 1,000 as 
against 220 from the commonplace fill-in and signature. 
,The increased cost was less than ten dollars. 

These few instances will show how mechanical care will 
improve returns from a direct-advertising campaign. Har- 
rison Mc Johnston, in Printers' Ink, September 18, 1919- 
makes this statement in reporting the success of the bond 
department of one large banking institution : * * Since this 
policy of quality was adopted about two years ago the mail 

sales and cooperation division of this bond department has 
steadily increased its known returns." 

334. Definitions of Various Methods of Reproducing 
All Physical Forms.— While of course letters may be 
printed, or reproduced in any of these other forms, it is 
not the rule, as previously stated, and we shall now define 
the different methods of reproduction used for practically 
every form of direct advertising. 

Printing is the general term used to designate the prod- 
uct of any kind of type, engravings, etc., reproduced upon 
paper by means of ink distributed by rollers upon the face 
of the type or other hard surface to be impressed. 

Printing may be in one or more colors. The word 
"printing" is often used to describe almost any form of 

There are two kinds of letterpress printing. The kind 
more commonly used for producing catalogues and gen- 
eral commercial work is termed flat-bed printing. This re- 
fers to the method of printing from flat forms of type or 
plates, and may be accomplished either on the cylinder 
type of press or on the platen type of job press. 

For Rotary printing the type matter is first of all 
electrotyped or stereotyped and formed into curved plates. 
These are attached to cylinders on the press over which is 
fed a continuous ''web" of paper coming from a roll of 
paper. The rotary presses work many times faster than 
the flat-bed presses but the quality is not so good. This 
form of printing is much used for books and magazines 
and for newspapers. Of recent years the methods 
have been improved and some very creditable work is now 
being done on rotary or web presses. This method is now 
being used to some extent for long-run catalogues. A long 
run is necessary because of the heavy initial expense of 

Process printing differs from regular letterpress printing 
^nly m that one color is printed over another, using the 
three primary colors, or the three primary colors and black, 
as the case may be. 





The bulk of all direct advertising is reproduced by the 
printing process. 

The offset process might well be called a ** cross between" 
letterpress printing and lithography. It makes soft, beau- 
tiful color work. You can print a half-tone plate on rough 
surfaced paper by this process; but you cannot print by 
the offset process on a high-finished, smooth, coated paper. 

There are five step^ in the process: (1) The- original 
which may be engraved upon stone as in regular lithog- 
raphy, or upon copper or zinc as with any printing plate. 
(2) This design is then transferred to a zinc plate. (3) 
This zinc plate is put in the offset press. (4) The impres- 
sion on the zinc plate is printed on the rubber-blanket and, 
finally (5), this blanket off" sets the impression to the paper. 

tinder certain conditions this process is much more eco- 
nomical than either letterpress printing or ordinary lithog- 
raphy. By this process excellent results are obtained on 
rough papers that are much lower-priced than coated stocks. 
Because of the cost of the plates it is quite expensivt; for 
short runs, but for long runs it is economical. The ])ress 
runs much faster in producing offset than, regular printing, 
the speed of production thus reducing the cost. 

No set rule can be stated, but in the case of the ordiaary 
commercial letterhead a ''run" of 50,000 headings can 
usually be produced by the offset process as economically as 
by the letterpress method. 

In the case of booklet covers in three colors, for example, 
it would take an order of about 25,000 booklets (which 
would mean 75,000 impressions, considering the three col- 
ors) before an offset cover could be produced as economic- 
ally as a letterpress job. 

The Bond Bread and National Biscuit Company iniierts 
on Fig. 27 are examples of offset printing. 

Lithography is the method of printing from specially 
prepared stones instead of from metal plates. This process 
is particularly adapted to the reproduction of pictures and 
designs in colors. Because of the cost of producing the 
original designs upon the stone lithography is mainly used 

for printing large editions and especially the covers of 
large editions of catalogues, booklets, etc. 

Photo-gelatin process printing is effected in the follow- 
in^' manner: First there is a reversed negative made, 
sharp and clear, and developed as in photography. This is 
retouched and exposed to the sensitized gelatin plate, which 
has been prepared by reducing gelatin (an animal tissue) 
to a liquid, sensitizing it, and laying it on a plate glass 
about five-eighths of an inch thick. This is then put into 
an oven and hardened. The reversed negative is placed 
against the sensitized gelatin and exposed to the sun in a 
printing frame. After the exposure has been made the 
chemicals are washed out and the plate is dried— this is 
now ready for the press. 

Photo-gelatin as a means of illustrating is peculiarly 
adapted to fine reproductions of paintings, wash, pen-and- 
ink, pencil drawings, photographs, maps, manuscripts, 
silver, cut glass, metal goods, and catalogues where exact 
reproduction is required. No ''screen" is used in this 
process and it is valuable for use in short runs. 

8teel engraving, used largely for bank notes, certificates, 
bonds, commercial letterheads, business cards, and the like, 
is produced from steel plates and dies engraved by the 
intaglio process, the printing characters of which are sunk 
helow the surface of the plate or die. Steel dies are used 
where longer runs are to be made. Copper dies will 
not withstand as much wear and tear. 

Copper-plate engravings, used for similar purposes to 
steel engravings, are made in a similar manner except that 
the engraving is upon a copper plate. The announcement 
on Fig. 20 B of the New York Glohe is an example of cop- 
per-plate engraving. 

Embossing is the method of producing relief effects upon 
paper by subjecting it to mechanical pressure between 
dies. For the best results dies usually have to be heated, 
in which case it is called hot embossing. Covers, especially 
titles of catalogues, booklets, and the like, are often hot 
embossed. If there is no printing prior to the embossing ; 


that is, if merely the paper itself is raised to show the let- 
ters, it is termed blind embossing. 

Hot stamping is a variation of hot embossing ; it is used 
as a means of smoothing out an antique or rough-surj'aced 
paper so that half-tones may be printed upon it. Some- 
times this hot stamping is used to sink the paper and per- 
mit the tipping on of another sheet of paper with the design 
printed upon it, as was described in connection with the 
cover of ''The Optimism Book for Offices," in Fig. 15 

335. Unusual Reproductions.— One unusual method fol- 
lowing the reproduction of the cover of a booklet is to run 
it through a machine which will ''pebble" it. This often 
adds a peculiar charm to the completed job. 

Still another method is that by which a piece of direct 
advertising is produced in colors and then varnished to give 
the design a "live" appearance. The varnish adds to the 
effectiveness of the piece. 

Questions for Ci^ss Work or Review Purposes 

1. Name the different methods of reproducing direct advc^rtis- 
ing mechanically. 

2. Which method is used in the main? Why? 

3. Describe the various methods of duplicating letters and 
choose specimens of each. 

4. Choose from any available pieces of direct advertising- ex- 
amples of all the different methods of reproduction. 

5. If possible, visit a printing establishment and see how print- 
ing is done. Write up your visit for the purpose of impressing 
it upon your memory. 




CeciVs dispatch of business was extraordinary, his maxim 
being: '^The shortest way to do many things is to do only one 
tiling at once." — Smiles. 

336. Reproduction of Multigraphed and Mimeographed 
Direct Advertising a Simple Process. — There is little to 
consider on the subject of multigraphing and mimeograph- 
ing beyond that set forth in Section 329. It should be 
noted that the stencil itself is proof-read in the case of 
mimeographing and a proof of the set-up form read in the 
case of multigraphing. It should also be noted that while 
any form of typewritten work may be underscored as this 
word is underscored, because the reproduction is made by 
a stencil, in the case of multigraphing a single-spaced re- 
production can only be underscored where the line under- 
scored is the last line of a paragraph, or where an extra 
space is allowed between that paragraph and the next one. 
In other words, on the multigraph (unlike the typewriter 
itself, and in this particular it affords the only difference 
between multigraphing and typewriting, purely from the 
mechanical angle) it requires an entire line of space to un- 
derscore either a single letter, a word, or more. 

The steps in the reproduction of even a simple print- 
in? job are much more complex, as will be found in Section 

337. Steps in a One-color Four-page Inclosure Repro- 
duction. — Few laymen and certainly not all advertisers 
know the many steps that even an ordinary one-color, un- 
illustrated four-page inclosure may require in its reproduc- 
tion. These steps are as follows: 





1. Preparing the copy, layout, etc. 

2. Ordering the stock. 

3. Setting up the type matter. 

4. Having this O.K.'d. 

5. Locking up the forms. 

6. Putting these on the press. 

7. Mixing the ink, if not a standard color. 

8. Making-ready the forms before printing. 

9. Getting the O.K. on "press proof" before actual printing. 

10. Running the job. 

11. Slip-sheeting, if necessary. 

12. Letting the sheets dry. 

13. Running them through the folder. 

14. Trimming them. 

15. Tying the inclosures into bundles or putting them in boxes. 

16. Delivery to the customer. 

If plates are used and a hair-line register required a num- 
ber of extra steps are added. 

(a) Make-ready is the name given to the operation oi 
preparing a form of type so that a good, clear and uniform 
impression will be the result. Make-ready of a form con- 
taining plates is usually more expensive than of a form 
containing type only since a great deal of overlaying, under 
la>ang, etc., is required. The printer takes care of the en 
tire operation, but it is one of the big items of cost in a job, 
aside from stock, composition, etc. 

(b) Slip-sheeting is the "interleaving," or slipping in of 
an absorbent sheet between the sheets as they come from the 
press so that the wet inks may not smudge or mar the pre- 
ceding sheet. This is not often necessary unless a hard- 
surfaced paper is used, or a job in several colors is rushed 
through the press. 

(c) Trimming is the cutting down of the printed and 
folded sheets to the size which the customer ordered. See 
Section 485 showing allowance for "trim." Trimming is 
done by the printer with a power paper knife. 

338. Following the Job Through the Shop.— Fig. 102, 
shown by the courtesy of the House of Hubbell, Cleveland, 
Ohio, illustrates graphically the steps of a more complex 



|COPy I |PICTUQE9 1 iDKOQA-non I IcOVErI |ft\PEO g \nk\ 

DRAW IN 6 y 


il — i ' 





5 , 

I l/x^PoslTlO/^^ I 

l/^AklEr^EAPy I 

Thc3 ^ , 

OOVEQ. and IN9lDEr- 

leiNDlNG and TIPPING | 

■ I , 


Fig. 102. — The steps of a complex printing job. 

printing job than are described in Section 337. Note how 
the five sections of the operations slowly work down until 
we reach the finished catalogue or other bound book. This 
will be found especially helpful in checking up steps in any 
job under way. 

There are several steps not illus1»rated on this chart, more- 
over. ''Breaking for color/' as the printer speaks of it, is 




an operation that is necessary when two or more colors are 
used in a job. Blank spacing material is inserted to fill up 
the space where color str.ikes in the dark form, and vice 
versa. To ''break" sixteen pages for color will usually 
take from four to eight hours, one printer tells us. 

To ' ' lock up ' ' the forms requires from four to six hours, 
and, if there are three colors, proportionately much longer. 

''Make-ready" was defined in Section 337, but in follow- 
ing the job let us note that it would require from three to 
fifteen hours to make ready a form of sixteen pages, one 
color, according to the number and quality of plates. 

Actually to run the form through the presses would re- 
quire from twelve to eighteen hours to print 10,000 copi(!S, 
for example, and a similar length of time would be neces- 
sary for each form — the color and the dark form. 

To set up, even on a machine, the "average" 32-pa?e 
booklet, with a page size of 5x8, would require about 
eight or ten hours. 

To insert this machine-set body matter into the page form, 
together with any plates, captions, panels, tables, borders, 
etc., would require from 15 minutes to an hour or more per 
page according to the complexity of the job. 

All these figures are at best approximate to give an idea 
of the actual time necessary for a reproduction to !?o 
through the average shop. 

339. Short Cuts in Handling Big Jobs. — Of course if 
the job which you are having printed is a simple four-pa;,'e 
inclosure, or a sixteen-page booklet or the like, following tlie 
copy, pictures, decorations, covers, engravings, and other 
steps is a simple routine the details of which may well oe 
carried in your head. Fig. 66 shows the successive steps 
employed by one firm in preparing a small catalogue. A 
much more elaborate method of handling must be follow<?d 
where the catalogue or other piece runs to many pages 
illustrated with a large number of plates, some of whieh 
have to be made from drawings, some from photographs, 
perhaps none of which is ready when the copy is sent to 
the printer. 



Fig. 103 illustrates the planning board used by V. E. 
Pratt in getting out a 1700-page mail-order catalogue, as 
described in Mailhag for April, 1919. This is a short cut 
to the proper handling of a big job without which there 
would be untold confusion. In order to simplify this de- 
scription (and the illustration in Fig. 103) we shall con- 
sider only a 120-page booklet, though the principle is un- 
changed for a larger number of pages. 

Our first move is to get 120 one-inch cup-hooks for the 
board; then 120 each two-inch colored "garment" tags as 
they are termed, in the following ten colors; to indicate 
conditions shown : 

1. White = Nothing started. 

2. Blue = Plates ready. 

3. Green = Page ready for printer. 

4. Lavender = Page in hands of printer. 

5. Orange=First proof of page received. 

6. Yellow = Page gone back for first revise. 

7. Red = Second revise proof received. 

8. Violet = Second revise sent back not O.K. 

9. Pink = Used for additional proofs. 

10. Black = Page O.K.M and ready for press. 

Fig. 103 also illustrates the tags, cup-hook, and how they 
are operated upon the board. 

Mount these hooks on a board in rows of sixteen or 
thirty-two pages — depending upon how many pages your 
printer will print in each '* signature." Each row will 
then represent one whole signature, and you must be sure 
to use the pages bearing the numbers he will make up into 
that signature so that '* Signature" one, for example, can 
be printed while you work on ''Signature" two, and so on. 

Hang your ten tags, one of each color, on the hooks in 
the order of colors mentioned in preceding paragraph, black 
on the bottom. 

Number your hooks, on the board, 1 to 120, as indicated. 

We now start with 120 white tags facing us, representing 
that number of white, or blank, pages. As the pages 
progress we note the date on the tags, and, as the next step 









\f\ ^ *• to 













.s;m»\\\' sEBSsssm&sss 




(A 3 



w J 





9 So 

W fii4 

f- * H 

•-I O X 









® « oJ 

-^ (a ai 

O B T • 
OS «>T3 

OS 9J w 


flg o 

<s ^ o 

_ O ^^ CO 

fl. 2 2 s 

-^ o -C 

o ti C ' 

^ S C8 cj 

I. "^ C oJ 
M «*- ,iS ^ 

5 o bco 

^' ^ ai 
tuoa ^ 2 


is taken, the old tags are taken off until the black tags are 
visible, indicating that the pages are ready for the press. 
When a solid row of black tags appears, that signature is 
ready to be printed. It has been O.K.'d for the last time 
by the advertiser. In Fig. 103 one signature is all ready, 
except two pages. The tags which are taken off the top are 
put on the bottom in Mr. Pratt's system, so they are avail- 
able for future reference as a complete file of the individual 

Any number of colored tags could be used just as well as 
ten, additional ones being added for further proofs, electro- 
typing, and the like, and the general principles of this sj^-s- 
tem may be applied to any individual problem. 

340. Preparation of Correct Copy Necessary for Eco- 
nomical Reproduction. — If every one who started to pre- 
pare copy for the printer bore in mind the steps outlined 
in Section 337 he would see to it that the copy which was 
sent to the printer was as nearly correct as possible. It is 
an old story, but none the less true, that all too often adver- 
tisers start to rewrite the copy after they see it in proof 
form. This involves additional costs charged as *' author's 
corrections." Often the revised copy is longer than the 
original, or shorter, in which case the plan of the entire 
piece may have to be modified. Pages m^y have to be re- 
planned, reset, and the costs are multiplied. 

Copy written in an illegible handwriting runs the cost 
up enormously, for you pay for the time of the compositor, 
proofreader, and others, in addition to the time of the 
machine operator who struggled to have it put into type. 
Every time they meet in ''conference" to decide whether 
a word is ''time" or "true," for instance, you, the adver- 
tiser, pay for it. 

Write all the copy on. the typewriter if possible, on one 
side of the sheet, and all on the same sized sheets for ease in 

Remember that every single change you — the advertiser, 

author" — make in proof costs you money. As this is 

Written the cost varies from $3 to $5 per hour. A single 







comma may require that a line be reset. Resetting a line 
may upset a whole paragraph. A paragraph upsets a page, 
and a page the book. You order italic captions. You get 
the proof and do not like their looks. You order a change. 
That is an author's correction and you pay for it. 

If this section could drive home to every reader the abso- 
lute necessity of having the copy correct before it is sent to 
the printer to be set up, it will save the reader the cost of 
the book on any job running to a hundred dollars or more. 

Write your copy correctly at first, typewrite it. 
make no changes in proof that are not absolutely 
necessary. expect to pay for these changes in ad- 
dition to the printers ' original estimate. 

(a) Estimating Typewritten Copy. To determine the 
number of lines a piece of typewritten copy would make 
when set in any certain face and measure of type, the 
United Typothetae of America gives its members the fol- 
lowing rules: 

First, ascertain the average length of the typewritten line 
in picas. 

Second, count the number of such lines. If there is a 
large number of pages get an average of the number of lines; 
to a page and multiply by the number of pages. 

Third, get the length of the type line in picas. 

Fourth, decide upon the size and kind of type to be used 
for the set-up. 

Fifth, multiply ther average length of the typewritten line 
by the number of such lines. This will give the amount of 
typewritten copy in picas. 

Sixth, divide the figure so obtained by the number of picas 
in the length of the type line. The result will be the number 
of lines of typewritten copy the same length as the type 
line is to be. 

Seventh, multiply the result by the percentage figure as 
shown by the accompanying table for the size and kind of 
type to be used. The final result will be the number of lines 
of type. 

Example: Twenty pages of 12-point typewritten eop^' 
with an average of forty lines to the page. The average 

length of the lines is 40 picas. To be set 20 picas wide in 
8-point Goudy. 

20 X 40 = 800, the number of typewritten hues. 
800 X 40 = 32,000, the number of picas of typewritten 

32,000-^-20= 1,600, the number of typewritten lines the 

same length as the type line is to 
The percentage as shown by the table for 8-point Goudy 
is 55 per cent. 

1,600 X .55 == 880.00 or 880 lines of 8-point Goudy 
type, 20 picas wide. 

(b) Percentages of Various Sizes of Caslon, Scotch 
Roman and Goudy Set from 10- and 12-Point Typewriter 
Type Copy. 



re copy 


Caslon old Style 

Scotch Roman 



6: 8: 10: 12: 14: 18 

6: 8: 10: 12: 14: 18 

6: 8: 10: 12: 14: 18 


.43 .54 .66 .80 .90 .118 
.50 .63 .78 .95 .106 .140 

. .95.117 
.57 .62 .79 .97 .112 .131 

.45 .55 .66 .79 .95 .125 
.55 .67 .78 .94 .110 .146 

(c) Estimating Number of Words Set in Various Sizes 
OF Body Type: 

The table on page 404 shows the approximate number of 
words to the square inch in various sizes of body type, 
leaded and solid, and will be helpful in estimating the 
number of pages required, or words needed. 

341. The Layout and the Dummy. — A layout is a 
planned arrangement sent to the printer together with the 
copy so that he may follow it in setting up your direct- 
advertising piece. A dummy, though the term is often a 
synonym of layout, ordinarily is a rough duplicate of what 
the finished piece will be as to weight, shape, make-up, etc. 

Fig. 104 illustrates a rough layout of two pages of a 
broadside, for example, from the pen of John H. Clayton, 

dummy" specialist. This could be sent to the printer 
With the illustrations, trade-mark, signature plates (called 

logotypes"), and the printer could then intelligently re- 
produce the ideas of the maker of the layout. 




Words to tiie Square Inch 


5 Point 

5 Point 

G Point 

6 Point 

8 Point 

8 Point 

10 Pt. 

10 Pt. 

12 Pt. 


^ a; 

-^ "d 


















































































































































































































The above table shows the number of words contained in one or moie 
square inches, both leaded and solid (leaded having two points between 
the lines). In writing copy all words composed of twelve or more letteis 
should be counted as two words. 

Without a layout the printer might set up the pages in 
such a way as to require resetting at a cost which would 
be eliminated entirely by guidance of a simple layout. 

A dummy of a catalogue, for example, contains the num- 
ber of pages to be used, the weight of paper chosen, the 
kind of cover stock, and each of the pages of the dummy 
may have a ''layout" so that the dummy also acts as a lay- 
out for the printer. 

The layout is a guide to the compositor, the dummy i:? 
the *' blue-print" for both advertiser and printer. It en- 
ables the advertiser to judge what the finished job will look 
like and the printer to deliver most readily what is wanted. 

Unless the printer has a dummy and a layout it will be 
necessary to submit galley proofs — the type being placed on 



riot 'Jijtst Selliac^ 

loday W? Offer fe Buyer 
of Phntmo ' 

Buj/crs of Pl-tn+iHO Have 
found IT PAYS 

A Scrvkr-f+iai- Means 



iierK. -to aofianif fotvUitmr titilit»: 

Fig. 104.— The rough layout which visualizes the finished piece 
not only to the printer but also to the prospective buyer. 

long trays or galleys and proved on a proof press— and 
made up into pages afterwards. Every additional proof 
means an additional charge, of course. 

Sometimes with proofs of engravings layouts of pages 
are made and these pasted in the final dummy of the book, 
catalogue, or other piece. Likewise clippings from adver- 
tisements, stories, and the like may be used to make the 
layout more realistic. Colored pencils are often used to 
suggest color treatment in the finished work. 

342. Reading the Proof.— Fig. 105 illustrates the meth- 
ods of marking a proof and every reader of this work will 
find it advisable to become familiar with these marks and 
how to apply them. Printers generally use them ; indeed, 
any other method of marking may be misunderstood. All 
marks should be made in the margins ; if the line is a wide 
one mark the corrections for the right side of the line on 
the right margin, for the left on the left-hand margin. 

Beginners should be warned against O.K.'ing proofs on 
their own responsibility. Even able and accomplished ad- 
vertising men, knowing how all are prone to be poor proof- 
readers of their own "copy," make a practice of getting a 





The Mark 

"She Marking of Proof 

Meaning of Mark 

Mark in Proof 


cj He bought the boo/k 
'.J He bought the book 
y His book, andyWherea5 
i}u He'lhc\bought^book 
JtcuLO He bought the book 
fdm^c/i H^ bought the book 
<XLfi^ He bought the book 
Aorrvan/ He bought the^ book 
'^ ^ He bought the^book^ 
V A He^^boughtyythe^book 
X,xiA He bought the jfook 
itl^ He bought thcbook 
O He bought the book . 
Atub He bought 4hc book 
9 He bought the book 
kL He^bought the book 
>^ He bought Johns book 
X He bought the ^k 
/-/ A registered trademark 
Dy^He bought the book 
<2?) He brought the book 
L L rie bought the book 
G He bought the book 

take out 

wrong font letter 

make paragraph 


put in italic 

small capital 


put in roman 

quotation marka 

even spacing 

lower case letter 



let stand 


push down space 


broken letter 


indent em quad 

query to author 

bring to mark 

close up 

Fig. 105. — Whether or not you have a good proofreader at 

your command, it is a good thing for you to know how to 

mark a proof. The marks of correction shown above apply 

to almost all the errors that are apt to occur in printers' 

proofs of direct-advertising matter. 

number of extra proofs of an important work, such as a 
catalogue, and of having a set of these proofs read and 
O.K. 'd by authoritative officials of the concern for which it 
is produced, especially having the engineering department 

check measurements, details and the like, and so on where 
the piece describes a mechanical product. 

343. O. K. of Technical Details.— Printed matter is as- 
sumed to be authoritative and every producer of direct 
advertising owes it therefore to the profession to see that, 
before any technical data are published, they have been 
O.K.'d by an ''authority." 

Extreme care must be used to see that figures, sizes, di- 
mensions, and the like appear correctly in a printed cata- 
logue or booklet. 

See Chapter XX as to O. K. of postal regulations. 

344. Copyrighting the Printed Reproduction.— It is not 
necessary to copyrio^ht direct advertising, but doing so 
often frightens off those who would plagiarize and, more 
than that, frequently gives the book a higher value in the 
eyes of the recipient. 

By the copyright you secure the exclusive right to the 
contents of the direct advertising — if original. Any one 
who infringes may be prosecuted. 

Application for copyright should be made to the Regis- 
trar of Copyrights, Washington, D. C, who will furnish a 
copy of the law and regulations and the proper blanks. All 
direct advertising which is copyrighted, to he entitled to 
the protection, must bear the notice ''Copyright, 19 — , by 

," on the front page, or title page, of the publication, 

or approximately in the same position if in other than 
booklet form. Inmmediately after publication two copies 
of the piece must be filed in the Copyright Office. The cost 
of a copyright application is $1.00, which includes a certifi- 

345. What Is Meant by "Imposition."— Imposition, in 
the printers' language, has reference to the arrangement of 
the pages in such a way that they will print in proper po- 
sitions on the flat sheet, so that when this is folded the page 
numbers or folios will run in proper sequence. 

The name comes from the fact that the form or forms — 
where more than one color as previously explained — are 
first placed within a metal frame known as a "chase" which 



lies flat on the ''imposing" stone. This form is tightened 
or "locked-up" by the use of mated wedge-like melal 
pieces called ''quoins." 

Imposition is not a simple thing to learn, and yet to 
figure paper stocks accurately (see Section 325) one must 
have a rudimentary knowledge of it. 

Let us consider a four-page inclosure in order to make it 
easy to understand. This may be printed' from two forias 
of two pages each, pages 1 and 4 being printed from one 
form, a second form being used to print pages 2 and 3 on 
the opposite side of the sheet (see Fig. 106). When a 
sheet is printed in this manner it is said to be print(!d 
*^ sheet -wise/' and each printed sheet will make one com- 
plete inclosure. It will, therefore, require only 1000 im- 
pressions on each side, or 2000 impressions, to make 1000 
complete inclosures. 

If, instead of printing from two forms of two pages each, 
the four pages are arranged in one form and a sheet twi(!e 
the size of the first sheet is used, being printed first on one 
side, then turned end for end and printed on the opposite 
side, the process is called ^^work-and-turn'* handling (see 
Fig. 106). Each printed sheet is cut in two and makes 
two complete inclosures. This will require only 1000 im- 
pressions to make 1000 complete inclosures. 

The beginner should clearly understand that when a sheet 
is printed "work-and-turn," the form is twice the si2e 
of the form if the same number of pages is printed in two 
forms ' ' sheet-wise. ' ' The press is printing twice the num- 
ber of pages each impression, and thus cuts the number cf 
impressions in half. 

In any regular forms the pages that fall together (also 
referred to as "folios") will total one more than the num- 
ber of pages in the form, as 1 + 4 = 5; 3 + 2 = 5; 
1 + 16 = 17 ; 8 + 9 = 17. 

The same principles are involved whether a sheet con- 
tains four pages or sixty-four pages, and it is well for the 
beginner to practice with four pages, both sheet-wise and 

Four Pages Printed Sheetwise 

Outside Inside 





As the pages would 
appear in the form 

As the pages would 
appear in the form 

4 12 3 

As pages would appear 
on the printed sheet 

As pages would appear 
on the printed sheet 

Four Pages Printed Work and Turn 





As the pages would 
appear in the form 








As pages would appear 
on the printed sheet 

Fig. 106. — These sets of miniature pages 
with their respective captions will explain 
graphically the difference between four 
pages run "sheet-wise" and those printed 
"work and turn," 






work-and-turn, until he understands the fundamental prin- 

346. Sizes of Machinery for Reproductions. — There are, 
of course, many special sizes, but in the main it will be 
found that the following sizes are ** standard" or ''regu- 

The maximum size of sheet that can be put through a 
regular office mimeograph is 8i^ x 14 inches, with a priat 
surface of about 7 x 14 inches. 

The maximum size sheet for the regular office multigraph 
is the same as for the mimeograph, but the actual print 
surface is about 8 x 14 inches. 

Job presses range from the small size taking a chase of 
8x12 and a sheet of about the same size (though a sheet 
6 x 10 inches will work better) for printing envelopes and 
small cards, to the 14 x 22 inch size for ordinary half-tore 
work, covers, scoring, cutting, embossing, etc. There is 
also a 10 x 15 inch chase size which will take sheets of that 
size though a 9 x 12 will work better, used largely for 
printing letterheads. There is also a 12 x 18 size chase job 

The Kelly press is a job press, too, but very fast, and is 
fed automatically. It takes a 17 x 22 chase for which the 
15 X 20 sheet is about ideal. 

Cylinder presses run from a minimum size of about 22 x 

34 to an occasional 44 x 64 inch size. The usual sizes (there 

are more variations in cylinder-press sizes than in job-press 

sizes) are for taking the 25 x 38 and 32 x 44 inch sheets. 

The pony cylinder will handle line-cuts and small half- 
tones advantageously. It is 22 x 34 inches in size. 

347. Knowledge of Mechanical Problems Often Meanu 
Saving in Costs. — The beginner might think there is no 
need of paying attention to these mechanical problems in 
reproduction. The fact is that frequently savings may b(; 
made by utilizing this information. Four different pieces 
may be made up and run on one sheet at the same time, 
later cut up and folded to separate sizes, if desired, making: 
a saving in cost of press work. 



Figs. 107 and 108, respectively, show how, by knowing 
the mechanical reproduction problems, "waste" of book 
paper (25x38) and cover paper, respectively, may be 
avoidefd and almost '^free" inclosures or postal cards se- 
cured out of the portion saved. These figures also illus- 
trate the possibilities of cutting more than one piece out of 
the same sheet. 

5 PAOE 5>iX &:'A FOLDER 

W k. 

3 PA^E ikx 2>* FOLDER 




Fig. 107. — How you can save the waste even in the standardized 
25x38 sheet of paper is indicated here. A similar economy can 
often be effected in other sheets and sizes, of course. Confer with 
your printer and make these savings. 

374A. How to Order Printing. — Appendix F gives the 
standardized form of ordering printing and should be re- 
ferred to in this connection. 

348. Two Main Types of Folding Machines. — There are 
two main types of folding machines. One folds by use of 
knives and the other by friction. The former is largely 
used for book work folding 16 and 32 pages in right-angle 
folds. The latter is used for folding pamphlets and smaller 
catalogues, inclosures, folders, etc. Neither will handle 
die-cut pieces as a rule and all such special folds must be 
made by hand, 



.«.-«> ■•,' *„I h*. ••>, 


.M^^ •,>....»«», .A 

« »*.A. ^ -« „»<i«K*.> 

«.li^-«n r^w«>^-9 

ift>»^« * .*- Tn lw> 

^.»^ •«,««' 


.. ■ .. M... .^ ,»,. .», 

Fig. 108. — The plan adopted here is similar to that conveyed in 
Fig. 107, but in this case cover stock has been used and a double pur- 
pose served. The return card is a match with the cover of the 
house organ since it is printed at the same time and from the same 
sheet, at a saving in paper and presswork. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Describe the steps in the reproduction of a multigraphed 
job; a printed job. 

2. In your own words tell of Mr. Pratt's system of handling 
a big printing job through the advertiser's office. 

3. Why is there so much necessity that the first copy be correct? 

4. Make a rough layout of a broadside page. A dummy of it. 

5. Read and mark with proofreader's marks any sheet or sheets 
you can find errors in. 

6. What connection is there between imposition and the order- 
ing of paper? Make up a four-page form and number the 
pages; show the forms both sheet- wise and work-and-tum. 

7. How can knowledge of mechanical reproduction be used to 
advantage ? 


addre!ssing and distributing 

It is the Age of Machinery, in every outward and inward sense 
of that word. — Carlyle. 

349. Addressing--"The Neck of the Bottle."— By far 

the larger portion of direct advertising is delivered to the 
person intended by means of the United States mails, either 
from direct or indirect distribution, as we shall see in Sec- 
tion 357. The addressing of the piece, therefore, is the 
''neck of the bottle" of direct advertising. If that part 
is not rightly done, all that has gone before may be waste 
effort. In a public address D. A. Campbell, formerly post- 
master of Chicago, said: *' Forty-three per cent of the 
mail handled by the Chicago post-office is wrongly ad- 
dressed. Believing that their particular firms are univer- 
sally known, business men advertise without giving their 
business street address. They send letters without writing 
the street address on the envelope. Over 1000 Chicago 
firms use 'Chicago' only as a mailing address. Looking 
up addresses and seeing that such mail is properly directed 
costs the Chicago post-office $85,000 a month. ' ' 

Honorable John C. Koons, first assistant postmaster gen- 
eral, in addressing the Cleveland Advertising Club, in May, 
1920, said: ''Twenty-two million letters reach the dead- 
letter office each year, which cannot be delivered because 
they are so improperly or incorrectly addressed that we 
cannot locate the addressee. Many times that number go 
to the directory section and are given the directory service 
which delays their delivery from twelve to twenty-four 
hours. ' ' 

Correct addressing not only is necessary, but it pays. 









Consider the statistics reporte-d to the Detroit conv.^n 
tion by B. A. Dahlke, of the Dahlke Stationery & Manufac- 
turing Company, Buffalo, showing that for five months in 
succession a test of extra carefully handwritten addresses as 
compared with poorly written ones showed 30 per cent 
increase in favor of the carefully written ones. 

350. Four General Methods of. Addressing.— Four 
methods of addressing are generally used: (1) Writinc^ 
by hand; (2) typewritten; (3) by means of paper stendl 
addressing machines, and (4) metal-plate addressing ma- 

All of these methods serve useful purposes, and for our 
treatment in this chapter we shall assume that the name and 
address are correct in every particular, as set forth in Chap- 
ter IV. In writing to some prospects, a handwritten ad- 
dress (perhaps in feminine handwriting) is more useful 
than any other form. 

In addressing business men on the grade of paper known 
as papeterie (wedding announcement stock), for example, 
feminine handwriting adds piquancy to the piece. In writ- 
ing what appears to be a personal note from one man to 
another, one woman to another, or sometimes from one sex 
to the other, a handwritten address adds the necessary 
''personal" touch. 

Likewise, firms with large addressing-machine equipment 
find upon occasion that it is worth while to address certain 
envelopes individually upon the typewriter to get a per- 
sonal touch that cannot be secured from the very best 
machine-made address. 

Where speed is essential machinery is necessary to handle 
the addressing. Parenthetically, one of the worst faults 
of direct advertisers is an overweening desire for speed 
and more speed. We are ''speed" mad. We are obsessed 
with the idea that we must get 100,000 mailing pieces into 
the mails in the morning or as many prospects will pase; 
away from ennui, when as a matter of fact 99,999 of them 
would still live probably if we never mailed out that piece 
of advertising. 


(a) Eandwritten addresses are, of course, always pro- 
duced with pen and ink. The average person likes a little 
contrast and the enormous amount of machine-addressed 
mail reaching the average man. these days causes a hand- 
written address to stand out. 

(&) Typewritten addresses should always be written on 
each piece individually, though occasionally publications 
make three or four carbon copies of the first mailing sticker 
and utilize these carbons (on gummed paper, as a rule) 
for further mailings. Such an address never contains the 
quality appeal, however. 

Until recently experts recommended the paper-stencil 
machine for lists to be used only a few times, in preference 
to the metal plates for the metal-plate machines which were 
more costly. Now that the one firm making practically all 
of the metal-plate machines has evolved and popularized a 
smaller and much cheaper metal plate, this difference has 

(c) The paper-stencil machine operates, broadly speak- 
ing, on the principle of the mimeograph. A cut-out "sten- 
cil" is made on a prepared sheet of paper held in a paste- 
board frame. The ink then operates through this stencil to 
produce the address. 

{d) The metal-plate machine involves the principle- of 
the typewriter or multigraph. The plate is embossed, not 
cut-out, and the letters stand up above the rest of the plate 
as do the characters on a typewriter. This plate then is 
operated through a ribbon, a duplicate of a typewriter rib- 
bon, to make the address upon paper, as in the case of the 
multigraph or typewriter. 

Experience shows that unless, as a rule, you will- have 
to address a list five times or more within a year it is not 
economy to invest in an addressing machine. ^ 

351. Either Paper Stencils or Metal Plates May Be In- 
dexed.— Both handwritten and typewritten addresses must 
be done oyer and over, except where written in carbon, and 
this requires a separate card index or sheet to be kept on 
file as the original list. This original list, is, of course, de- 








sirable in the case' of the paper-stencil and metal-plate ma- 
chines, though not necessary. In both cases the plates may 
be had with "frames" that permit of indexing upon them 
the rating, business secured, follow-up, etc. 

In the case of the addressograph (metal-plate) machine 
an automatic system of selecting prospects by means of a 
series of metal tabs inserted on the top edge of the frame 
makes a further saving in handling large lists. 

The cost of typewriting addresses is from $3.00 to $4.00 
per thousand, varying according to the place where it is 
done. By use of the addressograph the cost is only a few 
cents per thousand, not including the cost of the original 
plates which, of course, automatically reduces the total 
cost every time the list is used. The rate of production 
per day is about 750 to 1000 on the typewriter as against 
15,000 to 20,000 on the addressograph. The paper-stencil 
machine has about the same rate of production as the ad- 

The addressograph can be used to secure an almost per- 
fectly matched fill-in in connection with the multigrapli, 
when care is used. 

Both paper-stencil and metal-plate machines may be had 
for operation by hand, foot, and electric-power. 

352. Using the Mails for Distribution Purposes.— The 
mails are used for distribution purposes in two ways: (1) 
Direct mailings, and (2) indirect distribution. In the for- 
mer the piece is sent direct to the possible prospect, while 
in the latter instance the piece is inclosed with other mail 
as with a letter or a house organ, etc., and distributed 
through a cooperative mailing plan, or reaches the prospect 
in an indirect way. 

If we are mailing direct there are three important things 
to be considered in addition to the postal rules and regula- 
tions set forth in Chapter XX; and these are: (1) If 
your mailings are large it will be necessary to assort youi* 
pieces just as the post-office would. Put the pieces for Il- 
linois all together, perhaps even separating Chicago, and 
tying thesie into bundles by cities and towns, inserting them 

in bags furnished by the post-office and then delivering 
these marked bags direct to the post-office. This method 
eliminates almost interminable delay which would other- 
wise ensue in the local post-office. 

(2) The timing of mailings will have to be worked out 
with the post-office department, both locally and at the 
offices where the mails are to be delivered. 

(3) Method of prepaying postage will require much con- 
sideration. There are, in the main, two problems here: 
whether you will use stamps or the permit. If stamps, 
whether regular stamps which have to be cancelled or pre- 
cancelled stamps. If you wish to use precancelled stamps, 
see Section 378. If you are to use regular stamps, it will 
be necessary to decide whether to use first-class or third- 
class methods of payment ; that is, whether for an ordinary 
circular vou will use one-cent or two-cent — mail the en- 
velope unsealed or sealed. 

Occasionally special delivery or registered mailings have 
l)een found to be highly profitable (see Section 353). 

The subject of first-class versus third-class mailings is so 
important that we shall take it up separately in the succeed- 
ing section. 

353. First-class versus Third-class Mailing. — There can 
be absolutely no iron-clad rule laid down for this prob- 
lem which may be followed by every business under every 
condition. It would be as impossible as to answer the 
query: "Which is the better, to send out salesmen dressed 
in blue serge or gray tweeds?" 

The personal factor, the list, what else is going to the 
list from yourselves, from competitors, the time, the offer, 
the surrounding conditions — all make it absolutely impos- 
sible to decide such a question offhand. In Section 201 
we adverted to this same fact. 

Here is what one retailer wrote Selling Aid, of Chicago, 
on this subject: "If the literature in the envelopes is the 
right kind, I am sure that exactly as many replies will be 
had under one-cent postage [as under the two-cent post- 





To illustrate the way opinion sways us in our judgments, 
the late George L. Louis, who made a life-study of selling 
to retailers, said at the Chicago Direct Advertising Con- 
vention: **I send out no third-class literature." At the 
Cleveland convention the following year, Lloyd Mansfield 
of the Buffalo Specialty Company said, referring to the 
president of the company: **His principle in going out to 
the trade all over the country is to use one-cent mail. He 
has tried both a number of times. He can make more 
money by tTie use of one-cent than two-cent mail. Per- 
haps he will get a few more responses through the two-c(!nt 
mail, but the responses do not make up the difference in 
cost." They use the so-called "pennysaver" envelopes. 
A. J. Reiss of the Sherwin-Williams Company, Cleve- 
land, at the same convention corroborated Mr. Mansfield's 
remarks, in saying: ''We use the pennysaver envelopes (a 
patented envelope giving the appearance of a sealed en- 
velope but open to inspection at the end and mailable at 
third-class rate) with the green (one-cent) stamp. We 
had formerly used the two-cent stamp, but we found by 
actual test that the one-cent stamp gave us just as good 
results. ' ' 

After all is said and done Mr. Reiss hit the nail on the 
head when he advocated ''actual test" — test out one-cent 
vs. two-cent on your own proposition and determine for 
yourself what you should use. 

As a general rule it may be safely observed that the 
selection of either first-class or third-class mail is largely 
dependent upon the self-interest value of the appeal con- 
tained within. Most mail will get opened; if self-interest 
is not within, the fact that it arrived with first-class privi- 
leges will not recommend it. 

The standing and character of the firm making the mail- 
ing also have an effect upon the choice of class to be used. 
A third-class piece from John D. Rockefeller, or the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, will likely be opened whereas one from 
John Doe or the Flybynight Oil Company might be put at 
rest in the willow morgue post-haste. 



Likewise, people who get very little mail, or who have 
inquired for the material you send, will likely pay little 
attention to the color of the stamp which brings the reply. 
See also Section 382 as to mailing first and third class to- 

Marketing for March, 1920, reports an interesting test 
made by William A. Hersey, of Robert H. Ingersoll & 
Brother, wherein 2500 pieces were mailed out under first- 
class postage. These offered for sale a stock-keeping system 
to jewelers. The mailing cost four cents each. Then 2500 
additional pieces were sent to prospects as nearly of the 
same class as was possible to secure. The pieces were 
identical in every respect except that a pennysaver envelope 
was used for the third-class mailing (which cost two cents 
each on account of weight). The results were that the 
first-class mailing brought just one more reply than the 

Those interested in following this matter further are 
referred to Postage for September, 1920, page 335. Here 
Russell B. Williams deduced the rule that if you are using 
perfectly filled-in personalized letters use two-cent (first- 
class), and if you are using circulars mail under one-cent 
(third-class) rates. The rule comes from a series of tests 
which are reported in detail. 

Frequently in order to emphasize the appeal first-class 
mailings are sent special delivery, or registered, and occa- 
sionally both special delivery and registered. 

Printers' Ink, August 28, 1919, tells how Ralph E. Dyar, 
a Spokane newspaper man, by use of a special delivery sales 
letter to A. H. Woods, the theatrical producer, sold the 
play, "A Voice in the Dark." 

Stock-selling concerns frequently make use of the special 
delivery and registered mail idea to impress either the need 
for haste or the value of their offering, or both. The idea 
can be adapted by other businesses. 

354- Stamping the Return Card. — It is also an open 
question whether stamping the return card is profitable. 
The list, self-interest of the proposition, and all the other 








factors are almost the same as in the case of the mail going 
out. Merritt Lum, circulation, manager of A. W. Shaw 
Company, is the authority for the statement that frori a 
series of tests he found putting a stamp on the return, pre- 
paying the reply, brought 95.4 per cent additional replies. 
Manufacturers and wholesalers showed the greatest in- 
crease, with bank cashiers, retailers, and lumber dealers in 
order, respectively. Real-estate operators showed the least 

Frank T. Buerck, at the Detroit convention, made this 
interesting contribution to the subject in hand: "I sent 
out a series of letters, on a sample book, my first letter going 
out with an unstamped card — the returns were less tlian 
5 per cent, that is, requests for the sample book. I tlien 
sent out another series of letters with one-cent postcard and 
the returns requesting the book were 25 per cent." 

355. A Helpful Table for Figuring Mailing Cost. — Of 
course a dummy can be made up, weighed, and the cost of 
mailing estimated accurately, though occasionally there may 
be slight variations. The following table worked out by 
Paul D. Van Vliet of the Universal Portland Cement Com- 
pany, reproduced here through courtesy of Printers' Ink, 
shows how this may be worked out in advance even to the 

Size op Booklet 6"x9 


Body Stock 

Weight of Finished Inside Forms: 

Ounces Each 

Size of Paper Wt. 4pgs. 8 pgs. 16 pgs. 32pgs. 64pgs. 









































Size of Paper 


Cover Stock 

— f — . 





16 pgs. .012 ozs. 




32 " .024 " 




64 " .048 " 





















Weight .4075 oz. 













Suppose we guess that we want body stock of 160 pounds 
and cover stock of 70 pounds for a booklet of 72 pages and 
cover, this is what we would learn from the table : 

64 pages— 160 pounds 4.66 ozs. 

8 pages — 160 pounds 582 

Cover 70 pounds 484 

Envelope 4075 

Ink, 64 pages 048 

Ink, 8 pages additional 006 

6.1875 ozs. 

This would be over the mailing weight unless we wished to 
add an extra stamp, so to get the weight under 6 oz. we 
would drop to 150-pound body stock, and to increase the 
cover weight a trifle to add more ''class," we would get 
these figures : 

64 pages — 150 pounds 4.36 

8 pages additional 545 

Cover 80 pounds 553 

Envelope 4075 

Ink, 64 pages 048 

Ink, 8 pages additional 006 






356. Cooperative Mailings. — Cooperative mailings 
though not the rule, are accomplished by sending all of the 
mailing pieces from several different concerns to one cen- 
tral headquarters and there having them mailed to the list. 
One cooperative mailing which reached the writer contained 
this mass of varied appeals: Department store, tailor 
butter shop, bakery, bank, oil stock, and three different 
specialties. No doubt cooperative mailings can be worked 
out especially among non-competing and supplementary 
lines, but they require careful planning and execution. 

357. Methods of Distribution Other Than the Mails. 
— Direct advertising is just beginning to come into its own. 
The distribution other than by mail is yet in its infancy. 
Here are a few of the methods of distribution other than by 
mail: (1) Through dealers, agents, or other distributors; 
(2) By house-to-house distribution — where not contrary to 
local statutes; (3) At exits of theaters, factories, and other 
places where crowds emerge; (4) With packages of all 
kinds, as inserts, and special wrappers (see Section 78); 
(5) With theater programs and other similar carriers; (6) 
With soap wrappers furnished to practically every large 
hotel for distribution to guests to carry a direct advertise- 
ment of the maker; (7) With jackets or special covers for 
booklets, which are being used more and more as carriers of 
direct advertisements; (8) By means of the telegraph- 
many campaigns are using the telegraph as a carrier of 
direct-advertising messages; (9) At conventions of all 
kinds, as well as special meetings, banquets, etc.; (10) By 
racks furnished to distributors so they can in turn easily 
distribute their packages to prospects without using the 
mails, (11) with proper care, to and through scliool children 
and (12) Gummed paper tape bearing on the ungumined 
side an advertising message is being frequently used these 
days by manufacturers, wholesalers, and others to put their 
messages before ultimate users and consumers at practically 
no expense. The manufacturer or other user of this form 
of DIRECT advertising distributes tape-sealing machines 
to printers, grocers, druggists, and others and then p?ri" 

odically supplies these distributors with re-fills of tape, 
which is used by the distributor in sealing packages, 
bundles, etc., carried away and delivered to users and 

Since the preceding paragraph was put in type we have 
come across still another method of distribution, which is 
cooperative. The Beechnut Packing Company make a 
package holding three samples of Beechnut Mints, which 
are imprinted on the wrapper with the name of some local 
store desiring advertising. This local store then distributes 
them by placing packages near the proverbial toothpick 
container in restaurants. By this plan the manufacturer 
apparently shares the cost of sampling with the local mer- 
chant whose name and business are imprinted on the 

The Statler hotels in New York, Buffalo, Cleveland, 
Detroit and St. Louis have still another unusual method of 
distributing direct advertising. They slip under the door 
of every guest each morning a daily newspaper to which is 
tipped a circular advertising special menus, etc. They 
distribute in this way in excess of two million pieces a year. 

358. Value of Attention to Details. — The issue of PrhiU 
ers' Ink for April 18, 1918, contained the anonymous con- 
fession of a mail-order advertiser emphasizing the necessity 
and value of paying attention to little details. He found, 
for example, that he got more returns when the return card 
was put inside of the folded letter before that was placed 
within the envelope than when the card was inserted in the 
envelope separate from the letter. B. A. Dahlke, address- 
ing the Detroit convention, told of test letters sent out to 
prove the importance of this point. He sent 5,000 test 
letters with loose inclosures and 5,000 where the inclosure 
was neatly clipped to the letter itself. The mailings were 
carefully divided into territories, so that each mailing was 
exactly the same as to class of names and kind of territory. 
The one with the inclosure clipped to the letter brought 
in appreciable increases in returns, from 20 per cent up. 
The number of inclosures must also be watched with care. 



3 1 



Enough should be inclosed to tell the story, but not enough 
to annoy and thus antagonize the prospect. *" 

Again, it may be repeated : Names and addresses must 
always be spelled correctly. 

Other ''don'ts" which should be kept before those ad- 
dressing direct advertising are: 

Don 't be stingy with your typewriter, multigraph, or ad- 
dressing-machine ribbons or ink— a faintly printed address 
IS hard to read. It makes a poor impression. Poor impres- 
sions do not often sell goods. 
Don't be careless in folding the inclosures or letters. 
Don 't fail to take into consideration your prospect in de- 
ciding upon the mailing and upon the reply to be sent. For 
example, the Woman's Institute, Scranton, Pa., selling en- 
tirely by mail, in reply to an inquiry sent in from maga- 
zine advertising immediately sent that inquirer a two-page 
letter and three booklets, believing that the inquirer is more 
interested at that moment than she will be at any other 
time. See Section 222 (a) on this same point. 

Questions for Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Name the four general methods of addressing and descinbe 

2. Give as many different methods of distribution as vou can. 

3. Give in your owti words your ideas formed upon one-cent 
versus two-cent mailings. 

4. Why are details of addressing and distributing important? 
Enlarge upon the text if you can. Many other points might be 
brought out. 

5. Write makers of addressing machines for booklets. 



But facts are chiels that winna ding^ 

And daurna he dispwied.— Robert Burns. 

359. Three Classes of Records to Be Kept in Ordinary 
Campaign.— In the average direct-advertising campaign 
there are three main classes of records to be kept, aside 
from keeping a record of the total advertising appropria- 
tion, the amount expended to date, the unexpended balance, 
and' the many different forms of daily, weekly, monthly, 
quarterly, semi-annual, and annual inventories of stocks 
on hand: 

1. A record of the cost of each individual piece in a cam- 

paign, including printing, mailing, postage, etc. ; 

2. A record of the returns which it produced in inquiries or 

orders, or both, including returns from any follow-up 
instituted; and 

3. A record of all tangible things used to make up the printed 

pieces; that is, location of drawings, photographs, en- 
gravings, etc. 

360. A Simple Method o£ Keeping Up with the Ap- 
propriation.— In order to keep a simple record of the 
appropriation and its exact status, all that is necessary, as 
a rule, is to have a monthly record. This can be done by 
ruling a card or sheet with one column for the direct adver- 
tising issued, one for the total appropriation, followed by 
two additional columns for each month, one headed ''Ex- 
pended Month of ," another ''Balance as of — ." 

Cross lines may be supplied for any subdivisions desired, 
such as "Art and Engraving," "Printed Matter," "Post- 

1. Ill 


age, " ' ' Salaries, ' ' etc. A line of this record would read in 
this manner : 



Kind of D. A. 

Booklet — 

Art & Eng 
• Printing 

Appro, for 



Feb. 1 


Mch. 1. 

I 1,000.00 I 29,000.00 



361. Keeping the Inventory of Direct-advertising Lit- 
erature.— "How soon will we need to reprint that 'Ideal' 
folder?" is a question often heard in direct-advertising 
offices. Fig. 109 represents one way of keeping a monthly 
record. In this case a card is made out for each different 
piece of direct advertising. These cards can be kept in the 
desk, indexed either by subject, by name, or by form num- 
ber — or as three separate records each one kept as desired. 





OCSCn.PT.ON /77a.cZ<.^y^^ ^O-C.CCeA/ MINIMUM SOOO . 
































Fig. 109. — A filing card to record each kind of direct 
advertising; that is, each cataloj^ue, booklet, folder, 
etc. When filed by name or subject, tabs provide a 
cross reference by form number. 

The card illustrated is tabbed to provide ease in cross-ref- 
erence. A consecutive form number is assigned to each 
piece as it is printed. The ''Ideal Car" folder was desig- 
nated as No. M-3140, so that all the tabs on the top of Ihis 
card should be cut off, except the ''O" tab, this ''0" tab 
representing the last digit of the form number. If the 
form had been No. 3145, the ''5" tab would have been left. 

Thus when the cards are filed alphabetically, by name of 
catalogue, the tabs provide a -quick .and simple method for 
finding any card when only the form number is known— 
"1" tabs for form" numbers whose last digit is "1"; "2" 
tabs for form numbers whose last digit is "2," etc. This 
method is simple and efficient. 

What the author deems as an ideal way to keep a record 
of this nature .is the perpetual inventory record on cards 
as follows: Each piece of direct advertising has a form 
number, as indicated in preceding paragraphs. Then a 
card like that shown in Fig. 110 is made out for each piece. 
This card is so simple that it needs little explanation. 


Fig. 110.— An 8x5 inch card used for each different piece of 
direct advertising is one means of keeping a perpetual inventory. 
This shows orders placed, delivered, deliveries made on requisition 
to t^tock room, balance on hand at all times, etc Such cards are 
indexed by form numbers Indicator (over "12") brings up card 
for re-order of supply on any specified date. 

When an order is placed for a new supply, note the fact 
in the proper space provided near the top of the card. 
For following up the printer, the days of the month are 





printed across the top of the card, and, in conjunction with 
small metal indicators, afford a simple, but effective method 
Note that illustration shows indicator at '*12." This si^i! 
fies that the clerk will follow up the printer on the 12th of 
the month ; the color of the tab ^ves a key to the month. 
As deliveries are made by the printer, that fact is noted 

Fig 111.— Another 8x5 perpetual inventory card. This one ia 
used when you do not care to keep- a record of the firms or individ- 
uals to whom you have delivered your direct-advertising matter li; 
IS indexed alphabetically. "Remarks" column can be used to not.' 
balance on hand. 

under * * Received on Orders. ' ' And as requisitions are filled 
by you the details are entered at the bottom of the card. 
The balance on hand, therefore, is always shown. 

A variation of this form is shown in Fig. 111. The re- 
verse side of this card (not illustrated) provides space for 
record of orders placed with printer and deliveries madd 

General Faming Booklet 

Fig. 112. — Such a form is printed on bond paper, as a rule, and is 
employed for keeping a temporary record of deliveries. The information 
is periodically posted to Fig HI. This form is used to lessen the number 
of entries on the regular stock card. Size 8x5 inches. 



to you. The face of the card provides two columns for 
showing deliveries you make and amounts returned from 
time to time. 

Fig. 112 is supplementary to Fig. 111. When many 
requisitions for the same item are made to the stock clerk 
each day, he can make out a slip like that in Fig. 112, one 
slip for each item. At the end of the day, week, month, or 
other period these temporary records may be posted to the 
regular inventory card record. 

" /f;v 

jo»wo. / CKt.%\tiO/j^ U* /O fy ^«ei» yS y No oiiociicD J~0 j4^ 


-^ coven Sizc//^ X //J'/Y P«c t» //- NO Rteti»CD_j^<:? A^ 

(No loSo ^je5-«P) 

Fig. 113. — This form will enable you to learn the exact cost of 

any piece of direct-advertising matter you may issue. Size 8x5 
inches. Reverse side of card contains extra space for listing 
charges against the job. 

362. A, Record of the Cost of Individual Pieces. — If you 

are to check results with accuracy you must know the cost 
of each piece. Here is a simple and easy method : 

Assign a consecutive number to each *'job" — that is, each 
catalogue, booklet, or other piece of direct advertising; or 
the number may be assigned to a group of pieces issued at 
the same time. This number should not be confused with 
the ''Form Number" mentioned in Section 361. Some 
firms, to avoid confusion, precede form numbers by an "F" 
and job numbers by a ''J." 

i^Iake out for each job a card like Fig. 113. File the 


cards alphabetically or by form number and keep a nu- 
merical card index of the job numbers. Always put tiie 
job number on purchase order or requisition. When in- 
voice comes in, see that it bears the job number. Post dl 
charges on Job No. 1 to the No. 1 card, etc. When tlie 
work is complete, the total of charges will give you the 
exact cost of job. 

Title or Rofter indeji C?^Ca*^ ^^ ^ ^ t ^ ^ .^gy^ 

Character of Wock 

Form No._/^f£_ 

Work Originated by 

Qivcn to JL-, -^. r\. 

Layout Ordered ol__. .^••*... 

Artiit Work Ordered ol__^. 73^. 

Layout Approved by ^_ - . ^- . 

Paued to Order Cleric O'. yQ _ 

Prinlint Order Issued S/i.^.^ 

Remark*: . 

.DaU 7-.fO:TJhA, 





.D»te_/_:. /<.v»-7 


.. Instructloai by_ 


% 3 C^ C^^ 

V'f 1^ 



%- ^/¥ •> ^^ 




V/t C^J?^ O'^^^AajL 



^'^g**^^ ».ww?- 

^v^ a ^ 




' ^y^ ^t-Ct.*^ 


a p^ ^ ^:Zu, ./^t/Ua^ tt^fca^ 

~i^ "^/-AJ 

'•^■"•M >Hi(^ 

I •> Ikk »te iNul to laetuun t. (..rt^ tour., .m u u Inch^ tim< .,™ ^u.;.. »,ii„. , 
IM, ni<lM n»««. A» xrtftlat l> to k» lo e mtoe MpuaMy ue Mlk -"Oi, T^' altor a, wMk «>to. 

2^ ^2^. j^ g»^ ^ 


•e»t «cuuv bnm. tonM^UM, ••»•■« 

wiMl wilUaf, rnvantlKi 

Fig. 114. — A regular file folder imprinted with an actual record. All 
the original data and a record of each step in the preparation of a piece 
of direct advertising are kept together in a folder like this, known as a 
"job" folder. One folder is made for each job. Folders may be filed ^'er• 
tically and indexed by number of "job." 

Note the ''Estimate" column on Fig. 113. This is a 
check on the charges of the engraver, printer, and others 

You will also probably find it worth while to keep in one 
place all the data about each job, the original copy, dupli- 
cate proofs, finished sample of the job, record of time spent 
by each member of your department, record of proofs, 
0. K.'s, etc. 



Fig. 114 represents what might be termed a ''Job 
Folder." In starting work on any "job" you make out 
one of these folders — a file folder imprinted as suggested, 
filing within the folder all the papers relating to the job, 
as you go along. 

In this system one drawer, or part of a drawer, may be 
used for "Jobs in Process," another for "Finished Jobs." 

J — fffy'% 



' SJftTt NO. 



/ _ 





////J //Xc 



■ j- 
















Fig. 115, — The reverse side of card illus- 
trated in Fig. 116, to show the returns from 
any particular mailing. 

363. Keeping the Records of the Original Mailing. — 

For the sake of simplicity we shall treat in this section only 
of the record of the original mailings — direct advertising 
proper; and not from follow-ups, which will be treated in 


Section 364. This record consists of two forms, <>ach 
printed on both sides. The first is a 5 x 3 card, one side of 
which is shown in Fig. 115, the other side in Fig. He 
Make out one of these cards for each piece of direct adi^er- 
tising done. Each piece is keyed and the key number— or 
other method of keying as color, date, etc.— noted on the 
face of the card. The example shows a card numbered 
1438, the small tab *'8" corresponding to the last digit of 
the key, or form number, or whatever is decided upon, as 

rORM NO 1JT4 300 3-13 



.^^, /ffi-l Qu.~ S~/] -Vey r.,.. ur. 


5. C. 























Fig. 116.— This illustrates the face side of a 5 x 3 card and iii^ 
dicates what circularizing has been done and its cost. A card like 
this IS indexed numerically. 

explained in Section 361. This tab makes filing and find- 
ing easier, though records may be kept without it. 

The face of the card, as the illustration shows, gives 
details of the total cost— posted from Fig. 113— or a similar 

An alphabetical list of any direct mailings should be 
kept for cross-reference purposes. Make out one card 
(using standard or stock horizontal ruling) for each mail- 
ing, and file by name of mailing list— as for example, print- 
ers, lithographers, advertising agencies, manufacturing 
concerns owning their own printshops, etc. 



At the end of the day, figures on face of small card (Fig. 
116) are posted to the daily record of circularizing (see 
Fig. 117). The daily record is convenient for chronologi- 
cal reference and provides a method of distributing, terri- 
torially, the expense at the end of the month. 

o o 



ctue NO 



ȣf.T TO 


• U»JtCT «DWt«Ti»CO 









^ ^ 

-^ ^^^ 



^ ^/^ 



Fig. 117. — A daily record of circularizing. Territorial records 
are made up from this record. Original is letter size (S^/^xll). 
It is filed vertically or punched and used on the Shannon file. 

As replies are received and sales are made, these facts are 
entered on the reverse side of the large card (Fig. 118). 





MC^LICa ' 
■ CCtiVCO 



*«IT.O»^ SAIC« 

ncPLics NO onocRs 


Fig. 118. — This is a chronological record of returns (inquiries 
and sales) received from circularizing. See Fig. 117 for method. 

This is a general record qf returns and is used in drawing 
off reports for the executives. Entry is also made on re- 



verse side of the small card (Fig. 115), giving the results of 
each individual lot of circularizing. 

Of course, in order to follow inquiries through to the time 
of their development into sales, a follow-up record is neijes- 
sary as a rule. This will be covered in Section 364. 

Fig. 119 illustrates- the printed record on the outside of 
a 12 X 15 envelope, a system devised, and copyrighted by 
the Making Letters Pay System and reproduced here by 
permission. This is a variation of the system described in 

Total Inquirm Recrivcd 
Toial Orders RKeivcd 




List Used 

Cost per Letter 

Mailing E>ate 


List Was Last Used 

Quantity Mailed 

Number relumed 
«s non-deliverable 

Was It a 
foUow-up Letter 

First SentetKc 
of Letter 

Key of Letter 


One Cent 
Two Cent 

Wntten by 



KewtlUhy J«yianUf»d her«. Retofd iimuinw «i»d ocdert Mfwraldy 


C^ recard of ordwt aad amount* in doOart anrf i 


fiffaa/if Coat 


Prirwrtf mattrr 
Latwhaad* . 

Fac-eanila ararfe 
Colt afl iiHH mtmary 
P»tiaf» . . , . , . 
Inridamala . 

Total Cou . V 
Co«i 9tr r*ar» 

ImtnKtiowt for mailint and ramarka 


Fig. 119. — The originators of this system suggest that this record 
be printed on an envelope and all the data kept therein. Cop)'- 

the earlier paragraphs of this section. Before the direct ad- 
vertising is mailed out, a full report is made on the outside 
of the envelope; all bills for time, facsimile work, printed 
matter, etc., being posted to the outside of this envelope, 
within which is filed a set of piece or pieces mailed. 
364. Keeping Records on the FollowKup. — A simple 



method which may be used by any small business for hand- 
ling the record end of a short follow-up is as follows: 
(1) Have a card and card file. On the card put down the 
name and address, together with any supplementary data 
such as ratings, etc., which you may wish to keep a record 
of. (2) Arrange these cards alphabetically. (3) In send- 
ing out the form letter or other first piece, mark this date on 


Fig. 120— Method of filing the follow-up by dates; illus- 
trating also how the mailing list is maintained, as distinct 
from the addressing-machine plates or stencils. 

the card. (4) At the top of the cards should be printed the 
thirty-one dates (see Figs. 110 and 120 for method) and 
Dy 12 different colors of movable indicators or tabs you can 
mark the date for the follow-up letters or pieces. (5) 
When you make a sale to the person followed up you may 
either mark it on the card, or, if you wish, take the card out 
of the prospect file and put it in a separate "Customer's" 
file and continue to follow in either case. This plan is, of 
course, quite simple and yet it can be expanded for fairly 
large businesses, though they usually wish special informa- 
tion and require a more detailed card together with a more 





elaborate system such as will be described in the following 

Fig. 120 illustrates a method of filing the follow-up ca fd 
— which in many cases is the mailing list itself — aside from 
the addressing-machine plates. This is known as tiie 
method of filing the cards by dates; if desired, lettered tabs 
may be had on the cards, and in this case there would be 
an '^H" tab on the card illustrated and this would aid in 
locating the inquiry. Another variation is to use metal 
tabs on top of the card so as to call attention to date of tlie 

Fig. 121. — How one retailer gets his basis for a direct-advertis 
ing campaign. This card shows what articles the customer has 
bought and when she bought them. This information serves as an 
aid in "personalizing" his appeal. 

next follow-up. For example, this Hart Manufacturing 
Company card is coming out on the 14th of January (see 
Fig. 120). If we wanted to follow it again on January 
30th we might put a projecting metal tab on *'30" — see top 
of card in small type — and take the card out of the file it is 
now in and place it in the alphabetical file under *'Ha. ' 
The color of the tab would indicate the month, say red for 
January, blue for February, and so on. 

Occasionally the back of the follow-up record card is 
used for posting the actual sales made to the inquirer (see 
Fig. 121, reproduced by courtesy of Business, a house mag- 

NAME ^?U, ll^jtAji. (P^^ AOORESS /j^r .^L*-**^ Ot^E^ (^4j* 








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Decumttit Files 

CcmmtrcM Ktpert SysUms 

KteU fbller Utter Copkf 

KsHvity Ktcard Systems 

MaiwnoM Vtrl. Flk 

BoUiers' SikokI Systems 

Svilr^lnf OfflceiSltnd s 
C mljloff Filinf Systems 


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FOLLOW UP SERIES ^^^CtJuC ^^-i^^e^ 













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NOTEi 11 ,pn:i»l Icttm v< required, tmen check mark (V ) TOTAL 

id ol lofm No,. ,nd ml., rf^t.. A. .^nt. (cr^.^ .,« »aa A ■>.> 

Fig. 122. — A. The face of a follow-up card record used in the 
home office of the originators of filing systems of this kind. B. 
The reverse of the card. 




azine published at Detroit by Burroughs Adding Machine 
Company), illustrating actually how a prominent retaikr 
in that city follows up customers. 

Fig. 122 shows the front and reverse side of a card used 
by the Yawman & Erbe Manufacturing Company, Roches- 
ter, New York, which combines on the face the regular 
mailing-record card and indication of follow-up to be to- 
quired, and on the reverse shows not only the follow-up but 
the sales record. 

365. Keeping a Record of Drawings, Photographs;, 
etc. — The drawings, photographs, etc., used in producing 
direct advertising are expensive to make and a good record 
is vitally necessary to keep track of them and to avoid costly 
** make-overs, " as they are termed. 

If the business is at all large it will be necessary first to 
make an arbitrary classification which will include every 
drawing or photograph you have. One concern indexed its 
drawings and photographs in this manner : 

Agricultural Implements 


Athletic Goods 

Boots & Shoes 

Then assign a consecutive number to each division— 
**1" to agricultural implements; *'2" for architectural 
drawings, etc. Then paste a proof of each drawing or pho- 
tograph on an 8 X 5 card. Rubber-stamp, or have a stickei: 
made and paste on giving the following information : 



When these lines have been- filled in, the drawing or photo- 
graph is ready for filing. Since drawings in particular 
vary in size, several sized drawers will probably be needed 
to file them without waste of space. Large firms, as a rule, 
provide three sizes of drawers, one small, one medium, 


. 439 

and one large, designating them as drawers '*A,*' **B,'' 
and ''C,*' respectively. The *'A" drawings go in the 
**A'* drawer, etc. 

The first drawing or photograph will be numbered **!,'* 
the next **2," etc. These numbers will also be put on the 
respective index cards. A combination of these numbers 
and the letter makes tbe symbol by which the drawing or 







'h^U.t^y 'n^^/tri^n 


Cfi-c/ta^jyi/ ^y 








Fig. 123. — When a drawing is sent out, record it on the back of the 
index card. See text for description. A record of this kind is a 
means of safeguarding valuable drawings from becoming lost. 

photograph is designated. **4-B-231" would mean an 
automobile drawing which was the 231st drawing in 
the **B" size drawers. Therefore, if you know either the 
nature or the number of the drawing, you can readily find 

The use of the record form (Fig. 123) is very simple. 
When you send a drawing to an artist, engraver, photogra- 
pher, or any one for that matter, enter the date, name, 
address, and any remarks upon this record card. Then 
when the drawing is returned the date should be noted in 
the last column. 

The reverse of Fig. 123 is similar to Fig. 124. 

It will be found necessary either to put follow-up indi- 
cator tabs upon ''out" drawings or photographs, or to 
follow up by going through the entire file occasionally. 

366. Keeping a Record of Engravings. — Nothing is 
more common among direct advertisers than to plan to 
make use of a half-tone made for such and such a folder 
only to find at the last moment that it is *'out," its loca- 
tion unknown, and the possibility very small of having a 
new one made in a hurry. 



A record of engravings of all kinds should cover three 
phases— the physical filing, the indexing, and the '*Out" 
records. We particularly mention the filing since the sur- 
face of half-tones, especially, are extremely sensitive and a 
slight pin-scratch may necessitate making over a plat(; 
which may have cost hundreds of dollars. When you con 
sider that the dots are sometimes 200 to the square inch 



— 1 S — S — *~l — i — » — i — * <d (w^ H t* ii *» i* 

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eoiwiMi* »c>rr o«t 



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Fig. 124. — Face of index card, size ll%x9i/l> inches, for filing 
vertically a record of engravings. One card is made out for each 
different kind and size of plate. A record is made on this card when 
originals are sent to the printer or electrotyper. 

and that to break even one dot spoils the plate a little bit, 
at least one would think the exercise of care would be the 
rule. But it is not. Engravings are marred daily in al- 
most every office in America. Hence we emphasize the 
filing as well as keeping the actual records; likewise, the 
filing and the record are akin. 

The filing should be done in shallow drawers — all filing 
cabinet makers make them; they call them "legal blank 
drawers." Never pile one plate upon another. Al- 

ways wrap them in soft paper like newspaper, several thick- 
nesses, before packing together to ship. 

With a set of steel dies of the digits 1-0 inclusive, and 
a hammer, die-stamp a number on the wooden or metal base 
of every mounted plate. Do likewise with all the electro- 

For each different size and kind of plate make out a 
card like that shown in Fig. 124 with proof pasted as indi- 
cated. File these cards, first according to classification 
(similar to drawings, as a rule, see Section 365), and sec- 
ondly, numerically in each classification. 


ntoa oaocaco 




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Fig. 125. — Reverse side of card shown in Fig. 124. A record is 
entered here when electros are sent out. 'ITiis form shows the 
number of electros of any particular kind on hand at any moment. 

When the original plates are sent out a record should be 
made on the face of the card, Fig. 124, and follow- 
ups maintained by metal tab indicators set over the dates 
1-31 printed across the top of the card. 

If electros of your half-tones are used — and they should 





be if you expect to use the half-tone again, or wish to insure 
saving ultimate expense in ease a plate is marred in print- 
ing — use the reverse side of the record card as shown in 
Fig. 125. This record also provides space, as you will note, 
for a perpetual inventory of electros on hand. 

When you send plates to a printer it is well to inclose 
with them a record that shows in a general way this in- 
formation : 



Name of Your Concern 

Location of Your Concern 

To be Used in. 

Write here name or Form Number of Catalogue, Booklet, etc. 

The printer may get plates for any one catalogue or 
booklet from many different sources, besides getting plates 
from many different concerns for whom he is printing. 

If you do a lot of business with any one firm of printers 
a record can easily be kept by printing up a regular file 
folder, upon which columns are ruled to show the date the 
plates are sent, items, the name or form number of the 
piece, the date the plates are returned, etc. Into this 
folder proofs may be dropped of plates gent and the record 
kept without a lot of **red tape." 

367. In closing this chapter let us repeat that direct ad- 
vertising is one of the few forms which may be used for 
direct results, and not to record those results in a perma- 
nent manner is to continue to do business entirely bj 
guess work. We have not mentioned purchase orders and 
records of that nature, but it would be well to follow some 
method of keeping up with orders placed, and also to have 
a printed form of requisition, for verbal instructions usu- 
ally lead to verbal altercations. 

Naturally all the records herein will have to be adapted 
to the business you are engaged in, but they are all effective 
record systems that can be readily modified. 

Questions tor Class Work or for Review Purposes 

1. Draw up a set of record forms either for some business you 
are familiar with, or for some business you can readily become 
familiar with. 

Note: Application to specialists in making card records, 
forms, etc., will bring you definite forms that are standardized. 






Neither snoWy nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night, stays 
these couriers from the sivift completion of their appointed 
rounds. — Facade New York Post Office. 

368. Classification of Domestic Mail Matter. — At the 
outset let it be understood that it is not only helpful but 
vitally important for the direct advertiser to cooperate with 
the United States Post Office Department and to follow its 
rules and regulations. This material in the main is quoted 
directly from the Official Postal Guide for July, 1920, and 
is correct at the time this is being written but should be 
verified before being acted upon because postal rules and 
regulations are constantly changing. Every direct adver- 
tiser will find the Postal Guide a worth-while purchase. 
Including eleven supplements, which are issued monthly, it 
is sold by the Post Office Department for $2.25. 

Domestic mail matter includes matter deposited in the 
mails for local delivery, or for transmission from one pla^e 
to another within the United States, or to or from or be- 
tween the possessions of the United States, and is divided 

into four classes : 
First. Written and sealed matter, postal cards, and private 

mailing cards. 
Second. Periodical publications. 
Third. Miscellaneous printed matter (on paper) weighing 

four pounds or less. 
Fourth. (Parcel Post.) All mailable matter not included in 

the previous classes. 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are included 
in the term ' ' United States. ' ' The Philippine Archipelago, 
Guam, Tutuila, and Manua of the Samoan group, and the 


Canal Zone are included in the term ''Possessions.'' The 
term ''Canal Zone" includes all territory purchased from 
the Republic of Panama, embracing the Canal Zone proper, 
the islands in the Bay of Panama named Perioc, Nabs, 

Culebra, and Flamenco. 

369. What Is First-class Matter?— First-class matter 
includes letters, postal cards, post cards (private mailing 
cards), and all matter wholly or partly in writing, whether 
sealed or unsealed, except manuscript copy accompanying 
proof-sheets or corrected proof-sheets of the same and the 
writing authorized by law to be placed upon matter of 
other classes— see Sections 441, 453, and 458 of Postal Rules 
and Regulations. Matter sealed or otherwise closed against 
inspection is also first class. 

Typewriting and carbon and letterpress copies thereof 
are the equivalent of handwriting and are classed as such 

in all cases. . j t. 

Cards or letters (printed) bearing a written date, where 
the date is not the date of the card but gives information 
as to when the sender will call, or deliver something other- 
wise referred to, or is the date when something will occur^ 
or is acknowledged to have been received, are first class. 

Likewise cards (printed) which by having a signature 
attached are converted into personal communications, such 
as receipts, orders for articles furnished by addressee, etc., 

are first class. 

Specifically of interest to direct advertisers is the state- 
ment that folders made of stiff paper, the entire inner sur- 
face of which cannot be examined except at the imminent 
risk of breaking the seal, and those having many folds or 
pages requiring .the use of an instrument of any kind m 
order thoroughly to examine the inner surfaces are subject 
to the first-class rate of postage. No assurance of the post- 
master at the office of mailing will prevent the collection of 
the higher rate of postage at the post office of delivery. 

Imitations or reproductions of handwritten or type^ 
written matter not mailed at the post-office window or other 
depository designated by the postmaster in a minimum num- 


ber of twenty identical copies fall within the first-class rate 
^ Price lists (printed) containing written figures changinff 
individual items are first-class. 

370. Rate of First-class Matter.— (a) On letters and 
other matter, wholly or partly in writing, except the writing 
specially authorized to be placed upon matter of other 
classes, and on matter sealed or otherwise closed against 
inspection— 2 cents an ounce or fraction thereof. 

(&) On postal cards— 1 cent each, the price for which 
they are sold. See also Section 372 of this chapter. 

(c) On private mailing cards (post cards) conforming to 
the requirements of such cards— 1 cent each. 

371- Government Postal Cards.— Government postal 
cards are also supplied in double form— with reply card; 
this at double the regular rate— namely, 2 cents. 

Upon these cards you may write, print, or otherwise add 
the following, in addition to addresses: 
Advertisements, illustrations, or writing may appear on 
. the back of the card and on the^ left third of the face. 
That is, the card on its face may be divided by a vertical 
line placed approximately one-third of the distance from 
the left end of the card ; the space at the left of the line 
to be used for the message, but the space at the right fc^r 
the address only. 
No. 5 postal is 3 X 5 inches in size. 
No. 8 postal is 314 x 5V2 inches in size. 
Either of these postals may be ordered in sheets for re- 
duction in the cost of printing large lots, in which event 
the No. 5's come 18 cards to the sheet, the sheets being 2 
cards wide by 9 cards long, and they are packed in cales 
of 4500. 

Nor. 8's come 48 cards to the sheet, 4 cards wide by 12 
cards long, 12,000 to the case. 

To be valid for postage, these sheet cards must be cut 
to the regulation size mentioned above. 

372. Private Mailing Cards.— Post cards manufactured 
by private persons, consisting of an unfolded piece of 
cardboard in quality and weight substantially like the Gov- 



ernment postal card not exceeding in size approximately 
3%6x5%6 inches, nor less than approximately 2% x 4 
inches, bearing either written or printed messages, are 
transmissible without cover in the domestic mails at the 
rate of 1 cent each. 

"A most valuabU little treatise for sdver' 
tising men, copy writers, type setters, 
printers, in fact all people interested in 
copy. It is oar intention to place it on the 
desk of each man in our^oflice interested. 
We will gladly pay for the booklets." 

LARKIN CO.. Buffalo 




1 cent 


I Card 


Benjamin Sherbow 

50 Union Square 

Fig. 126. — A privately printed post card one-half of the front space 
of which may be used for advertising. If it were a government 
postal card, only one-third could be used. 

Advertisements and illustrations may appear on the back 
of the card and on the left half of the face. The right 
half must be reserved for the address, postage stamps, post- 
mark, etc. Fig. 126 represents how one shrewd direct ad- 
vertiser made up his own post cards to get the use of the 
half of the front instead of the one-third allowed on gov- 
ernment postal cards. 

Any cards which do not conform with the foregoing 
conditions are chargeable with postage at the letter rate 
if wholly or partly in writing, or at the third-class rate if 
entirely in print. 

Folded Advertising Cards, and other matter en- 
tirely in print, arranged with a detachable part for use as 
a post card, are mailable as third-class matter. 

373. Second-class Matter. — Since this class is restricted 
to magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals enjoying 



"'f • • 



the second-class mailing privileges, our only interest in it is 
when as one of the public we remail such pieces. In this 
case the rate is 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof 
on each separately addressed copy or package of unad- 
dressed copies. To be entitled to this rate the copies mast 
be complete. Incomplete copies are subject to postage at 
the third- or fourth-class rate, according to their physical 

374. Third-class Matter. — This class embraces circulars, 
newspapers, and periodicals (house organs) not admit :ecl 
to the second class nor embraced in the term **book,^' mis- 
cellaneous printed matter on paper not having the nature 
of an actual personal correspondence, proof-sheets, cor- 
rected proof-sheets, and manuscript copy accompanying 
them, etc. Books are included in the fourth class or parcel 
post, as also is miscellaneous printed matter weighing 
MORE THAN four pouuds. Likewise, matter printed on mate- 
rial other than paper is rated in the fourth class. 

The government's definition of a *' circular" is: '*a 
printed letter sent in identical terms to several persons." 
It may bear a written, typewritten, or hand-stamped date, 
name and address of person addressed and the sender, and 
corrections of mere typographical errors. When a name 
(except that of the addressee or sender), date (other than 
that of the circular), or anything else is handwritten or 
typewritten in the body of a circular for any other reason 
than to correct a genuine typographical error, the circular 
is subject to postage at the first-class (letter) rate, whether 
sealed or unsealed. 

Reproductions or imitations of handwriting and tyi)e- 
writing obtained by means of the printing press, neostyle, 
multigraph, or similar mechanical process will be treated 
as third-class matter provided they are mailed at the post 
office in a minimum number of 20 identical pieces, unseah^d. 
If mailed elsewhere or in a less quantity, they will be sub- 
ject to the first-class rate. 

(a) The rate of postage on unsealed third-class matter 



is one cent for each 2 ounces, or fraction thereof, on each 
individually addressed piece or package. 

(h) The limit of weight is 4 pounds. 

(c) The following items are specifically mentioned as be- 
ing in the third class ; along with many other non-advertis- 
ing pieces*: 

Advertisements printed on blotting paper. 

Cards, printed, with perforations for carrying coin. 

Cards — Christmas, Easter, etc. — printed on paper.. 


Engravings and wood-cuts printed on paper. 

Order' blanks and report forms, mainly in print. 
A single order blank, mainly in print, may be inclosed 
with fourth-class matter mailed at the rates of that class. 

Photographs, printed on paper. 

Postal cards, bearing printed advertisements, mailed in bulk. 

Post cards, bearing on the message side illustrations or other 
printed matter, mailed in bulk. 

Price-lists, wholly in print. 

Printed matter having samples of merchandise attached cov- 
ering less than 20 per cent of the space. 

Proof-sheets, printed, with or without manuscript. 

Reproductions or imitations of hand-writing or type-writing — 
see preceding paragraphs. 

Wood-cuts and engravings (prints). 

{<i) Corrections in proof-sheets include the alteration 
of the text and insertion of new matter, as well as the cor- 
rection of the typographical and other errors; include also 
marginal instructions to the printer necessary to the cor- 
rection of the matter or its proper appearance in print. 
Part of an article may be entirely rewritten if that be 
necessary for correction. Corrections should be written 
upon the margin of or attached to the proof-sheets. Manu- 
script of one article cannot be inclosed with the proof or cor- 
rected proof-sheets of another except at the first-class rate. 

(e) Permissible inclosures. There may be inclosed 
with third-class matter, without changing the classification 
thereof, a card bearing the written name and address of 




the sender; a single order form, mainly blank, or a sinj,'le 
combination order-blank and coin-card with an envelope or 
post card for reply. 

375. Fourth-class Matter (Parcel Post).— This class 
embraces— so far as the direct advertiser is concerned- 
merchandise, farm and factory products, seeds, cuttini^s, 
bulbs, roots, scions, and plants, books (includinoj cata- 
logues), miscellaneous printed matter v^reighing more than 
four pounds, and all other mailable matter not comprised 
in the other three classes. 

This includes electrotypes, engravings (plates), drawings, 


The rate, (a) Parcels weighing 4 ounces or less, ex- 
cept books, seeds, plants, etc., 1 cent for each ounce or frac- 
tion thereof, any distance. 

(h) Parcels weighing 8 ounces or less containing books, 
seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, scions, and plants, 1 cent for 
each 2 ounces or fraction thereof, regardless of distance. 

(c) Parcels weighing more than 8 ounces, containing? 
books, seeds, plants, etc., parcels of miscellaneous printed 
matter weighing more than 4 pounds, and all other parcels 
of fourth-class matter more than 4 ounces are chargeable, 
according to distance or zone, at the pound rates— see your 
local post office. 


376. Forwarding or Returning. — First-class matter can 
be forwarded from one post office to another without a new 
prepayment of postage. 

First-class matter indorsed *' After — days, return to 

. , , if not delivered," will be returned 

at the expiration of the time indicated on the envelope or 
wrapper. If no time is set for the return the matter \^'ill 
be returned at the end of thirty days. But the mater 
must remain in the post office for delivery at least three 


(a) Undeliverable mail of the third and FOURrH 

CLASSES, and that of the second class mailed by the public 
which bears the pledge of the sender that postage for its 
return will be paid, will be returned to the sender, and 
the return postage collected on delivery. When other mail 
of these classes of obvious' value is undeliverable, the post- 
master will notify the sender of that fact ; and such matter 
will be returned to the sender only upon new prepayment 
of postage. 

After notification of nondelivery, such matter will be held 
not longer than two weeks, unless the office of mailing be 
so remote from the office of address that a response could 
not be received from the sender within that time. Senders 
of ordinary third-class matter that is obviously without 
VALUE and does not bear the sender's pledge to pay return 
postage will not be notified of the nondelivery of such mat- 

(h) This pledge need not take any particular form, but 
experienced users have found quite effective this form as 
noted in Paragraph 5a, Section 637, P. L. & R. : 

TO the postmaster: 

If undeliverable, please return after ten days. Postage 
for return will be paid upon delivery to sender. When re- 
turning please cheek reason for nondelivery. (Paragraphs 
1 and 9, Sec. 637 and 738, P. L. & R.) 

Does not receive mail here 

Dead Refused Unclaimed 

Removed to 

In fact, postmasters are provided with a special form (Card 
No. 3540) for furnishing this particular information — 
which when given to the sender helps him to check up and 
correct his mailing list. 

377. Mailing Without Stamps. — ^Upon application to the 
postmaster at the office of mailing, permits may, under 
provisions of Sec. 459, P. L. & R., be issued to persons or 
concerns for mailing first-class matter, quantities not less 
than 300 identical pieces of third-class matter, and 250 
identical pieces of matter of the fourth class without the 



affixing of stamps, the postage thereon being paid in money, 
provided the mailings are presented in accordance with 
the conditions under which such mailings are accepted. 

First-class matter may not be accepted in this manner 
until authority to do so shall first ^ave been obtained in each 
instance from the Third Assistant Postmaster General, 
Division of Classification. 

Figs. 21 A and 42 B represent forms of ''permits" which 
must be imprinted upon such mailings. 

378. Mailing with Precanceled Postage Stamps. — Pre- 
canceled stamps may be used only by the persons or con- 
cerns who have been given a permit to use them. Such 
stamps are good for the payment of postage only on matter 
of the third and fourth classes and must be presented for 
mailing at the office where canceled. Permit must be se- 
cured as in Section 377. 

The use of precanceled stamps (often used to seal the 
folder or broadside, though the post office does not par- 
ticularly like this, as a rule) saves time, makes it unmjces- 
sary for the mail to go through the canceling machine, per- 
mits the mailer to put the pieces into bundles, and avoids 
crushing, marring, or otherwise injuring the finely printed 
folders, etc. 

379. The Recent Ruling as to Space on Front of Mail- 
ing Pieces. — A comparatively recent ruling, which has 
caused no end of trouble for direct advertisers, in Para- 
graph 3 of Section 470 of P. L. & R., requires that not less 
than 31/2 inches of clear space shall be left at the right end 
of the address side of all envelopes, folders, etc., and in case 
of envelopes or folders which are wider or deeper than 
ordinary envelopes of the same length there should be left 
in the upper right-hand corner of the address side a si)aee 
not less than 3V2 x 1^4 inches for the package stamp and 
legible postmarking, and at the lower right corner of that 
side a space not less than 314 x 2 inches should be left for 
the name and address of the addressee, directions for 
forwarding or return, etc. Under date of September 4. 
3920, the acting Third Assistant Postmaster General in- 



formed the author in response to a direct query, *'. . . This 
clear space should extend entirely across that [face] side 
from top to the bottom." 

Attention is also called to the fact that even the use of 
the ''permit" or precanceled stamp system of mailing will 
not exempt a piece from this ruling. 

Colored envelopes, folders, etc., especially in the darker 
colors, are also banned by this ruling, as are also unusual 
sizes, irregular shapes, and those having excessive printing 

on the face. 

In some cases the objectionable sizes are extremely large 
and in other instances very small, while in still others tri- 
angular or other irregular shape, so the Post Office Depart- 
ment, for the past several years has been trying to work 
down all advertising pieces to approximately 4x9 inches 
when ready for mailing, confining the paper to white "or 
very light tints of pink, yellow, or manila." 

380. Using Postmasters to Recheck Lists.— Postmasters 
may not furnish lists, under Section 549, paragraph 3 of 
P. L. & R. This reads, in part : 

Lists of names sent to postmasters for revision must be 

returned to the sender when postage is provided for that 

purpose, but no new names must be added to the lists. 

Postmasters may, if they so desire, however, cross off the 

names of those who have moved away or are deceased. 

Yet postmasters may revise lists and if a letter ''selling" 
them the idea accompanies the list they will usually re- 
spond to it to save themselves future trouble. 

It should be noted that the Postal Laws and Regulations 
do not require the postmasters to do this. The Post Office 
Department permits a ''reasonable charge" (60 cents per 
hour) to be made for this work. R. B. Rope, of the Larkin 
Company, Buffalo, N. Y., in addressing the Detroit conven- 
tion said: "However, in our experience the majority of 
the postmasters make no charge, deeming the correction to 
their own advantage. ... A few days ago I had a number 
of our town lists revised with the following showing : 117 
lists containing 38,500 names revised ; 4,989 or 13 per cent 


canceled; number of postmasters who charged for the ser- 
vice, 5 ; total amount of charges, $3.25 ; average charge per 
thousand names revised, $.08." 

381. Watch for Violations of Lottery Laws in Adver- 
tising Contests. — Mahy contests are conducted in house 
organs and by other forms of direct advertising and you 
should confer with your post-office officials and ascertain 
that you are not unconsciously infringing the very strict 
rules bearing upon lotteries. 

382. In mailing into Canada remember that custom 
stamps are necessary. Write to the Postmaster at Toronto, 
Canada, for details. 

Remember, too, that United States stamps, government 
return cards, etc., are useless to Canadians in Canada. 

If you wish your mail given speedy handling and the 
quantity mailed at one time exceeds 1000 pieces, alv^ays 
make it up into bundles by cities, towns, and states. See 
your local postmaster in regard to securing, on loan, the 
necessary mail sacks for this purpose as set forth in 
Section 352. 

Attention should also be called to the several patented 
devices upon the market which permit the mailing at one 
time of a first-class letter with third-class mail — each 
taking its respective rate. 



In this part we apply the principles laid down in Parts 
II to IV inclusive, by citing how, in many different indus- 
tries, one or more pieces of direct advertising have actually 
produced direct results. We also show how direct adver- 
tising has been effectively used in solving the problems of 
appealing to various classes of buyers. 

This division will be valuable both for reference and as 
an ' ' annotation of cases, " as it were, helping both the prac- 
titioner and the novice both easily and quickly to refer to 
effective campaigns. 

) / 




383. Phenomenal Returns from a Heart-appeal Cam- 
paign of a Single Piece. — At the Indianapolis Convention 
of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World (1920), 
there was exhibited a campaign of a single piece that pro- 
duced phenomenal returns. 

There were 4,000,000 of these appeals sent out. These 
were mimeographed (see Section 329) ; even the signatures 
were mimeographed on the letters. The total cost of mail- 
ing them was $200,000. The total keyed returns was $1,- 
200,000. The letter itself is quoted verbatim in Section 


Stylists found several defects in the letter. One state 
organization of Women's Clubs refused to mail it. Instead, 
that organization sent out a Christmas card showing the 
Christ child, the three wise men and a camel— awd did not 
get a single contribution. 

This single piece— and it is not often that a single piece 
will make a successful campaign — was accompanied by a 
card for action. The card epitomized the appeal by stat- 
ing that ''$5 will do" so and so, ''$60 will do" so and so— 
the lengths to which the reader's money would work for his 

You will note that not a word in the letter departs from 
the keynote of a heart appeal. Such appeal throughout 
is based upon the foundation of right action. 

The letter, which, we understand, was the outcome of 
the cooperation of the entire writing staff of the Literary 
I>igest, took for granted that the prospect (addressee) could 

buy—and he did. 




mf ! 




384. The Letter that Produced a Million and a 
Quarter for Charity. — The following is a verbatim copy 
of the letter referred to in Section 383 : 

Dear Friend: 

Another little child has shriveled up and died! 

The mother, creeping back, gaunt and cold, from the des"?rt, 
has put down the thin little bones with those that strew the 
road, so — many — miles, and has sunk beside them, never to 
rise again. 

Only a little child, and a mother, out on the bleak \r- 
menian road — but what is that Vision hovering there — and 
what is that Voice the cold winds bear to the ears of our 
souls — "I was hungry, and ye gave me no meat — I was naked 
and ye clothed me not"? 

To-day, — yes, to-day — while we are preparing our gifts 
for Christmas — many more of these little children — not a 
hundred, nor a thousand, but two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand of them — are still wandering uncared for and alone in 
that dead land, "their weazened skins clinging in fear to 
their rattling bones," and they are crying out with gasping 
breath, "I am hungry ! I am hungry! I am hungry!" And 
the Voice of One who watches us as we prepare gifts to cele- 
brate His birthday comes again to the ears of our souls— "I 
am hungry! I am hungry! I am hungry!" 

Now the children and the mothers in Armenia are dreading 
the winter. "Just human remnants, they are, not protected, 
many of them, from the elements by even the dignity of rags." 

But we can feed and clothe those perishing ones — some 
of them— before it is too late. Herbert Hoover cables from 
the Caucasus : "It is impossible that the loss of 20,000 lives 
can at this day be prevented, but the remaining 500,000 
CAN possibly be saved." They need not starve, and freeze, 
and die, if we will save them. 

Open now your heart and purse. They need not die! 
Give ye them to eat ! 

To-day nearly eight hundred thousand destitute Armenians 
— His people — need food and clothing. He took little 
children in His arms and blessed them. To-day will you take 
one, or more, of these sad, cold, hungry little children of Ar- 
menia into your arms and heart, in His name, and give th(!m 
food, and warmth, and life? 

"Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these, 
My brethren, ye have done it unto me." 

The pledge card for your Christmas gift to Him is here in 
this letter. 

Faithfully yours, 

Wm. H. Taft, Henry Morgenthau, Alexander J. Hemp- 
hill For the Executive Committee. 

385. A Folder Which Produced Results When Fol- 
lowed by Salesmen. — The Addressograph Company, 
Chicago, manufacturers of addresing machines, just after 
the war and before the war-appeal had become overworked, 
sent out a broadside which bore on the outside a picture of 
a man jumping up from his desk as a bomb exploded near 
him, with the sky line of New York, or some other big city, 
in the dim background, and this heading: *'The Value of 
Being Prepared." 

The first inside fold — three times the mailing size — ^with 
pictures read ; 


Life Looked "Good" to a Certain 
American Business Man 
Just a Few Months Ago. 

His Factory — Flooded with 

Orders — Worked Overtime ! 
Ships Carried his Goods to 

All Parts of the World! 

"Let George Do the Worrying," he said — 
As he Enjoyed his Vacation Far Away 
From the Humdrum of Business. 

Then Came the War 

Foreign Trade Was Annihilated! 
Many— Hit by the War— Stopped Buying! 
Prosperity Staggered Under the Blow! 

But this Man — Instead 
of Losing — was 

Prepared — to Win! 


Opening the main spread we read as a headline: **— And 
with This system you can win!'' 

The illustration was a drawer of mailing stencils, life. 
size, with a description of the machine and the offer of a 
free book on ''The Preparation and Care of Mailing Lists." 

This piece produced 517 inquiries from 25,612 pieces at 
a cost of $1135, These, followed up by salesmen, produced 
within six months sales amounting to over $20,000. 

386. Completing the Sale of a Technical Product by 
Mail. — Technical products are hard to sell, for technically 
trained men buy not " on a hunch, ' ' but upon facts. T here- 
fore this accomplishment, reported to Mailhag, September, 
1920, by Vic Dwyer, will be interesting: ''A Pittsburgh 
firm selling electric coal-mining machinery mailed 676 
letters to prospects, offering small centrifugal pumps. The 
results, within three weeks, were 21 replies, 5 inquiries for 
pumps, and 3 sales. The net profit on the 3 sales was $470. 
The cost of the advertising was $48.27. It is worthy of 
note that the 21 replies, 5 inquiries, and 3 sales were all 
new business and prospective business, and that the 3 orders 
were closed entirely by mail." 

387. Four Hundred Letters that Obtained 401 Orders. 
— The following letter, according to Printers' Ink^ July 1, 
1919, was written by a sixteen-year-old school boy, just as it 
follows : 

Let the Commerce Boy "carry on." 

June 15 your office staff begin their vacations. 

While they play we work. 

At that time we are out of school, and ready to serve you as 

Office assistants, stenographers, bookkeepers, translators, 
correspondents, salesmen. 

This is our chance to get acquainted and prove to you that 
we are wide-awake, well trained, and ready tq "fill in." 

Seven hundred Commerce Boys made good last summer. 

If you can use us in your office, get in touch with oiir 
Placement Bureau. 

Telephone Columbus 2932. 

Very truly yours, 
Boys of the High School of Commerce. 


The letter was a single-piece campaign; it went to 400 
employers of vacation help' and as .a direct result 401 High 
School of Commerce boys were place^d in positions for the 

388. A Four-page Letter that Produced Over Five 
Million Dollars. — The following letter, written by my good 
friend, James Wallen, for the Manufacturers and Traders 
National Bank of Buffalo, in connection with the first Lib- 
erty Loan campaign, was mailed to 27,000 prospects, and 
produced 18,809 subscriptions, totaling $5,426,550, or one- 
fourth of the city of Buffalo's total in that drive. 

''The letter was printed in typewriter type in black on 
a four-page letter-sheet 71/2 x 101/4 inches," says the Mail- 
hag, in commenting upon the pierce, which follows : 

The Liberty Loan provides what is perhaps the first op- 
portunity the average man has had definitely to serve his 

Because we are convinced of the absolute necessity of pro- 
moting this loan with all of the power we may possess, the 
directors and officers of this bank are appealing to you to 
subscribe at once and to interest your friends and your em- 

We appreciate that every individual has business problems, 
but. there is nothing more urgent for the American citizen 
than the subscription of this loan. As a people, we have 
been teaching American children about the patriots of the 
past. Let us demonstrate to them that American traditions 
of devotion to Liberty and Righteousness still actuate our 

There is no sacrifice in a subscription to the Liberty Loan. 
As bankers, we unhesitatingly recommend Liberty bonds for 
their security and certainty of return. They are as good as 
currency. Should the Government issue other bonds later 
bearing a higher rate of interest (say 4 per cent), these 
bonds can be exchanged^ so as to enjoy the increase in rate. 
There are a number of attractive features to Liberty bonds— 
they are exempt from Federal, State, and local taxes, ex- 
cepting estate and inheritance taxes. No commission or bro- 
kerage fees are charged by the bank for handling. In fact, 



this bank is advertising these bonds at its own expense, 
which is a considerable item. 

On the inside pages of this letter, you will find a digejst 
of facts about the Liberty Loan and the terms offered by the 
United States Government. You will also observe four plaas 
of subscription in which this bank is willing to cooperate 
with you. The inclosed card will enable you to subscribe ])y 
mail. The plans of subscription are numbered. Indicate 
your preference on the card. Serve your country with a 
few strokes of the pen. 


Harry T. Ramsdell, President. 

389. A Broadside Smash That Produced Over Thirty 
Per Cent Returns.— Uuder the title, ''Gillette's Most Ef- 
fective Dealer Campaign," Printers^ Ink, in the issue of 
January 4, 191,7, describes a broadside of Aght pages, 161/0 
X 10%, printed in colors, with plenty of illustrations, that 
was sent to 110,000 dealers, including hardware stores, ding- 
gists, and department stores. In this number there were a 
few nondealers. The broadside was to tie up Gillette safety 
razor and Christmas in the dealer's mind and to get the 
dealer to order and agree to use a window trim. A govern- 
ment return postal was inclosed and over 30,000 — 30 per 
cent of these — came back. 

Lack of space forbids our quoting the entire copy ; those 
interested are referred to the issue of Printers^ Ink men- 
tioned in the preceding paragraph. 

The first fold opened with this headline: 


a ? 


Here's the answer — now listen! 

Turning the last page, the dealer saw a picture of dollars 
flying into a cash register and read, in part : 


Now, as a merchant, you can estimate the business this 
"Give Him a Gillette" drive of Magazine, Posters, and News- 
papers is bound to create for some merchant in your towr. 

Who is going to cash in on this business and bank the 
substantial profits? There is a big slice of it coming to 
you — if 


Stock up. And bear this in mind a lot of people . . . 

The broadside also received the cooperation of the job- 
bers, ''replies being received from 85 per cent of those to 
whom it was sent." 

390. Additional Reference to Notable Single-piece 
Campaigns. — (a) MaiVbag, August, 1920, page 166. A 
story telling how Parker, Bridget Company, Washington, 
D. C., sent 1500 one-dollar bills to 1500 prospects with a let- 
ter which began : 

The enclosed certificate was engraved for us in the United 
States Department of Printing and Engraving. 

We want you to test our store service. We want you to 
"test it out" at our expense. For this purpose we are en- 
closing, without obliga-tion to you, the real dollar bill. 

More than a thousand men went to the store and spent 
that dollar and more of their own. 

(h) 0. A. Owen in Postage for March, 1917, gave de- 
tails of a very effective single-piece campaign. The re- 
sults were 25 per cent of the number mailed. In a plain 
white envelope there was mailed a return postal card asking 
for a copy of a ''personally conducted trip through To- 
day's." The postal card pictured the book offered. With- 
out this picture, test mailings showed tha,t .25 per cent re- 
turns did not materialize. 

(c) There is on file with the writer an interesting single- 
piece campaign to pi'inters — usually a hard class to reach. 
The appeal was sent out on note-size letterhead (see Sec- 
tion 28) to a list of 2130 users of paper cutters offering a 
free book about this firm's knives for paper cutters. The 
returns were 409 postals, or 19.2 per cent, with two requests 
for immediate quotations. 


(d) The following references will be helpful. The lim- 
ited space prevents our quoting more at length: 

Postage, May, 1916, page 19. Use of single pieces of direct 
advertising to test all forms of advertising. 

Pastage, September, 1916, page 185. A single piece that was 
so effective as to cause abandonment of the rest of the campaign. 

Postage, January, 1917, page 10. Use of a check with a jbur- 
page letter; Arthur D. Patchen produced 37 per cent replies irom 
a list of 1600 names. Previous best record, 150 replies jrom 
18,000 folders. 

Postage, February, 1917, page 65. "Stunt" piece to reach rail- 
road purchasing agents produced 10 per cent inquiries. 

Postage, January, 1919, page 21. Retailers' letter at a cost of 
$2.40 brought returns of $475.75. 

Printers' Ink, January 14, 1915, page 17. Single letter sold 
over 500 gross Three-in-One Oil. 

Printers' Ink, March 22, 1917, page 118. Letter to dealers that 
produced over 50 per cent replies from 15,000 names. 

Printers' Ink, May 1, 1919, page 83. Mimeographed letter to 
club members which brought back 42 per cent returns with cash. 






391. Mail-order Book Sellers Excellent Examples of 
This Class of Advertisers. — In Chapter XXIV we take up 
the use of direct advertising in answering inquiries and in 
connection with other forms of media. In this chapter we 
discuss only campaigns of more than one piece where sales 
have been made without salesmen. 

While mail-order houses in general are large users of 
direct advertising they quite frequently get their inquiries 
by publication or other form of advertising. The mail- 
order houses which sell books by circularizing "lists" are 
excellent examples of firms working on this basis. 

An Ohio sales-book company, however, employing more 
than a hundred salesmen regularly, finds that from time 
to time, frequently for several months, it has ''open" terri- 
tory; that is, territory where it is temporarily without a 
salesman. This company has a system of direct advertising 
that operates in open territories only, and yet it gets from 
$5,000 to $6,000 per month of traceable sales by direct ad- 
vertising from these open territories. 

392. More Than Fifty Thousand Dollars' Worth of 
Candy with a Three-piece Campaign. — The Union Candy 
Company of St. Louis sells entirely by mail. The following 
pieces were multigraphed letters sent to a list of wholesale 
candy buyers. The first mailing was accompanied by sticks 
of the candy. The list consisted of 1,000 wholesale grocers 
located near St. Louis. The first letter was followed up by 
two additional pieces of a similar nature and the campaign 
produced in excess of $50,000 worth of stick-candy busines? 






I :< 

from this list. The first letter referred to brought the 
larger part of this return for it was the one accompanied 
by samples. These consisted of four sticks of candy put 
into a small cardboard box, wrapped securely, and then 
slipped into a clasp envelope with the letter itself. *^The 
letter must have received almost 100 per cent attention," 
is the comment of the Ross-Gould Company, who produced 
it. The same company later proved the efficacy of another 
campaign of sampling, by mailing out a separate single 
piece accompanied by a stick of peanut sugar candy, and 
obtained $6,000 worth of business in a dull candy month. 
The letter which produced the bulk of the $50,000 read : 

Let us introduce Billy Burke Pure Sugar Stick Candy at a 
price 5 per cent lower than you are now paying for a stick 
not as good. 

This product is as perfect as stick candy can humanly be 
produced. It is absolutely pure sugar candy and will keep 
in any climate. Taste it and assure yourself of its goodnc^ss. 
Note its zest and snap; its whiteness and bright color; its 
sparkle in the light ; its brittleness and hardness. 

And its name is especially attractive. All American chil- 
dren know and love this beautiful movie actress, and will 
remember their favortte candy every time they see her. The 
cartons containing the candy are also attractive. 

This confection can be a huge profit-maker for you. 
There are 100 sticks in every carton and 6 cartons to a case. 
Our price to you is $3.50 per case less 5 per cent cash, 10 
days, net price $3.33 f.o.b. St. Louis. Your selling price 
should be at least $4.50 on a penny seller, which would give 
you 36 per cent margin. 

In your position as the buyer for your concern, you are, of 
course, an expert in the candy market. You know just what 
the candy situation is to-day. You will realize at once, there- 
fore, that this offer of ours is at least 5 per cent better than 
any price you can get. And we know that the candy itself is 
so much superior to any other that the sales will be enormois. 

We can offer you this exceptional price because we have 
no salesmen's commissions to pay. By ordering through i:he 
mail you help us to keep down our selling cost and you get 
the benefit. 


The blank inclosed will make it easy for you to order. 
Let us send you at least 10 eases. They will be gone in no 
time because, as you know yourself, this candy is a staple 
article — always a seller. 

Very truly yours. 

Union Candy Company, 

Irvin J. Hesley. 

The Billy Burke factory is again on full peace-time basis. 
During the war we devoted much of our capacity to feeding 
our boys here and abroad. 

393. Selling a High-priced Product by Mail.— The Van 
Sieklen Company, Elgin, 111., accomplished something un- 
usual in selling entirely by mail a high-priced device known 
as the Chronometric Tachometer. Printers' Ink Monthly ^ 
for January, 1920, in describing the campaign, said: *'A 
carefully selected list of 1900 was prepared from the two 
best engineering societies." 

Two four-page letterheads were used. The first page car- 
ried a reproduction of the firm's regular letterhead, with a 
processed letter, individually addressed and bearing a pen- 
and-ink signature. The double inside spread carried selling 
arguments, illustrations, etc. The fourth page was blank. 
The two pieces were sent under one-cent postage, folded 
once to a 7x3% size, showing a blind caption and sealed 
with a red seal. A return postal card (not stamped, call- 
ing for a descriptive catalogue) was inclosed. The cata- 
logue, a 24-page book, 5 x 7i^ inches, told the complete 
story and was generously illustrated. In all 275 inquiries 
were received, out of which 21 sales were made in January, 
1920, with a prospect of not fewer than 25 more to follow. 
An especially interesting point about this campaign is the 
fact that, as Printers* Ink Monthly says, ** personal solici- 
tation was tried out and found unsuccessful. Salesmen 
took too much time for missionary work. ' ' 

394- One Campaign an Endless Chain. — Of course, 
strictly speaking, ** endless chains" are contrary to the 
Postal Rules and Regulations and we are using the term 




only in the figurative sense, but the business of the Parker- 
Warren Co., New York, approaches the endless chain idea. 
The business is that of sharpening and resharpening safety- 
razor blades. The firm does no advertising other than by 
its unique method of packing. You send it blades to be 
resharpened and they are returned in a neat, little, v^rocden 
box filled with popcorn, under a circular which reads : 


Not a joke, but an original, practical idea. 
We use popcorn for packing, because — 
It is neat — makes no muss. 
Light in weight — it saves postage. 
It is elastic— holds blades gently and securely. 
Absorbs moisture— protects blades from rusting. 
Use paper— crumpled up loosely— if popcorn has disap- 

In the box there is also a circular telling how well tliese 
blades have been resharpened ; an envelope for the return of 
any unsatisfactory blades; an oil-leaved book for sending 
another lot ; string for tying up the box for its return trip ; 
even the postage stamps required for its return. Cards are 
inclosed for the names of prospects, and to each of these a 
box— minus blades— is sent. You will find pictures of this 
unique campaign in 3tailhag for July, 1918, on page 84. 
395. Doubling a Club's Membership by a Two-p:iece 
Campaign.— On February 1, 1920, the membership of the 
Advertising Club of Atlanta was 200, while on July 1, 
1920, it was 400. This increase, according to an arlicle 
appearing in the issue of Associated Advertising for Au- 
gust, 1920, was brought about by a campaign of two let- 
ters. With each letter was inclosed a sales pamphlet giv- 
ing the ** reasons why" the prospect should become a mem- 
ber of the club. The letters were multigraphed and filled 
in to match. They were mailed to 600 prospects. From 
this campaign the membership of the club was doubled. 
, 396. Selling a High-grade Magazine by Mail.— From 
Direct Advertising, Vol. 4, No. 1, we learn that the Atlantic 


Monthhj, a high-grade, high priced magazine, added 53,000 
to its circulation by mail solicitation. ''For our own in- 
dividual problem, I do not believe any other method of ad- 
vertising would have served the purpose," was the comment 
of MacGregor Jenkins, publisher of the magazine. 

''Our circulation to-day is 81,032, of which 49,000 are sub- 
scribers. That makes a gain of 27,800 subscribers since we 
started our direct-advertising campaign in 1912,'^ he added. 

The method of soliciting subscriptions is by means of a 
booklet issued annually called the Almanac. In addition, 
order blanks, circular letters, etc., are used. X 

397. Proof that a Series of Appeals Pays.— William C. 
Trewin tells an interesting story in Postage for April, 
1918, which describes a campaign of six letters that was 
planned to sell a timber tract, each letter giving additional 
facts about the tract. At the time the third letter was sent 
the advertiser was much discouraged, but decided to keep 
on. The fifth mailing put the owner in touch with a person 
who verified the calculations and findings and bought the 
entire tract for $15,000. The cost of the land originally 
was $550. The charge of the letter-writer was $150 for 
services, including writing the letters; for duplicating $100, 
making a total expense of about $800, not counting the post- 
age, stationery, and the time of the first owner which was 
spent in locating the tract. 

398. Collecting by Mail. — A New York sales agent who 
sells entirely on credit has developed the following figures, 
which were published originally in Ideas. This firm sells 
by mail exclusively and takes back goods within 30 days, 
should the customer desire it. 

The figures of the business show that the money is col- 
lected by mail as follows: 

53.5% within 15 days from date of shipment 
91.9% 30 

97.3% 75 

98.6% 120 

99.5% 270 

•5% is then automatically charged off to profit and loss. 






These figures give concrete evidence of the value of a per- 
sistent campaign to collect money by mail. 

399. Additional References to Campaigns of Two or 
More Pieces, Without Salesmen. 

Postage, February, 1917, page 85. Campaign to get testi- 
monials by mail. 

Postage, April, 1917, page 152. Campaign to introduce 
through wholesalers a new temperance drink. 

Advertising & Selling, January 10, 1920, page 34. Selling 
tea and coffee by mail, illustrated article. 

Mailbag, April, 1917, page 5. Selling securities by mail, 
especial reference to mailing list divisions. 

Mailbag, December, 1917, page 220. Marketing movies (films) 
by mail, series of six letters by Jack Carr. 

Mailbag, March, 1919, page 282. How an English advertising 
man sells eggs direct by mail. 

Mailbag, December, 1919, page 212. How Wrigley^s use [he 
mails to distribute millions of sample sticks of their three kinds 
of gum. 

Mailbag, February, 1920, page 297. Using mails to sell adver- 
tising space, by Jack Carr. 




400. It should be understood at the outset that in this 
chapter we have reference only to the direct salesmen of the 
manufacturer, service organization, or other seller of that 
class, and we are not considering work done for retailers' 
salesmen. For example, we shall take up results secured by 
manufacturers for their own salesmen; insurance compan- 
ies for their salesmen, and so on, leaving the work done for 
retailers' salesmen by manufacturers, etc., to Chapter 
XXVI, and the work done for them by the retailers them- 
selves to Chapter XXVII. 

401. Two Main Methods of Cooperating with Sales- 
men. — There are two main methods of cooperating with 
salesmen through direct advertising: preceding their calls 
either to secure inquiries or pave the way for favorable 
attention ; or, following up their calls and between widely 
separated calls to keep interest alive. 

402. Comparative Cost of Sending "Mail" Salesmen 
Ahead of "Male" Salesmen. — There are before us statis- 
tics prepared by one of the country's large manufacturers, 
showing that even before the 1920 raise in passenger fares 
the average cost per call per salesman was $11.23. 

The cost of a personal letter, naturally the most expen- 
sive type of direct advertising, accompanied by an in- 
closure, such as a leaflet, booklet, etc., averages about 50 

Thus it takes 25 personally dictated letters with a piece 
of well-printed literature inclosed to equal the cost of a 
salesman 's call. This firm sends out but three letters prior 
to each salesman's personal call. During the year, when 



practically no letters were written to help the work of 
''backing up'' or to precede the salesmen, the travelers 
averaged one order for seven calls. Since the adoption of 
the three letters and a booklet to announce and back up 
the men on the road, and to keep the customer in touch 
with the house between calls, the salesmen have been aljle 
to secure one order in every five calls. 

Almost every city raises money for son^e form of charity. 
It is interesting to learn that one city, where it was the 
custom each year to solicit funds for a fresh-air camp for 
babies, decided to precede the ''salesmen" with some direct 
advertising. On the desk of every worker in offices in the 
city one morning was placed a mimeographed letter set- 
ting forth the urgent need of the funds, and the next moni- 
ing, the day of the collection, this was followed up with a 
second— a short— letter. The increased results the year tliis 
plan was operated as compared with those of the year before 
when the collectors were not so preceded by direct adver- 
tising was 900 per cent. 

Salesmen's advance cards (see Fig. 22) are the simplest 
form of "paving the way," but naturally the only method 
of measuring results from their use is somewhat along ihe 
line of that set forth in the preceding paragraphs. I'or 
those particularly interested in salesmen's advance cards, 
see Printers' Ink Monthly for October, 1920, page 116; 
Mailbag for September, 1920, page 199. 

The Sales Manager Monthhj, for January, 1921, page 
207, carries the story of how the White & Wyckoff Manu- 
facturing Company sells its salesman to the prospect prior 
to the call of the salesman himself. Not only are the usual 
salesman's cards used but a "Watch for Him" poster card 
is issued about the time the salesmen take the road for the 
season's work. 

403. The Burroughs "Club" Plan of Preceding Sales- 
men with Direct Advertising. — For a long period :he 
Burroughs Adding Machine Company of Detroit, Michigan, 
has been using what it terms a "club" plan of preceding 
salesmen with direct advertising. This is the moclKS 


operandi, described in the issue of Mailhag for June, 1917 : 
Each sales manager, salesman, and junior salesman is 
expected to send in once a month a list of not more than 
fifty names of prospects which he desires to "work." 
This limit is set because salesmen cannot cover more than 
that number in a month. The names within a territory are 
chosen according to zone location and ease of covering. 
These names are sent in on a special order blank, which 
contains instructions to the salesman as to how to fill in 
the names, specifically warning him that the company's 
campaigns for manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, 
all differ. The following data are required with each name : 





Business Mfr. Large. 

Street address Whole. Small. 

City and State Retail. 

Burroughs User. 

Foreign user. 

Of interest to us in connection with this campaign is the 
conclusion of the Burroughs Advertising Department — 
based upon extensive experience— that the most important 
factors in influencing a sale are : First, satisfactory use of 
Burroughs equipment by some concern in the same line of 
business; and, secondly, the satisfactory use of such equip- 
ment by a concern in the same locality in which the pros- 
pect is located. Local interest is of less importance with 
the large concerns, because of the breadth of vision; but 
the smaller the concern, the narrower its vision and the 
greater the importance of local interest, or what we have 
termed "personalizing" (see Section 192). 

The company consequently has over 200 bulletins or 
business "stories," divided first into these classifications: 
Banks, Financial Institutions, Government; Public Serv- 
ice. Wholesalers, Retailers^ Manufacturers, and General. 



Each of these, in turn, is subdivided. For example, under 
Retailers, come Dry Goods, Hardware, Meats, Drugs, <itc. 
See Fig, 18 for two of these bulletins. 

Six pieces are mailed in each series, and a complete 
series to a retail grocer in Georgia would be: 

1. More Profit for Moore. This starts off with a "darky'* 

storj', about something happening in a grocery store 
(named) in Ruxton, La. 

2. In a Dixie Crossroad Store. This begins, "Mapmakers 

and census-takers don't waste much time at McCollum, 

3. Groceries Minus Guesswork. This one opens with a refer- 

ence to Garland Willoughby of Bowling Green, Ken- 
tucky, also a grocer. 

4. Keeping Pace with Quality. Here we get a quality angle, 

with another Southern grocery mentioned. 

5. Baffling the Profit Burglars. "A 'lookout' watched the 

road while two pals worked inside. Entrance to Crump 
Brothers' general store on the Old Raleigh road six 
miles out of Memphis," we read on this piece. 

6. Where Others Failed. This sixth and last piece carries a 

heavily displayed subtitle: "A Story of Success bj- 
Paul G. Manget, Proprietor, Newnan Grocery Com- 
pany, Newnan, Georgia." 

One gets well into these "stories" before he realizes their 
purpose. No mention is made of the machine until page 
2 or 3 is reached and then only naturally in the unfoldiag 
of the story. 

The salesmen are followed up with a special card coinci- 
dentally with the last mailing, one of which goes out each 

404. Selling a Thirteen-Thousand-Dollar Automobile 
to the Ultra-tired by Direct Advertising. — ^Perhaps the 
strongest case ever made for direct advertising to precede 
salesmen was a bit peculiar. In this instance the prospect 
actually came to the manufacturer's place and bought 
from the salesmen. The plan was formulated to introduce 
the Fageol automobile, with one of the costliest chassis in 
the world, selling for $10,000 alone, the total sales price 


averaging $13,000. Included in the selling plan was the 
placing of one of these cars on display at the Biltmore in 
New York City and inducing multimillionaires to see it. 

Tim Thrift, with the aid of J. Frank Eddy of the Dando 
Company, who handled the .campaign, tells the story in 
Mailhag for December, 1917. Briefly it was this: The 
first mailing was to a list of 2,457 multimillionaires. It 
consisted of a four-page folder, a processed, filled-in letter, 
and an engraved invitation. 

The folder, four pages, 7x10 inches, on deckle-edged 
antique stock, printed in black and red, read in part as 
follows : 

^^The most wonderful product of a wonderful century" 

A speed of 116 miles per hour with reserve speed left. 
The Fageol car will travel 60 miles an hour with throttle 
half open. At that speed the motor, with which it is 
equipped, is making but one-half its rated revolutions. 
The Fageol has the costliest chassis in the world. 

In workmanship, skill, and quality of material nothing 
domestic or foreign approaches it. 

The motor which drives the Fageol car costs more than 
most complete cars. 

The Fageol car will be on exhibition at the Hotel Biltmore 
from October 1 to 6, inclusive. 

Attendance by invitation only. 

Twenty-five reservations only can be filled. 

The letter accompanying this first mailing read: 

Bear Sir: 

In addition to the extraordinary facts contained on en- 
closed folder we wish to state that this car, at a recent dinner, 
was placed in the center of the dining-room, a space being 
left for car operation 75 feet long and 18 feet wide. 

The car was started, attained a speed of 25 miles per hour, 
and was stopped within the necessary 75 feet. 

The full performance took four seconds. 

This, you will of course understand, breaks all records and 
shows the wonderful "pick-up" of the car. 





The Fageol may be run one mile per hour or 116 miles per 
hour — faster if one dares. . 

We enclose invitation to exhibition (and subsequent 
personal demonstration if you wish) which we sincerely trust 
you will take advantage of. 

Cordially yours, 

Hester Motors, Inc., 
H. C. K. Hester, President. 

The engraved invitation read: 

You are respectfully invited to attend 


. of 


at the Hotel Biltmore 
October first to sixth, inclusive 
Nineteen Hundred and Seventeen 
From Nine A. M. to Twelve Midnight. 

A second and final letter was sent out which read as J:ol- 
lows : 

Dear Sir: 

There is one car in the world that makes its owner master 
of the road. 

No other car in the world can pass it. 

That car is the Fageol. 

It can go one mile per hour, or one hundred and sixteen 
miles an hour — or faster. 

It can, in the space of seventy-five feet start, attain a speed 
of twenty-five miles an hour, stop, without shock — and do it 
in four seconds. 

The Fageol car, doing things hitherto deemed impossible! 
and incredible, simply culminates the fruit of the Twentieth 
Century invention. 

In speed, durability, power, and luxury, it transcends any- 
thing yet conceived or known, projecting a road machine with 
aeroplane speed and gliding ease. 

Exhibition and demonstration of the Fageol at the Biltmore 
Hotel closes October 6th. Will you not, prior to that date, 
arrange to see the car with your engineer or otherwise?. But 
twenty-five are available. 




In four and one-half days of actual selling time a total 
volume of business of $260,000 had been written for 
which advertising expense was practically negligible. 

405. Additional References for Campaigns "Preceding" 
Salesmen.— Campaigns where direct advertising has effec- 
tively preceded salesmen will be found in the following: 

Postage, March, 1916, page 34. Story of campaign to precede 
printing salesman; nineteen pieces sent to hst in a period of 

twenty-three days. „ ,, ^ . ^ u 

Postage, July, 1916, page 15. How Todd Protectograph 
Company precedes its salesmen with direct advertising. Told by 
the inimitable Jack Speare. See also Mailbag, April, 1917. 

Postage, November, 1916, page 245. Noble T. Praigg tells 
the story of a successful campaign paving the way for a sales- 
man of corporation-partnership insurance. Illustrated. 

Postage, December, 1916, page 304. Paving the way for casket 
salesman. Volume of business after use of direct advertismg 
secured in one-third time it formerly took! 

Postage, February, 1917, page 53. Clifl:ord Elvins tells the 
inside story of the famous Imperial Life Assurance Company cam- 
paign. It has been written up in almost every advertising pubh- 
cation. Letters, folders, booklets, and blotters are used. , 

Postage, April, 1918, page 6. How Roycrofters used direct 
advertising to secure 85 per cent distribution. 

Printers' Ink, January 29, 1914. Securing "leads" for sales- 

men. j oi. i 

Printers' Ink, July 22, 1915. How the Worcester Pressed Steel 

Company broke the ice for its salesmen. 

Mailhag, March, 1918, page 291. A four-piece campaign pre- 
ceding salesmen, which from a list of 15,000 names brought 1021 
inquiries, 131 orders, with sales of $25,029, at a cost for the entire 
campaign of $1500. 

Charles W. Hoyt in ^^Scientific Sales Management'' 
makes this statement : ' ' I would recommend sending six 
preliminary pieces to a list of two thousand possibilities.' 

406. Additional References to Campaigns "Backing 
Up" Salesmen.— By the term ''backing up" we have ref- 
erence to both campaigns following a salesman's call and 
between calls, without reference to his next visit. Some 
references on this score are: 



Printers' Ink, April 6, 1916. John Allen Murphy writes of 
the experiences of several companies in selling the calls their 
salesmen miss. 

Printers' Ink, May 14, 1914. Description of a catalogue that 
brings in 20 per cent of the annual business between salesmen's 

Advertising d: Selling, September, 1914. Shows how Yaw- 
man & Erbe Manufacturing Company boosted mail sales of $25.52 
average to $45.50 by referring prospects to salesmen for closing. 





407. A Few Typical Campaigns Showing Interlocking 
of Direct Advertising with Other Forms. — In Sections 9 
to 15 inclusive we have in the main covered this point of 
the interlocking of direct advertising with other forms, but 
direct reference to a few typical national advertisers and 
others will be helpful. 

J. Sidney Johnson, advertising manager of the Marshall 
Canning Company, Marshalltown, Iowa, in addressing the 
New Orleans meeting of the Direct Mail Advertising Asso- 
ciation (1919) said, in part: ''By means of personal let- 
ters to 23,542 retail grocers this year, we have introduced 
Brown Beauty Beans and helped to make these dealers bet- 
ter distributors of food products. In conjunction with a 
national campaign in magazines, we gave selling ideas and 
suggestions to our distributors all over the country. The 
proof of the effectiveness of the plan is the fact that 58 per 
cent of the distributing agencies have been established this 
year as a result of the national publicity and the direct 
mail literature." 

It will be noted that in two different places Mr. Johnson 
emphasized the tie-up of direct and national advertising. 

Not long since the E. I. Du Pont De Nemours Company 
told the writer: **We have approximately a half -million 
names on our various mailing lists. We mail an average of 
about 600,000 pieces of advertising a month. Our circu- 
larizing consists of booklets, folders, pictorial matter, mul- 

tigraph letters (some fiUed-in and some not), typewritten 




if 4 

l.« r T, 


letters; in fact, there is hardly any kind of mail matter 
that we do not use from time to time. A large majority 
of our circularizing is done under third-class postage." 

About the same time, the author, then Editor of Postage, 
approached George Frank Lord, formerly director of ad- 
vertising for the Du Pont Company, asking for an article 
on the general subject of direct advertising and inquiring 
as to the Du Pont Companies' general campaign. Mr. Lord 
replied, in part: **We are using $750,000 worth of space 
in our campaign. All of the standard methods of -adver- 
tising are good; some are of more value to certain lines 
than others. We use almost all kinds — magazines, trade 
papers, farm publications, newspapers, circularizing, a 
house organ, painted bulletins, electric signs, displays, and 
demonstrations. We believe our house organ is unique in 
several respects, — it has a monthly circulation of 250,000 
going entirely to men of importance in the business world 
who are on the trade lists of the various Du Pont industries. 
We endeavor to conduct it as a magazine first and a house 
organ second. . . . Our magazine costs us about $150,000 
a year, the postage alone being $5,000 a month. ... We. 
sell our advertising space at standard rates, $1.25 a line. 

*'We also use direct-mail advertising in developing paint 
prospects by sending high-class color illustrated matter to 
names of property owners furnished by our dealers. We 
believe profitable results are always feasible in direct-mail 
advertising, if the lists are selected with care and suf- 
ficient brains and money spent on the class of matter 
sent. ' ' 

Perhaps the strongest evidence of the value of interlock- 
ing the various forms of direct advertising is in the com- 
ment of The Literary Digest, one of the big national week- 
lies, which a short time ago gave out the following informa- 
tion as to its general campaign : 

Our investment is $750,000 a year in 400 newspapers. 
Our yearly investment in street cars for cards is $300,000. 
The most important feature of the plan is not so evident. It 
is a part of our main campaign, the object of which is not 

only to secure new subscribers but to increase the national 
prestige of The Literary Digest. There are approximately 
9,000,000 (1918 figures) telephone subscribers in the United 
States. Three times a year we write 6,000,000 of the best 
of them a personal letter telUng them about the editorial 
features of the publication and soliciting their subscriptions. 
In the larger cities we send these letters under first-class 
postage. . . . Our newspaper work this last year has, of 
course, made this direct-by-mail work more productive. We 
find that each kind of advertising we do helps the others and 
they all dovetail in together as to the various forms of ad- 
vertising done by national advertisers. ... I wish to em- 
phasize this fact, that every subscriber to the Digest comes 
to us through printers' ink of some kind. We have no 
solicitors, and no subscription is secured because of friend- 
ship or because of a salesman's strong personality. 

One more example — this one from a comparatively small 
national advertiser — might be cited, a correspondence 
school, appealing only to a limited class. The school has 
a series of bulletins, booklets, and letters, which are pro- 
ducing approximately 600 ''sales" per month from the 
inquiries resulting entirely from publication advertising. 
In this case the bulletins are four pages each in the SVo 
xll inch size and 6 x lli/^ inches for those of six pages. 
They play upon the prospect 's desire for wealth, fame, and 
the pride of seeing one 's name in public prints. One bulle- 
tin is entitled, "The Price of Success." It shows as the 
cover design a student burning the midnight oil and look- 
ing at a framed picture of Lincoln. Inside, the prospect is 
told that study, as it was with Lincoln, is the price of 
success. Another is entitled ' ' Imagination, the Miracle 
Worker." The reference is to Edison and his accomplish- 
ments, pointing out that we must not merely cultivate but 
must also harness our imaginations to reach high goals. 
Each bulletin closes with an appeal for their course. In 
the series is a testimonial booklet 5i/> x 8% inches in size, 
entitled ' ' Proof Positive. ' ' 

408. Selling Dogs by Mail. — Precedent indicated that 
dogs must be put on exhibition to be sold — that they could 



not be sold by mail. Advertising & Selling^ January 3, 
1920, carries an extremely interesting story of how Henri 
I. Baer, an Alsatian by birth, disregarded this precedent. 
He began business with practically nothing and now does 
more than $75*000 a year. * * On an appropriation of $500 
a month, 600 inquiries and $5000 worth of business (av«jr- 
age) is secured,'* said Mr. Baer. Ninety-nine per cent of 
his business comes from following up inquiries produced by 
various forms of advertising. He has about 12,000 names 
on file now and has followed up some of them as many as 
twenty times. Different styles of appeal are used, some 
personal letters, some process, even a number in printed 

Here is one typical letter, sent to 6000 names, at a total 
cost of $484.50. It produced 3000 answers and $10,000 
worth of traceable business : 

If you could do "the other fellow" a good turn without 
any inconvenience or cost to yourself, would you do it? 

I believe you would, and therefore would ask of you ti 
favor. If granted, this will bring you information on a 
subject you want to know more about or it will save us post- 
age, literature, and time, and you will not continue to receive 
literature on a subject that no longer interests you. 

Some time ago, in answer to an inquiry I sent you one of 
our booklets, which has resulted in correspondence between uu 
regarding a dog for you. Since you have not bought u 
Palisade Police dog, it may be you want to know more about 
this particular dog, or have you bought some other kind oi: 

It is our aim to establish a clearing house for dogs, and 
we would like to g:et an idea of just what kind of dogs oui* 
inquirers want. We would therefore appreciate it very much 
if you would please check the inclosed card and mail it. 

If you already have a dog and he is perfectly satisfactory, 
you may not be interested in further literature about the Pali- 
sade Police dog, and by checking the card "not interested" we 
will remove your name from our files. 

If, on the other hand, there is anything you want to kno-w^ 
about the proper feeding and care of your dog, or his train- 
ing, we place at your disposal the Palisade Service, to helj> 


you care for and handle him, so as to get the most out of his 
Please check, sign, and mail card now. It will help us both. 

This letter has been criticized by several — but look 
at the results ! 

409. Direct Advertising and Trade Papers. — R. Bigelow 
Loekwood, in Printers' Ink for November 13, 1919, tells 
how one shrewd salesman synchronizes his efforts with the 
trade-paper advertising offering a catalogue. The concern 
is a large machine-tool manufacturer. A few days after 
the salesman gets the inquiry referred to he writes the pros- 
pect a letter which opens in this manner : 

My home office has advised me that it has sent you a 
catalogue in response to your request. 

I have purposely waited for a few days to give you the 
opportunity of looking over this catalogue and studying 
our machine. 

Now that you have had time to do this, however, I want 
to call on you and discuss your manufacturing problems with 
the view of applying the production possibilities of our lathe 
specifically to your work — which is something no catalogue 
can do. I am therefore planning to call on you Wednes- 
day . . . 

' (a) Using the humorous appeal in connection with trade- 
paper advertising : Trade-paper advertising is usually in- 
tensely uninteresting. For this reason, probably, more than 
any other, two or three users of this form have broken the 
ice with highly humorous campaigns. One concern, the 
Patterson-Kelley Company, water-heating engineers and 
manufacturers of heaters, has coupled up with its trade- 
paper advertising what John C. Whiteside, its advertising 
manager, terms a series of **jazz*' letters. 

The mechanical make-up of these letters Was as peculiar 
as their copy ; occasionally only a few words appeared on a 
line; the lines were very short and irregular — after the 
K. C. B. style. 

There were four letters in the series. The first one read : 

¥ il 






Over in Egypt the only laundry is the River Nile — of 
crocodile fame. They just souse the clothes in the cold, 
muddy water and — Old Sol does the drying act. 

Over here. Well, you know, and we know, it's diffen^nt. 
Bang-up laundries — those getting the results and prospering 
— all use hot water. They must. 

And the Kelley system supplies it. Lots of it — aoy- 
where, anytime. Instantly. 

Take us at our word. Fill in and mail the inclosure and 
we'll leave it to you if the 2 cents isn't the very best invc'st- 
ment you've made in a coon's age. 

Now what do you say? 

The next one read: 

When great grandmother wanted to wash, Leander 
lugged water forty furlongs from the Old South Spriag. 
With the ox team — and the ice boat — he filled the big copjDer 
kettle — brought over from Brittany. 

It's dollars to doughnuts Leander had a goodly grouch. 
But Water Carriers' Unions were of the future. 

Hot water was a strenuous stunt. Cutting fagots and 
sparking flints was far from fun. However, those primitive 
pioneers were of a sterling, sturdy stock. 

To-pay. Things have changed. You don't have to la])or 
like Leander to have hot water because — 

The Kelley system gives it to you. Gallons and gallons 
of steaming, scalding hot water. Anywhere, anytime. Guar- 

Are you interested? 

If so — 2 CENTS. 

Letter No. 3, which follows, was sent out 10 days after 
No. 2 and brought over 153 replies from the shrinking list 
of 1920 names— those answering the first two havitg been 
removed : 

Back in barefoot days when we kids "missed" a couple 
of times, mother would say, "Sonny, the third time's the 

This is the third time— about the Kelley system of 
water heating for power laundries. 

Persistent? Sure. We know exactly what it'll do i'or 

you. Exactly how it will increase output and profits — 
same as it does for over 2000 of your brother operators. 

It's no guesswork, but facts — knockdown, dragout, con- 
vincing facts. Why ! If you had the Kelley you'd wonder 
how in Sam Hill you ever did without it. 

Don't spoil the charm — the third time. 

Invest 2 cents — now. 

The fourth and final shot in the campaign was : 

No. We won't quit yet even if the third time wasn't the 
charm with you. 

And again ask — do you want to know just what the 
Kelley system of water heating will do for you? 

Some six hundred others invested 2 cents — but we cannot 
tell you unless you send in your working conditions. 

Once more do you want to know? 

*'In all 6620 letters were sent to the list of 2540 names; 
results, 628 replies, good ones," comments Frinters' Ink. 

410. Direct Advertising to Stockholders. — Many con- 
cerns send their directors their advertising; a few send 
their stockholders advertising matter. W. H. Dawson, ad- 
vertising manager of the Atlas Powder Company, Philadel- 
phia, in Printers' Ink for February 26, 1920, tells how his 
company sends direct advertising along with dividend 
cheeks to all its stockholders. It also sends miniature re- 
productions of other forms of advertising. 

411. Additional References on Use of Direct Adver- 
tising with Other Forms. — Answering inquiries must vary 
with different companies, but the issue of Printers' Ink 
Monthly for June, 1920, describes one of the simplest and 
most economical methods we know of. It is used by Davis 
Sewing Machine Company of Dayton, Ohio. With a book- 
let sent out in response to an inquiry, the Davis company 
mails a printed card : 

We would really like to write you personally, but in the 
interests of service and to be sure a reply reaches you 
promptly, we are sending you this printed response. The 
inclosed catalogue explains some of the reasons why Davis 
Portable Electric Sewing Machines are a modern necessity, 
and gives full specifications of each model. But a demon- 





stration would no doubt be more satisfactory, so please take 
the letter of introduction also inclosed to our representat: ve 
who will be glad to give you further information. 

The accompanying letter of introduction is like the; one 
quoted in Section 210. 

Printers* Ink, August 31, 1916, page 36, tells how the Trenton 
Potteries Company handles its consumer inquiries so as to dodge 
the "catalogue collectors." 

Printers* Ink, February 15, 1917, page 3, gives the complete 
history of the Williamson Heater Company and tells how it so 
handles its inquiries as to sell furnaces in a way advertising men 
had heretofore said it could not be done. 

Additional references on other points covered in this 
chapter will be found in the following: 

Mailhag, April, 1917, page 14. How the Beaver Board Com- 
pany successfully uses direct advertising to feature to the trade its 
national advertising. 

Mailhag, May, 1918, page 30. How the Fruit Markets (Com- 
missioner of Canada used direct advertising to supplement display 

Advertising dt SeUing, August 9, 1919. The part direct 
advertising played in campaign of display and other forms to 
sell "Ditto" machines. 

Advertising & Selling, August 21, 1920. Interlocking direct 
advertising of Pittsburgh Water Heater Supply Company with 
national advertising. 

Postage, November, 1919, page 315. Details of how a bus n ess 
was built entirely by direct advertising coupled with 56-line ad- 
vertisements in the six leading women's magazines. Total volume 
now in excess of $100,000 a year. 

Printers' Ink, February 25, 1915. How sixteen thousand j'old- 
ers of the Sterling Engine Company, Buffalo, backed by display 
advertising, produced sales of $16,436. 

Printers' Ink, November 23, 1916. Selling coal by mail fol- 
lowing receipt of inquiries by advertisements in small-town news- 

Printers' Ink, December 28, 1916. Details of the Frank E. 
Davis Company method of selling fish direct to users by nail. 


Inquiries produced by magazine advertising. See also Printers^ 
Ink, March 4, 1920, telling of use of newspapers. 

Printers' Ink, July 29, 1920. Use of direct advertising in 
conjunction with national advertising, by Hartford Fire Insurance 






412. Two Different Phases of the Problem of Selling 
to the Wholesaler and Retailer. — In this chapter we take 
up only the problem of the manufacturer, or other pro- 
ducer, effectively using direct advertising selling to whole- 
salers (jobbers) and retailers and their salesmen. The 
angle of selling for them will be taken up in the succeeding 
chapter, and the matter of their own advertising will be 
treated in Chapter XXVII. 

There are two main phases of the present chapter: 
Selling to the wholesaler, retailer, and their salesmen, and 
serving them. In the former phase the dominant thought 
is to get an order for your product from the distributor. 
See the letter quoted in Section 392 for a case in. point. 
In the second phase the manufacturer endeavors first to 
SERVE the distributor, and secondly to sell him. In this 
latter phase the principal means of serving is either to sell 
the distributor himself on a record-keeping system or proper 
display cases (the method of such firms as Robert H. Inger- 
soll & Brother) , or to help the distributor by showing and 
helping his salesmen to become better salesmen in general, 
or better salesmen for the manufacturers' product in par- 

413. A Campaign that Secured 6815 New Dealers in 
Ninety Days. — When Charles A. Bonniwell was director 
of advertising for Wm. J. Moxley, Incorporated, Chicago, 
he put . on a campaign of direct advertising which se- 
cured 6815 new dealers in ninety days. The complete plaii- 
fully illustrated, will be found in Mailhag for June, 1918, 


• 1 

pages 49 to 62, inclusive. For our purposes it may be sum- 
marized as follows : 


These were 14 x 21 inches in size, printed in two colors, 
from illustrations made from photographs posed by live 
models. The broadsides were folded to 10^/2 x 4% before 

Number one approached the dealer from a basis of asking 
his advice, the headline being. "Will you Help us Answer 
This Important Question?" The question being, "Shall we 
advertise in the big magazines or spend the money with you ?" 
The latter referred to a series of three illustrated letters which 
would be sent direct to the dealer^s prospects at the manufac- 
turer's expense. 

Number two. "A Profitable Partnership." This broadside 
approached the very important subject that no dealer was 
interested merely in the amount of business but also in the 
PROFITS he could make. 

Number three. ". . . and then he dictated this letter." 
This piece brought in the outside viewpoint, showing a letter 
from a dealer's customer to the manufacturer, taking up the 
advantages of the average dealer handling the product. 

FOUR "new account" LETTERS 

The purpose of these was to keep continually sold the 
dealer who had already been sold on the product. 

Number one was written on the regular stationery of the 
company signed by "Director of Sales," and with imprinted 
department heading: "Office of Director of Sales." The 
letter was to secure the cooperation of the dealer until actual 
buying demand would keep the cooperation alive. 

Number two, mailed two days after, was on the personal 
(baronial style) stationery of the President. The President 
congratulated the dealer, having just heard the news from 
the director of sales. 

Number three was a four-page letterhead printed in two 
colors from "Director of Advertising." This played up the 
advertising cooperation. 

Number four, another four-page letterhead from the "Man- 
ag:er of Production," sold the dealer on the quality and uni- 
formity of product. 



All these letters were carefully processed and filled-in to 
match with dealers^ names, and each was signed with a pen- 
and-ink signature. 


The preceding were selling the dealer. The following were 
serving him by selling the consumer. 

Number one, featuring food value and recipes, was mailed 
in a No. 9 envelope (penny-saver). It was four-page in 
style, and was printed in colors on a heavy folding enamel 
stock. The object was to get the.housewife addressed to tr^ 
one pound of the oleomargarine. 

Number two, likewise a four-page letter, was the dealer's 
recommendation, and laid especial stress on the wholesome- 
ness of the product. 

Number three was a one-page letter giving the dealer'u 
argument for customers and his guarantee. 

A booklet entitled ** Betty's Honeymoon Diary" was 
featured in many of the pieces. Newspaper electros were 
likewise offered to dealers. 

414. Additional References on Selling the Dealer (Re- 
tailer). — Lack of space makes it impossible to quote addi- 
tional campaigns in detail, but the following references will 
help those interested beyond the Moxley campaign m(!n- 
tioned in Section <413: 

Printers' Ink, July 3, 1913. How the Favorite Stove aad 
Range Company, Piqua, Ohio, by a folder campaign of six 
pieces in six weeks, secured 454 inquiries, of which it scJd 
209. Five of those inquiring bought in carload lots. 

Printers' Ink, December 31, 1914, page 3. Getting men^s pipes 
oiT the novelty basis. 

Printers' Ink, July 22, 1915, page 8. H. J. Winsten on how 
the Chicago-Kenosha Hosiery Company "chalked up a 40 per 
cent sales gain," backed up by a direct-advertising campaign. Id 
this campaign the dealer was served as well as sold. 

Printers' Ink, September 7, 1916, page 17. How one firm used 
33 form letters in writing retailers about its advertising campaign. 

Printers' Ink, October 11, 1917, page 51. How the Geneial 
Electric Company sells its dealers on advertising. 

Postage, January, 1917, page 8. S. Roland Hall tells of the 
Alpha Portland Cement Company's letter "calls" on dealers. 




Postage, September, 1918, page 17. A single piece which, at 
a cost of less than $500, produced $27,000 orders in two months. 

Printers' Ink Monthly, June, 1920. Roy Dickinson's able arti- 
cle, "Three Books Push Chevrolet Sales Close to Top." 

Marketing, January, 1920, page 12, and Marketing, February, 
page 62. William A. Hersey's analysis of selling small-town 
dealers. In this connection see also Section 174 A. 

415. Securing Jobber's (Wholesaler's) Cooperation. 
—In the main the same appeals are made to secure the co- 
operation of wholesalers (jobbers) as to secure the cooper- 
ation of the retailers (dealers). 

Norman Lewis, in Mailhag for March, 1920, describes a 
series of broadsides and mailing cards used by Scientific 
Products Company, Steubenville, Ohio, to secure the coop- 
eration of jobbers. A portfolio of the dealer's helps 
(in general, like those referred to in Section 50) was fur- 
nished jobbers for use by their salesmen in calling on 

Lewis E. Kingman, when advertising manager of the 
Florence Manufacturing Company, Florence, Mass., de- 
scribed in Printers' Ink for March 2, 1916, how that com- 
pany secured cooperation by inclosing return postal cards 
in each packing unit — half dozen, dozen, or gross packages. 
The purpose of the cards was to obtain the name of the job- 
ber from whom the retailer bought these goods. The re- 
turns were in due course referred to the jobber. 

The following letter, according to George J. Kirkgasser, 
advertising manager Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing 
Company, Milwaukee (see Mailhag for August, 1920, 
page 161), was sent to 360 electrical jobbers with effective 
results : 

Gentlemen : 

Do you Average Down the High Cost of Salesmen's Trav- 
eling Expenses by Mail Efforts'? 

Periodical mail advertising dovetails in with the work of 
the salesmen; it gets quick action where such is necessary; 
gets to people hard to call on ; brings in orders by mail ; and 
gets orders ready for handing to the salesmen when he calls, 
^hus giving him more time for other calls.' 





The present excessive traveling expenses are also averag:ed 

Here's something you can do right now. 

Mail a letter and circular to all electrical dealers in your 

territory. A suggestion for such a letter is attached — the 

printed matter for the C-H 70-50 Switch we will furnish 

with your imprint when you tell us the quantity required. 

The next full page Saturday Evening Post ad will appear 
in the February 14 issue and all dealers will be circularized 
by us between February 7 and 14. If your circularization 
is made at that time, you'll pick off the orders created. 

Let us know the number of folders required at once aad 
in the meantime prepare your letters and address your tn- 
veicpes in readiness for mailing when the folders reach you. 

416. Serving the Distributor Through Direct Adver- 
tising to Salesmen. — To create the interest of jobbers' sales- 
men, the Federal Miniature Division of the General Elec- 
tric Company, according to an article in Sales Management, 
August, 1920, page 481, prepared a series of special sales 
letterheads and wrote a series of homely, interesting mes- 
sages to the wholesalers ' salesmen. 

In the same field, the electrical industry, W. N. Matthews 
& Brother of St. Louis, as described in Printers* Ink, 
August 5, 1915, secured the active cooperation of 2300 job- 
bers' salesmen through a series of letters and booklets. 
The first letter read : 

Your competitor — if you haven't met him you may to- 
morrow — may be a bigger man than you are. He is out after 
just what you want and you can't blame him. He has t le 
same success problem- — the same "bread-and-butter" problem 
that you have. 

If you have plenty of "Cake" you won't have to worry 30 
much about the "bread-and-butter" question. 

By reading and practicing what Matthews' Cake CaiQ- 
paign Booklets teach you, you will get the answer to most of 
your sales worries. 

You won't be an "almost success" — you will be a success. 

This was accompanied by a postal card upon which 
the salesman could ask for the ' ' Cake Campaign ' ' booklets. 

The reference to * ' Cake ' ' was explained in the second letter 
which read: 

Specialties are always priced higher than so-called "staple" 
goods. They should be. Specialties of merit, when rightly 
priced, show ultimate savings that make their use a real ne- 
cessity. You can't make real money by pushing the "staple" 
goods. Your profits — the profits of your house — are not 
made on "staple" goods, the gross profit of which is low. 
They do make money on wide margin material, and good mar- 
gins are not possible unless you sell material at a good price. 

Let us look this question squarely in the face. If you go 
along selling the regular "old line" goods, you can perhaps 
hold your position and "get by," but you will be eating bread 
and butter sometimes. If you take a real interest in spe- 
cialties carrying a good, wide margin of profit, you have 
bread, butter, and cake. 

The first booklet went out with the third letter and was 
called, '*A Friendly Letter to the Electrical-supply Jobber 
and an Expression of Faith in Him." Other booklets told 
of the ''Cake Campaign," "Electrical-supply Salesman- 
ship," "Efficient Cooperation," "Advertising," and 
''Quality i;s. Price," 

H. G. Garrott, a St. Paul (Minnesota) candy manufac- 
turer, has been extremely successful in getting the coopera- 
tion of jobbers' salesmen by a series of human, homely, 
semi-humorous letters that never mehtioned candy at all 
except as incidental to a timely greeting or a good story. 
We have space for only one, and choose a specimen coming 
nearest to "talking business." A number of them will be 
found in Printers' Ink, December 11, 1919, page 37, et seq.: 

Bear Sir: 

"It will have to be over my dead body" — that's what I 
tell retailers in the East who keep hounding me for choco- 

They seem to be famished for candy. If I were to 
weaken, New York City alone would swallow my output like 
a sugar-coated pill. 

I tell them "No" and put in that "dead body" stuff— it 
sounds heroic and makes an impression. 




Why do I say "NO"? Ah, there you have it! I jun 
saving my output for you — and the Northwest. 

Yes, I expect to take care of you — but hurry up and s(!nd 
that order I am trying to save for you — before somebody 
accuses me of hoarding. 

417. Educational Work on Distributors and Salesmen. 
—There remains for discussion only the educational work 
with distributors and their clerks. Most of this is accom- 
plished by direct advertising. Yawman & Erbe Manufac- 
turing Company, for example, conducts a correspondence 
course in selling office equipment and files by direct adver- 

Robert H. Ingersoll & Brother aim to make better jewel- 
ers of their retail outlets. 

Armour & Company (see Printers' Ink Monthly, October, 
1920, page 45) have a series of business bulletins which 
pave the way for traveling service men. These bulhitins 
<?over such subjects as store lighting, various principles 
of salesmanship, good housekeeping, coordination of sell- 
ing effort, building up a mailing list, how to get out 
effective advertising matter, and similar phases of merchan- 

This subject of educating the retailers, wholesalers, and 
their salesmen, is worthy of a volume in itself. We can 
mention only references to a few of the outstanding suc- 
cesses in this field of operation : 

Mailbag, October, 1918. H. McJohnston gives the reader de- 
tails of the Scholl Foot-Comfort campaign and quotes speciriens 
of material used in educating the retail shoe salesmen. 

Printers' Ink, October 14, 1915, page 54. How the Garland 
Stove Company by its famous book, "Team- Work," made salesmen 
out of clerks. 

Printers' Ink, May 31, 1917, page 25. John Allen Mur])hy, 
formerly a retailer, tells how the Beechnut Packing Company 
keeps in friendly touch with thousands of retailers. 

Printers' Ink, March 21, 1918, page 78. An interesting and 
suggestive article on training the clerk as a means of develo{)ing 

Printers' Ink, October 23, 1919, page 62. The complete details 
of the methods of the Joseph & Feiss Company in teaching dealers 
how to bring customers to the store. 

Printers' Ink, September 3, 1914. An extremely helpful article 
by a staff writer on ways of educating clerks. It drives home 
this point : dealer's salespeople resent being regarded as ignoram- 

Printers' Ink, November 2, 1916, page 95. Article on the de- 
tails of how several concerns attack this problem. 





418. The Value of the Manufacturers' Advertising to 
the Distributor. — Lewis H. Clement, when president of 
the National Association of Piano Dealers, in 1911, made 
an address before the Grand Rapids meeting of the Associ- 
ated Advertising Clubs on the value of the manufacturers' 
advertising to the distributor, which he summarized under 
these five heads: 

First: The utihty of the thing advertised. 

Second: Its permanent value. 

Third: The believableness of the copy. 

Fourth: The mediums used. 

Fifth: The cooperation of the dealer (distributor). 

In this talk, he made two statements particularly perti- 
nent to the subject-matter of this chapter as well as to all 
advertising. First, he said, *'And right here I desire to 
controvert the statement that advertising adds to the cost 
of things. So long as value depends not alone on utility, 
but also on the satisfaction derived through ownership and 
use, if advertising adds to the buyer's satisfaction in the 
use of an advertised article, it adds not so much to its cost 
as to its value, because such value is the estimate placed on 
a thing by its owner." 

This statement is especially apropos to the selling of 

goods to distributors for resale, for even at this date (1921), 

ten years after the delivery of the address referred to, all 

too many distributors are prone to claim that advertising 

adds to the cost of merchandise. 

The other statement is directly tied up to the distribu :or 

496 . • 

himself and the subject of this chapter. Mr. Clement clev- 
erly epitomized the entire problem of the manufacturer 
doing advertising for the dealer and wholesaler in these 
words: ^'But no amount of advertising can help that 
dealer (distributor) who refuses to cooperate with the man- 
ufacturer, and it cannot be denied that the dealer (distribu- 
tor) is under a certain moral obligation to cooperate with 
the manufacturer who makes reliable goods and who also 
creates a demand for his product by his advertising." 

419. Imprinting the Simplest Form of Tying Up the 
Manufacturer's Advertising with Distributor's Business. 
— Imprinting, whether it be envelope inclosures for insert- 
ing in mails, or mailing pieces, house organs, or the like, is 
the simplest form of tying up the manufacturer's advertis- 
ing with that of the distributor, wholesaler or retailer. 
Note the reference to ''imprinting" in the letter to jobbers 
mentioned in Section 415. Fig. 74 depicts several forms 
of "imprints." In this chapter we are not, however, di- 
rectly interested in the "how" but more in the "results," 
or what has been accomplished. Fig. 4 A shows the di- 
vision of a manufacturer's advertising appropriation and 
indicates the importance of the direct form in doing adver- 
tising for wholesalers and retailers. See also Section 268. 

420. An Effective Six-unit Campaign. — Through the 
cooperation of A. G. Ilahn, secretary of the Akin-Erskine 
Milling Company of Evansville, Indiana, we show a graphic 
illustration of the close interlocking of all forms of adver- 
tising in selling goods through wholesaler (jobber), retailer, 
and selling the consumer. Mr. Hahn calls this his "Six- 
unit plan." The six units are : 

First: A local representative (wholesaler) is secured to 
handle the company's line of flour. 

Second: The merchants (retailers) of the city are writ- 
ten to and are informed of the merits of the flour and that it 
can be purchased through the representative named. 

Third : A letter, telling of the merits of the flour, is sent 
to the leading housewives of the city, using the telephone 
directory as a list. 



Fourth : This is followed with a second letter to the grocer 
suggesting that he purchase a supply of this flour and send 
Akin-Erskine Milling Company a list of his customers. 

Fifth: A letter is written to his trade, inclosing a recipe 
book, telling of the merits of the flour and suggesting "he 
purchase of the flour through the grocer. 

Sixth: In addition an advertisement is run in the local 
newspaper during the month of the campaign. 

Letter to housewife. — The following is a copy of the 
letter sent to the housewife : 

Dear Madam: 

Your grocer has suggested that we write you telling of the 
merits of Beacon Self-Rising Flour. 

Good results will be obtained when you use Beacon Self- 
Rising Flour for your baking. 

It is milled of the finest soft winter wheat with Self-Rising 
ingredients added. There is no guess work about Beacon 
Self-Rising Flour. It will make the finest biscuits you have 
ever eaten. 
How TO make good biscuits — 

Use Beacon Self-Rising Flour. Add good white 
shortening. Make a soft dough with sweet milk or water 
and bake in a hot oven. It is not necessary to use salt, 
soda, or baking powder. 

Beacon Self-Rising Flour is guaranteed to be absolutely 
pure. Our flour is being sold by your grocer. Insist on 
Beacon flour. Do not accept inferior in place of the best. 
Order a sack to-day from your grocer. Be convinced and 
use the best — Beacon Self -Rising Flour. 

Your grocer can supply you with Beacon Self-Rising 
Flour. Order a sack to-day for your next baking of bis- 

Letter to grocers. — The following goes to grocers: 



There is a difference in flour. The quality of the flour 
depends upon the quality of wheat used and the milling 

We have an up-to-date mill located in Southern Indiana 


with a capacity of 2500 barrels daily. Our flour is milled 
of the finest quality of soft winter wheat and our milling 
process is modern. 

Our Beacon Self-Rising Flour is guaranteed to give satis- 
faction and is superior to most Self -Rising flours on the 

Our RoxANE high-grade 40 per cent patent is the finest 
flour for bread and cakes. 

The inclosed receipt-book contains four excellant cake rec- 
ipes, a bread and a biscuit recipe. You can guarantee our 
flour to your trade and if it does not give satisfaction the 
mill will stand behind it. 

The Company are 

our representatives in your territory. We suggest that you 
give their salesman a trial order for Beacon Self- Rising 

Sell your trade a flour that is guaranteed. You will have 
no trouble with Beacon Self -Rising Flour. 

This short letter goes to the jobber (wholesaler) : 

Inclosed find copy of a letter we are sending to the grocer 
which covers a list of about 500 names. Suggest that you 
can assist them in pushing the sale. It will be beneficial and 
secure business for you. We will cooperate with you in 
every way in helping you to put Beacon Self -Rising Flour 
on the market and appreciate the business you are giving us. 

We are booking a car for you through our broker and will 
appreciate instructions and specifications as soon as possible. 

''Experts'' who have looked over these letters have crit- 
icized them. The milling company has been in business 
since 1897 and Mr. Hahn says of this plan: "It has in- 
creased our flour business from four ears annually to four- 
teen at every place the campaign has been conducted." 
This is evidence of how comparatively small efforts reap big 
results when properly planned. See Section 50 for de- 
scription of an elaborate plan of this same nature. 

421. Typical Campaigns for Benefit of Distributors. — 
Hart, Schaffner & Marx, Chicago, stand in the forefront of 
conducting campaigns of direct advertising for distributors, 
who, in the case of that company, are retailers. 



E. G. Weir of the Beckwith Company, Dowagiac, Michi- 
gan, told the author some time ago: "A particularly 
profitable field for direct advertising is to circularize satis- 
fied users, the names of which are supplied by the dealer, 
requesting them to send in names of friends or others who, 
they believe, would be in the market for a high-grade heat- 
ing system. From this source thousands of prospects are 
secured annually. In the majority of cases the satisfied 
users gladly give consent to the use of their names in recom- 
mending the heating system to the list they supply, all of 
which adds to the value of the follow-up." 

Not long ago the manager of the advertising division of 
the United States Cartridge Company went on record as 
follows: ** Nearly all of the 25 per cent of our total ap- 
propriation which goes into direct advertising is local cir- 
cularizing sent out over the dealer's signature." 

Direct Advertising, Vol. IV, No. 1, tells the story of the 
Stetson Shoe Company's campaign to between 250,000 and 
300,000 users for the benefit of the company's dealers. In 
speaking of results the official quoted gives this typical ease : 

"In the city of we have a mailing list of 

2861 Active names, 2735 Prospective, and 553 Inactive. 

Our record for the past season stands : 

Transferred from Prospective to Active 412 

Transferred from Inactive to Active 109 

New Customers 225 

Fig. 132 illustrates a special colored letterhead prepared 
by the O'Brien Varnish Company for use by its dealers. 
That company takes care of the printing, mailing, etc., 
for the dealer, a plan that is followed by many other manu- 
facturers. E. S. Dickens, sales and advertising manager, 
says : *' I find that our illustrated letterheads and the inclo- 
sures which go with them have produced many actual or- 
ders for dealers." Fig. 127 represents a simpler form of 
letterhead, note-head size in this case, prepared by Carter 
Lead for its dealers. Note how very inconspicuously ap- 
pears the name of Carter. These letterheads are imprinted 


(in effect) at the top; ''J. Harvey Beckwith, Painting, 
Decorating, and Paperhanging, Washington, D. C," being 
imprinted in the one illustrated. 

The trouble with the wholesaler and retailer using, the 
manufacturer's advertising, usually, is lack of continuity. 
To overcome this, several manufacturers, notably the H. 
Black Company, Cleveland, Art Metal Construction Com- 
pany, Jamestown, New York, and others publish a house 


THIS ttMom voy cm bwy ib* 
•M> bpkt f,ur« f>«>nl t'^ motl4 
ka«»« bo* In »•■(. 4\ xt,* !•*. 
•« c(Mt ytt f AlJua ■.•>! prr jru of 
•irvKc rcD4cre4 TbjiuaoaM^y. 

N» p\U*t or mhttet l*m6 ib«ii Carter 
lMaV«>t na4r mot yti wor «>liHb 
C«*t» ••■ atuth writ* H 
•■d ftf liM«^ Ml « r'iMM <■*• 
mt* aur c«lor or • mAuk «b(i« 

Ortar uiliBMrrf o>l m ihc htnilt 
•I Ml «ipcn«fKi!(l |>4>»"f naktt 

pUBI-BC A p>od (f>.fvl»«al. Ii 

» tbc htm piint th*i nancy cat 
hnj and («•!• no mnrv ifasB 
lh< ki»J lk«l crsrLt 3oJ Mdlc*. 


Painiing. Decorating 
J&T Paperhanging 


Pmt tin 

Uil TMr iwopit fitnUt ft layrvTC tff^r- 
ttncfl*. A cood rca.on, but th«r« la a battar ona 
toiUf To aa.a nata la tka upparMat IMacht nam. 
•a can afford laaat of all to waala Iiatar. II allt 
navar b« chcapar Tour bouaa la worth aora today 
tuan It coat bacauaa II couldn't ba built a«alB for 
tha aaaa aaxunt. Ton aouU par aora far aarpantara 
■fid >11 labor. 

luabcr tntuf rtclantir prolaotad br paint 
aoala up aolatura. A nt houaa la a cold bouaa aM 
•ban crack, an: nail holaa opan up for aanl of palBI 
tha atnd (eta in. lorat of all aat liabar dacara. 
rira al(ht po.aiblr daatroj four houaa but dacaj car. 
lainlf aill. Palntin( aarat aora than It aoala by« tba luabar. lou (at tha daaaratlaa, aaal. 
tarj *alua for nothii^. 

, ^ . ''°' '"°'* '* '* y^'"—*- ">•« only pur* paint 
•Had to fit tha naada of your bouaa, by an atparl- 
ancad painter, froa atrlctly pura ahlta laad ana 
llnaaad oil. aui (in tha loi« aamoa you tera a 
ri(M to aip'^t, 

lat for our aatlaata for paint lix your pro*, 
arty In tha baat aannar aith Cartar laad and para 
llaaaad oil. It aiu ba tha loaaal pcaalbla for tka 
anlj tlB* or a paint in* job you can aTfor* ta t^. 

Taart tralf , 

Fig. 127. — A specimen of direct advertising planned for the re- 
tailer. See text for details. 

organ, or house magazine, which to all appearances is pub- 
lished by the retailer. The company in each case takes care 
of editing, publishing, and mailing, thus assuring contin- 
uity of appeal. 

422a Charging the Distributors for Part of the Cost.— 
The house organs referred to in the last paragraph of Sec- 
tion 421 bring up the subject of charging the dealer, or 
other distributor, with part of the cost of the campaign. 
In both instances mentioned the dealer pays some of the 
cost of publishing the magazines in addition to paying the 

■ m 


E. G. Weir of the Beekwith Company, Dowagiac, Michi- 
gan, told the author some time ago: *'A particularly 
profitable field for direct advertising is to circularize satis- 
fied users, the names of which are supplied by the dealer, 
requesting them to send in names of friends or others w]io| 
they believe, would be in the market for a high-grade heat- 
ing system. From this source thousands of prospects are 
secured annually. In the majority of cases the satisfied 
users gladly give consent to the use of their names in recom- 
mending the heating system to the list they supply, all of 
which adds to the value of the follow-up." 

Not long ago the manager of the advertising division of 
the United States Cartridge Company went on record as 
follows: ''Nearly all of the 25 per cent of our total ap- 
propriation which goes into direct advertising is local cir- 
cularizing sent out over the dealer's signature." 

Direct Advertising, Vol. IV, No. 1, tells the story of tlie 
Stetson Shoe Company's campaign to between 250,000 and 
300,000 users for the benefit of the company's dealers. In 
speaking of results the official quoted gives this typical cas(? : 

''In the city of we have a mailing list of 

2861 Active names, 2735 Prospective, and 553 Inactive. 
Our record for the past season stands : 

Transferred from Prospective to Active 412 

Transferred from Inactive to Active 109 

New Customers 2*^5 

Fig. 132 illustrates a special colored letterhead prepared 
by the O'Brien Varnish Company for use by its dealeni. 
That company takes care of the printing, mailing, etc, 
for the dealer, a plan that is followed by many other manu- 
facturers. E. S. Dickens, sales and advertising manager, 
says : "I find that our illustrated letterheads and the inclo- 
sures which go with them have produced many actual or- 
ders for dealers." Fig. 127 represents a simpler form of 
letterhead, note-head size in this case, prepared by Carter 
Lead for its dealers. Note how very inconspicuouslv ap- 
pears the name of Carter. These letterheads are imprinted 



(in effect) at the top; "J. Harvey Beekwith, Painting, 
Decorating, and Paperhanging, Washington, D. C," being 
imprinted in the one illustrated. 

The trouble with the wholesaler and retailer using, the 
manufacturer's advertising, usually, is lack of continuity. 
To overcome this, several manufacturers, notably the H. 
Black Company, Cleveland, Art Metal Construction Com- 
pany, Jamestown, New York, and others publish a house 


THIS •eatoa tow tvn hvj %h» 
•*r» Uu ^Mr« (i«ini i!« .arid 
kae«« bo* to •.,(. t\ tbc \vm~ 
«M c<Mi ^r j:«llua a.Nj fM-r yru af 

No pur*f or »hilrr Ivad tban Canrv 
bMW*M nsdr Aor ,ri vor tolutb 
«o-«r« •" siwch •ur(«c« Vtik M 
•nd pure liiiM^ wl « f>*ia4M c«a 
«<■ aur color M ■ %4uMi -biM 
paiBl for row 

Carter aa4 HoMrrf oil >n ih« hipub 
•f Ml fi^nrncird pa>«(^f ioAm 

fBitUiM • cood intrHMcal. It 

M iW beat piinl that rooney coi 
buy and loata no mnrv tha« 
Ibf k^oJ Ibal cracLi aoJ acalca. 


Painiing. Decorating 

a Paperiiandtng 

•mt Itri 

Uit rmr pMpla fiin««4 t* iiprtr* (^pMi^ 
»nCM. A (oo4 r.a.on, but th«r« u • b«tt«r on* 
tixUf. To ••>• w>.l. I. tha upparaoat tnoafM n<». 
•• can atford laaat of all to w4«ta Itatwr It •III 
navar b* chaapar Tour houaa la worth aor* todaj 
tdan It coal b»ttamt It couUn'l ba built ataln for 
'!! •'T* ••"««. »oa KuU r«7 Bar* far e«rpaot>r« 
•nd all labor. 

liabtr Iiuufrtcl«ntl7 prot»ota« by taint 
•oata up nolatura. < m houaa la a coU kouaa u« 
»tian er.cka ai«: nail holaa opan up for nnt of paint 
tha alrkl (ata in. lorat of all nt luabar daeafa. 
rira BKht poaaibl; daatrof jour houaa but dacaf oar. 
tainlf am. palntinf a»oa aor* than It ooata br 
praa.r.inj tha luabar. Io« (at tha daosratlaa, nal. 
thrjr valua for nothlnf. 

Tou tnoa. It la praauaad, that onir pura paint 
■Had to fit tha naada of your houaa, by an aipart. 
anc«l palnlar, froa etrlctly pura ahlta load an* 
llnaaad ou . .Ill (l„ ,h, |„^ aarrUa TM bar* a 
rifBt to aip^t. 

U\ for our aatliala for palntlnc four pr«». 
•rty In tha baat aannar aith Cartar Uad and pur. 
linaaad on. It win ba tha loaaat poaalbl. for tka 
anl7 kind of a paintin* job you oan affor* to baj. 

Tmra tralf , 

Fig. 127. — A specimen of direct advertising planned for the re- 
tailer. See text for details. 

organ, or house magazine, which to all appearances is pub- 
lished by the retailer. The company in each case takes care 
of editing, publishing, and mailing, thus assuring contin- 
uity of appeal. 

422a Charging the Distributors for Part of the Cost.— 
The house organs referred to in the last paragraph of Sec- 
tion 421 bring up the subject of charging the dealer, or 
other distributor, with part of the cost of the campaign. 
In both instances mentioned the dealer pays some of the 
cost of publishing the magazines in addition to paying the 



total expense of the postage. In fact, except where it is 
hard to get dealers, the practice, as a rule, is to charge the 
dealer with the cost of postage. This is eminently fair, for 
the dealer frequently has a much larger percentage of 
profit in the proposition than the manufacturer. More than 
that, his paying something is an assurance that the dealer 
is furnishing worth-while mailing lists. 

Printers* Ink, in its issue of January 3, 1918, comment- 
ing upon this practice and describing the campaign of tlie 
Cadillac Garment Manufacturing Company, said: ''Re- 
tailers are ready and willing to meet the manufacturer 
halfway on any proposition that will make sales." 

In order to do this, however, the following principle 
must be adhered to at all times: The advertising matter 
prepared must he a real service to the retailer; it must 
serve his interests first and the manufacturer's secondly. It 
must also appear as if put out hy the retailer (or whole- 
saler) or it will not have the consumer-value it should have. 

423. Additional References on Selling Goods for 
Wholesaler and Retailer.— Conditions of trade, trade cus- 
toms, methods of getting lists, and innumerable other phas?s 
enter into the problem of selling goods for wholesalers and 
retailers and we have had to lay down only general priii- 
ciples in this chapter. Selling $1000 worth of pens for a 
dealer is probably a much more effective job than selling 
$10,000 worth of high-priced motor trucks, for example. 
Therefore the following additional references are only a 
few of many, as the selections have been confined to those 
representing principles : 

Printers' Ink, April 24, 1913. Complete details of "coopera- 
tive" advertising with dealers of the Favorite Stove & Range 
Company, Piqua, Ohio. 

Printers' Ink, October 9, 1919, page 154. How the Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Company handles a consumer-letter service for 

Mailhag, February, 1918, page 273. How, at a cost of $341, 
a small manufacturer got $3700 worth of dealer newspaper ad- 
vertising, proving the efficacy of direct advertising in reaching 


Postage, June, 1917, page 262. An address of R. M. Nicholson 
of the Berger Manufacturing Company, before the St. Louis 
Direct Mail Department. How advertising of the manufacturer 
to the consumer stimulated the sales of the dealer. 

Printers' Ink, September 16, 1920. Charles M. Lemperly, ad- 
vertising manager Sherwin-Williams Company, writes with ref- 
erence to that company's tie-up with the dealer. 

Sales Manager Monthly, January, 1921, page 215. Complete 
details describing how the Sherwin-Williams Company build up 
dealers' sales by cultivating the dealers' prospects. 



i il 





424. The Function of the Wholesaler Largely One of 
Distribution. — The function of the wholesaler, as a rule, 
is that of distributing the products of manufacturer's. 
Many of them do little or no advertising themselves. Now 
and then they distribute the advertising matter of the man- 
ufacturer, but it is only occasionally that they rise and 
advertise on their own account. 

There are exceptions, of course, outstanding exceptions. 
Butler Brothers do their national business entirely by mail. 
Forty years ago this firm started in one of Boston's back 
streets as a dealer in small specialties. Some one in the 
firm conceived the idea of wholesaling by mail — one of the 
biggest achievements ever accomplished by direct advertis- 
ing — and to-day, with a catalogue called "Our Drummer," 
Butler Brothers have over 200,000 retailers as their cus- 
tomers and carry on one of the largest wholesale businesses 
in the world. Butler Brothers have always served their 
retailers and have done everything that direct advertising 
could do to make their retailers better merchandisers of 
goods at retail. Stone-Ordean-Wells Company, Duluth, 
Minnesota, for years published Ginger, a house organ that 
stood in the forefront of publications of that class through- 
out the world. 

Some two years ago the author attended an enthusiastic 
meeting of wholesalers in Minneapolis, at which they 
pledged themselves to help the retailers (their outlet) in 
their fight against the mail-order houses. This action was 
taken because the latter are admittedly making inroads on 
the community development idea by driving out the cross- 
roads store. 


After all is said and done, service is the acid-test in every 
industry. Every one coming between the cow and the fin- 
ished pair of shoes, for example, must render some service 
or the basic laws of economics will take care of the case 
eventually by eliminating the one who does not serve. 

In this chapter, therefore, we shall not devote a large 
amount of space to the wholesaler's use of direct advertis- 
ing because few wholesalers are using that form to any 




•ILK MO«e 

John Doe &Ca 













CUMtMtci OP NM t *rr« ctarHitm 




eeilL- ANNIMC fr*OUKt SALM. 













Fig. 128. — One progressive wholesaler devoted 
the fore part of his catalogue to outlining help- 
ful suggestions like this. They were aimed to 
sell goods for the retailers. See text for de- 

large extent, except in one particular — catalogues, 
of them issue catalogues, which are often paid for in part 
by the manufacturer, although this is not always the case. 
425. How One Wholesaler Uses Direct Advertising to 
Help Retailers.— The firm of Finch, Van Slyck & McCon- 
ville, St. Paul, is one of the country's leading exponents of 

! ^J 



the use of direct advertising by wholesalers, and Fig. 128 
reproduces a suggested layout which that company incor- 
porated in its catalogue for the use of its retailers. Print- 
ers' Ink, June 12, 1919, in telling of this condensed course 
in advertising, of which the layout is merely a very saall 
part, remarked: *'And the unusual thing about this ser- 
vice is that it forms an integral part of the merchandising 
catalogue — right up in front with diagrams, layouts, sug- 
gested sales headings and copy hints, where they can be re- 
ferred to frequently without the danger of a separate ad- 
vertising manual going astray. ' ' 

This book tells all about copy, layout, amount of appro- 
priation, sales ideas, illustrations, etc. 

426. One Wholesaler Uses Monthly Catalogue to Speed 
Up Sales. — In Nashville, Tennessee, is a firm of whole- 
salers which has found the publication of a monthly cata- 
logue an excellent method of speeding up sales to its re- 
tailers. The firm is Gray & Dudley Company. The 
monthly catalogue in 1917, when Printers' Ink described 
it, contained about 250 pages, size 9 x 12 inches. The Gray 
& Dudley Company difl'ers from Butler Brothers, referred 
to in Section 424, in that it has salesmen who call on the 
trade and its catalogue is merely a means of backing up 
the firm's personal travelers. For further details, j;ee 
Printers' Ink, June 28, 1917, page 17. 

427. Wholesalers Can Also Help to Increase Con- 
sumer Demand. — Harold Halzell, advertising manager of 
the Williamson-Halzell-Frazier Company, wholesale gro- 
cers, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in discussing in Mailhag 
for October, 1917, the results of several of that company- 's 
direct-advertising campaigns — and his firm is one of the 
outstanding ones on the list of advertising wholesalers- 
made this significant remark: "Direct advertising will 
help the wholesaler to increase consumer demand for his 
brands. If he sells one dealer out of four in a town, he can 
spend his efforts building sales for his solitary friend and 
not squander it in general advertising trusting that he will 
persuade or even force, the other three dealers into line." 


428. Three Types of Retailers to be Considered. — In 

the remaining pages of this chapter we shall consider three 
types of retailers: (1) department stores, (2) individual 
retail stores, and (3) personal businesses, such as life-insur- 
ance agents who are virtually retailing the product of a 

J. W. Fisk, a specialist in retail selling, referred to all of 
these classes when, in System, he said : * * Most retail mer- 
chants take it for granted that their trade is limited to the 
business that is done over the counter with local patrons. 
As a matter of fact, it is entirely practicable for the retailer 
to extend his markets by drawing trade through the mails. ' ' 

428A. Typical Department-store Direct-advertising 
Campaigns. — Fig. 4 B illustrates the actual division of the 
advertising appropriation of the J. L. Hudson Company, 
Detroit, Michigan. Its sales manager, J. B. Mills, speaking 
at the Cleveland convention of the Direct Mail Advertising 
Association, told of one dress sale — ^the biggest Detroit had 
ever seen — wherein newspaper advertising, window display, 
and 8000 personal letters to the out-of-town prospects made 
the first day's total $31,100, and, said Mr. Mills, ''we know 
that direct mail aided materially in getting those figures. ' ' 

The company's gain for the year, he said, would be the 
largest in the country, in all likelihood, and added : "I 
want to state most emphatically that a goodly proportion 
of the gain has been made through direct advertising." 

Printers' Ink, August 12, 1915, makes this statement: 
"Lord & Taylor, of New York, are extensive users of direct 
advertising. During a year they issue an almost unbeliev- 
able number of booklets, folders, catalogues, etc. These are 
sent out with statements or individually to a mailing list 
of selected names." The same publication in its issue of 
March 30, 1916, gives the results of interviewing thirty 
leading department stores on the subject of their mail- 
order activities, which, of course, are embraced within di- 
rect advertising. 

Few stores, however, have as full-rounded a campaign as 
that conducted by Hudson in Detroit. Letters, folders, 



booklets, inclosures, house organs, and many other forms 
are used in a thorough campaign coordinated with news- 
paper and display campaigns. A few stores refuse to dis- 
tribute manufacturers' advertising material, preferring to 
push sales on their own private brands. 

429. Hov^ Retailers Use Direct Advertising. — Perhaps 
the retailer most written up in America, if not in the 
world, is the firm of Garver Brothers of Strassburg, Ohio. 
There are two outstanding reasons for the success of that 
company — a fixed advertising appropriation, and the main- 
tenance of a mailing list to which direct advertising is sent 
regularly. The advertising appropriation is 3i^ per cent 
of the gross sales. 

George C. Frolich of the United Drug Company, in the 
issue of Postage for January, 1916, made this statement: 
' * It is not only possible to get a large return from the money 
you invest in this class of advertising, but it is relatively 
easy to do so, and direct advertising is both inexpensive 
and peculiarly adapted to the * small storekeeper' who is 
endeavoring to build a business on the foundation of 'per- 
sonality.' " 

We wish space permitted the reproduction of Mr. Fro- 
lich 's article in its entirety as it is on the subject of re- 
tailers' use of direct advertising, -and the results he has 
secured are decidedly worth mentioning : A letter to boys, 
which cost $18, brought $70 net profit. Forty-seven doiien 
toothbrushes sold with one letter to 337 near-by prospects. 
''I merely talked 'a six months' supply,' " said Mr. Frolich. 
He also sold 27 trunks overnight to 127 prospects. In ad- 
dition, in one month, he doubled a South Boston store's 
candy business. This was done by letters. 

He cites this as an example of a simple, timely — almost 
homely — appeal that even a corner grocer can make to in- 
crease business: 

Good Morning, Mrs. Smith: 

The five tubs of butter I have just unpacked are the finest 
I have received this year. They came directly from a Ver- 
mont Dairy situated in the green grass pasture region. 


The people who operate this dairy from which I received 
this shipment make only a limited amount of butter for a few 
particular people and I am fortunate in. being able to handle 

this line. , /? n ' 

I can only receive five tubs every week and only a few ot 
our select customers can be served with this special butter. 

Shall I put vour name down for four or five pounds to 
be delivered each Wednesday? The price is the same exactly 

as that, charged for my other good butter cents a pound. 

Oh, yes, I'll send you any quantity you wish, from day to day. 

The inclosed ready-addressed, ready-signed and stamped 
cai:d lacks only your statement of how much you want and 
the time of delivery. 

You can terminate this service any time you wish. 


For good grocery service 

say "No. 413" in your 

telephone. . 

Mr. Frolich further says: ''Just think of the ducks, 
chickens, and lamb your butcher could sell for Sunday 
dinners by similar letters ! ' ' 

Fi^ 129 illustrates how Wallach Brothers, New York 
agents for Hart, Schaffner & Marx, follow up old customers 
whom they have not seen for some time. As nearly as the 
writer can recall, that is the first piece of direct advertising 
of this nature ever received from a dealer. Were we now lo- 
cated in New York this letter would probably have brought 
us back once more into the fold of Wallach 's customers. 

Julian Wetzel, in Postage for June, 1916, page 9, relates 
the story of how A. G. Lester, of Indianapolis, Indiana, by 
a series of postal cards to a list of 4000 names, brought m 
a total business of several thousand dollars. For May, 1916, 
for example, with three cards and one folder, the business 
was $3,000 larger than for May, 1915, while June, 1915 
showed an increase of 65 per cent over the business of 
June, 1914. These simple appeals were always made on 
government postal card stock, at a cost (formerly) of print- 
ing in one color from $5 to $10, two colors from $8 to $15, 
and mailing at an average cost of about '*^"'' 



In commenting on this campaign, Mr. Wetzel sized up 

the effectivenessr of every retailer's campaign when he said: 

** There is nothing startling about it. and nothing strange, 

'except its persistence and continuity/." [The italics ai-e 

Julian 's, not the writer 's. ] 

Wallach Bros. 


New York Oo«. utk, i9ao. 

■r. X. t. S«rt«7, 
IS Bed* St., 
nafaont, 1. T. 

Smt Str«a|«ri> 

V* have not had th* plauura of SMlac y<m 
for qulto soiM tia*. Caa asrthlag bo orongt 

If to. voa't yott ploaao toll ai, ao that 
vo oaa right it. Nothlag horto uo aoro than for a Otti> 
toaor to bo Aiosatlitloa and koop it to hluolf. 

Oftra. bewoTOr, «nr frloada (top coaiag la 
for • vhilo )uat booauto tMj "dea't got arouad to it." 

Zf this ia yotir caio, hor* it a vory (ood 
raaioa vhy you ahoold got around oltbout fail. 

• MOAOWAV CO*. t»Tii ST 
S»» Ave CO«l I22M0 ST. 


To eolobrat* o«ir 99rd BirtMaj* to hav* 



Aaothor ttao aad aador dlfforoat elreta» 
•taaeoa ^ alght f Itlj quote th* tavlago la dolUra aad 
eaatoi for th*x aro vorjr oortb vhllo. 

Bat thla 1> Birthday Tlao. Tial(0 our vord 
far t«. Ihla ia a roal Colobratioa Talao. 

Vory TmJLy Toora* 

IkklUob Brea«» 



Fig. 129.— How a prominent New York retailer follows up cus- 
tomers to find out why they do not call again. Note the salutation 


430. Additional References to Retailers Using Direct 
Advertising. — The following are notable reports on the 
effective use of retailer's direct advertising: 

Mailbag, November, 1919, page 196. Ho\^ retailers can bring 
back neglected profits. Illustrated. 

Mailbag, July, 1920, page 115. Maxwell Droke tells a fact- 
story about how a Grand Junction (Colorado) outing shop gets 
business by mail. The business has grown in eight years from 
$8000 annually to over $50,000 annually. Illustrated. 

Mailbag, September, 1920. John M. Palmer describes the man- 
ner in which retailers may use good art work by buying syndicated 
appeals. Gives facts. One case brought $2800 worth of business 
at a $78 expense, for example. Illustrated. 

Postage, September, 1916, page 182. Sherley Hunter relates 
the complete story of the famous Jevne campaigns. Fully il- 

Postage, July, 1918, page 6. William J. Betting writes on 
"Direct Advertising for Retailers." 

Business, April, 1920, page 14, shows how, by mail, a country 
store draws trade for fifty miles. Illustrated. 

Business, October, 1920, page 13. How a Kansas retailer gets 
customers by personal letters. 

Sloan and Mooney, in their new book, "Advertising a 
Technical Product," make this statement with reference 
to planning a campaign for the dealer in machinery, mill 
supplies, heavy hardware, and power-transmission equip- 
ment: "Direct mail is the most dependable form of ad- 
vertising for the dealer. " 

Other retailers' experiences will be found in Sections 
463 to 465, inclusive ; and 475 and 476. 

431. Helping to Sell Life Insurance by Direct Adver- 
tising.— Most of us detest insurance solicitors, and yet we 
should not. They do us a service and perhaps save our 
wives and kiddies from want. The shrewd sellers of in- 
surance pave the way for their call by direct-advertising 

The usual plan is to have a series of letters, by the first 
one or two of which insurance is sold in general terms. 


and with the third or fourth letters the prospect is sold 
the form of insurance which is offered. 

Elsewhere reference was made to the splendid di- 
rect advertising of the Imperial Life Assurance Company 
of Canada. From a direct-advertising viewpoint, much 
cannot be said for the American companies, with the ex- 
ception of the house organ of the Metropolitan Company 
with a circulation of 5,000,000. With American insurance 
companies the good direct advertising is done mostly by the 
agents themselves. 

These opening sentences from a series of four effective 
letters reproduced in Mailbag for May, 1917, will indicate 
the trend : 

1. A man of — years in good health is supposed to have a 
fair chance to live — years, or until he is — years of age. 

2. "Yes," you may say, "I know life is uncertain, but I am 
willing to take the risk. This life insurance is all right, but 
I prefer to invest my money in something else, or put it in 
the bank." 

3. A short time ago this company received notice of the 
death of one of its policyholders, etc. 

4. Suppose the president of the strongest and most reliable 
bank you know invites you into his office, places before you 
$1,000 in gold and says to you, etc. 

William S. Hull, in Postage for November, 1916, has a 
large number of sample letters and gives some interesting 
results, such as ''4 per cent inquiries from the first letter. 
Five policies sold to each 1000 names, etc. ' ' 

Leon A. Soper, manager sales service. Phoenix Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, in telling at Detroit, in October, 
1920, how sales cooperation on the direct-mail plan produced 
$8,000,000 sales in one year, laid down these fundamental 
principles : 

''First of all, we are not afraid to invest liberally in the 
best paper that can be bought. 

''Secondly, we always pay the postage on the reply card. 

"Thirdly, our letter and message are tuned as correctly 
as possible to suit the person on the receiving end. 



"Fourthly, the opportunity for generating good will 
through the advertising novelty is not lost sight of in our 

Mr. Soper explained that the company ^s returns varied 
from 10 to 18 per cent. 







432. Banks the Victims of Many Questionable Ad\^er- 
tising Schemes. — It is easy to get a list of all the banks of 
the United States and Canada, with names of all tlieir 
officers, their capital stock, surplus, etc. All that is neces- 
sary is to turn to the mercantile directories and copy the in- 
formation. • 

For this reason, banks are nationally '* pestered to 
death," as one cashier told the author, with schemes of all 
kinds for advertising the bank's service — for practically 
all banks are conducted on similar principles. What one 
bank has to offer, aside from the personal treatment of the 
bank's employees and officers, is almost identical with what 
every other bank offers. Thus by taking a list of banks 
and endeavoring to sell them, a ''syndicate" appeal be- 
comes simple. 

Next, from a strictly local standpoint, banks are pes- 
tiferously solicited to take an advertisement in the First 
Church program, or the baseball score card, or some similar 
medium, the advertising value of which is, to say the least, 

The following paragraphs, from Chapter XII of ** Effec- 
tive House Organs," which was written by the author of 
this book, show how banks can produce results by direct 
advertising with a limited cost: 

" 'When the writer came to this bank on September 1, 
1913, it had been organized twenty-two months and had 
individual deposits of $7,000 with 297 depositors,' wrote 
the cashier of a small-town bank located in the lower part 
of California. 



''On March 29, 1917, the same man reported : 'We have 
now approximately 1200 deposits and individual deposits 
ranging from $220,000 to $225,000. The increase has been 
due to the publicity cjiven through the house organ and the 
cordial manner of meeting, the public by those connected 
with the bank, and the best possible treatment of depositors 
and the public at large. ' 

''The house organ referred to was a very simple 6x9 
four-page book. The expense was nominal — ^the results 
were almost phenomenal." 

433. Bank Campaigns Often Lack Continuity. — The 
example cited in Section 432 proves a point that is an 
especially weak link in the chain of publicity of the average 
bank — it proves continuity is stronger than cost. An inex- 
pensive but persistent campaign will overcome an expen- 
sive one planned on a hit-or-miss basis. 

The form of appeal to be recommended for banks is, as 
a rule, the house organ, because of its continuity. There 
are many quite successful bank house organs in this coun- 
try. Though very few of us get enough money to require 
more than one bank for its safekeeping, yet there would be 
comparatively little duplication if every one of the 33,000 
banks issued a house organ. 

Banks have a wonderful message for their depositors and 
should-be depositors. The Liberty loans were sold to 25,- 
000,000, whereas bankers and bond-sellers said 500,000 was 
the limit of bond-buyers in America. 

Yet, now that the war is over, many of the 25,000,000 
know little or nothing about bond-buying because no one 
has made an effort to educate them. 

Bank campaigns must not only be continuous but they 
must create confidence. The appeals must be dignified, as 
a rule, and appear on impressive paper; moreover, they 
should be written in non-banking language. "Accrued in- 
terest" is near-Greek to the average prospect. 

434. How One Bank Got New Savings Accounts. — 
'Tames W. Carr, manager of service and extension, People's 
State Bank, Indianapolis, in the September issue of Mail- 






hag tells how that institution secured 500 new saving}? ac- 
counts by a direct-advertising campaign. 

A series of three letters was prepared. The first one 
offered an American flag, ''four feet by six/' for those 
opening savings accounts of $1 or more. The offer was 
made just prior to July 4. The recipient was asked if he; did 
not care to take advantage of the offer to hand it to some 
one else — and many did. This went to checking accounts. 

The second letter, which was sent to a list of small bond- 
buyers, repeated the appeal and played up the approacliing 
Fourth of July. 

The third letter was sent to those already using the sav- 
ings department and asked them to tell others about the flag 
offer to new customers. They were asked, also, to ''hand 
the letter" to other prospects. The total list was 2700 
names and the aim was to secure 300 accounts. It wa^; ex- 
pected that a follow-up of the first mailing would be neces- 
sary, but, as Mr. Carr puts it, **we were most agreeably 
surprised. The first three days after our letters were in the 
mails we reached the three hundred mark. We had to put 
on extra 'new account' clerks. We kept people waiting 
in line to open accounts. We decided to set a limit of 500 
accounts by July 4 — four days away. ... At twelve 
o'clock on the day set to end the campaign — our closing 
hour was two — the five-hundredth flag went across the new 
account desk, and before the closing hour another forty per- 
sons had deposited money and had been promised flag de- 
livery later." 

The average initial deposit was close to $40. 

435. How a Trust Company Increased Business 220 
Per Cent by Direct Advertising. — T. H. Yull, advertising 
consultant of the Canada Trust Company, London, Canada, 
before the San Francisco convention of the Associated Ad- 
vertising Clubs told how this was accomplished with a 
campaign composed of three forms of appeal — folders, 
booklets, and letters. He said, in part : "A series of v^ell- 
written, well-printed folders containing a facsimile repro- 
duction of the bond and coupons was prepared. In passing, 


I might say that it has been abundantly proved that the 
main reason for the unusual success of these folders was 
that we showed facsimiles of the bond and coupon." 

436. What the Big Banks and Trust Companies Are 
Doing. — Some startling figures of the magnitude of direct 
advertising on the part of the big New York banks and 
trust companies were quoted by Edward A. Kendrick of 
Redfield-Kendrick-Odell Company, New York, when speak- 
ing before the New Orleans convention of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs. 

The Guaranty Trust Company of New York, for example, 
during the year 1918 distributed 3,843,392 booklets and 
pamphlets — covering 158 different subjects — ^to mailing 
lists comprising about 350,000 names. 

The National City Bank (year September 1, 1918, to Sep- 
tember 1, 1919) issued and distributed free of cost five reg- 
ular publications with a total yearly circulation in excess of 
two millions: (1) The Bulletin, published in English, 
Spanish, and French, circulation more than 1,250,000 a 
year, and issued monthly; {2) The Americas, a monthly il- 
lustrated magazine with 342,000 mailed a year; (3) Foreign 
Trade Record, a mimeographed report issued weekly by 
the Statistical Department; (4) The Blue Sheet, a mimeo- 
graphed weekly report of the Foreign Trade Department ; 
(5) Number Eight, an internal or employees' house organ 

The total number of pieces issued by the National City 
Company during the preceding year (Mr. Kendrick spoke 
in September) was in excess of 2,500,000. 

These publications were in addition to the regular state- 
ments, the bond offerings of the bond-selling department, 
and so on. IVIany of the big New York banks, especially 
the Irving National Bank, have issued valuable bound 
volumes on foreign trade as well as innumerable paper- 
bound books on helpful subjects. 'In this connection see 
Section 444. 

437. Typical Bank Campaigns.— Walt Marsh in Postage 
for May, 1917, page 223, describes an opening-day campaign 


by which the bank ''cashed in" on moving into a new 
building. Letters were sent to prospects and stockholders. 


The CiTir:NATioi5'Ai/ B.A30K 

CATRJiX. # B 00.000.00 

e.raircTTs -< , --,, ,, , 

nOX.YDKB,>lA8«. Iby. 17^ 15 jp^ , 


Aaerloan Writing Pap«r Co., 
Boljota, Mass. 

I)«ar Xr. Rafflsej:- 

.— ♦- V ** ^r® Pi"8«4 to learn that yon 
•ra to baooma a raaident of Holyolce. and trust 
yon will find thia oity attractlre and pleasant la 
arery way aa your peraanant home, 

>..;•<. 1 1 *• *^"° '^"'* *° assure you that a 
•oraial^weleome awaits you at the City ITational 

,:A^ there la any Information regarding local 
oondltlona which you may deelra. If there Is any 
way in which you think our serTloes could be of 
Talne to you, we cordially inrite you to come In 
and see us at your first opportunity. 

1*— 1' - «. ♦ * Trusting you will fsTor us with at 
laast a part of your banking busineas. and antioipatlnjf 
the plaasura of Beating you pereonally. we remain ^ 

Vary truly 



Fig. 130.— How one city bank by a personally written letter adver- 
tises direct to new residents. 

Postage for February, 1919, page 50, carries the story of a 
successful direct-advertising campaign which is described 
by D. McEachem, a prominent Canadian banker. 


H. D. Robbins, of H. D. Robbins & Company, New York 
specialists in bank advertising, in an issue of the Financial 
Advertisers' Association bulletin, made this observation: 
"My experience in financial advertising leads me to rate 
advertising mediums in the following order of value: (1) 
Direct advertising; (2) Newspapers; (3) Magazines; (4) 
Supplementary advertising." 

The following is typical of a simple campaign — a single 
piece (personal letter) sent to each new resident in a city. 
This sample was sent out by a White Plains (New York) 
bank and is culled from the ''Little Schoolmaster's 
Column," of Printers' Ink: 

We understand that you have recently become a resident 
of this city, and we beg to place our banking facilities at 
your disposal. 

Interest is allowed at the rate of 4 per cent per annum on 
accounts opened in our Interest Department. 

Accounts opened in our Commercial Department are sub- 
ject to check at any time. Interest will be allowed at current 
rates on balances when warranted. 

Safe Deposit Box rentals are $4 per year and upward. 

Checks drawn on the Citizens Bank are received in New 
York at par. 

We cordially invite you to open an account with us. 

Fig. 130 illustrates another letter of this type used by a 
Massachusetts bank for the same purpose. In this case it is 
accompanied by an inclosure giving details of bank, its 
assets, officers, etc. Note how much more the letter repro- 
duced offers service than the one quoted. It is hardly likely 
that a new resident is half as anxious about finding a bank 
as he is of learning about ** local conditions." 

438. Getting Banking Accounts by Mail. — In the issue 
of Printers' Ink for August 26, 1920, J. K. Novins relates 
the method by which the Williamsburgh Savings Bank, 
finding its home field usurped through a peculiar set of 
circumstances, advertised for business to be sent by mail, 
with pleasing results. 





439. Must First Know the Market. — It seems almost 
•self-evident, yet at the outset it must be repeated that 
before any foreign trade work can be undertaken the adver- 
tiser must know the market. Paul Sauer, advertising ir an- 
ager Columbian Steel Tank, Company, a naturalized Ameri- 
can, was born abroad and knows foreign trade conditions 
from first-hand study. Before the Direct Mail Advertising 
Convention at Detroit (1920), Mr. Sauer said: ''Stupid- 
ity and shortsightedness — the idea that a man can stick 
pins in a map, appropriate $2000 for the work, and expect 
$1,000,000 in returns are the hurdles that American busi- 
ness men must surmount if they would succeed in export 
trade. " 

Mr. Sauer cited a few examples, such as that of a firm in 
Korea ordering an American manufacturer not to send pins 
in pink paper, and yet the manufacturer, ignoring the re- 
quest, shipped just that color. Pink is the sacred color of 
Koreans and cannot be sold as merchandise. 

Directly applicable to the direct-advertising field is a 
statement recently made in the advertising of the Searian 
Paper Company, which informs us that white is the mourn- 
ing color of China, yet firms continue to use white paper in 
trying to sell goods there. See Section 444 for further 
data on this point. 

Perhaps the simplest thing that is to be learned by those 
going after foreign trade is the proper amount of postage 
to put on mail matter, yet Edwin Sands, assistant superin- 
tendent. Division of Foreign Mails, United States Post 
Office Department, in addressing the Detroit convention 
said; ''Last year there were 1,739,084 insufficiently pre- 


paid letters sent abroad." Upon these the foreign ad- 
dressee had to pay twice the amount short ; that is, if the 
letter was underpaid three cents the foreign addressee 
had to pay six cents to get the letter. 

440. Pictures Important in Reaching Foreign Mar- 
kets. — Much has been written on the subject of how to sell 
the foreign markets, and in our limited space we have room 
only for generally admitted underlying principles. The 
first of these is that pictures have a universal appeal. By 
this we do not suggest that you take your American engrav- 
ings and reproduce them in Africa or South America. As 
one man put it, "No self-respecting Chinese mandarin 
wants to imagine himself as a lanky American lounge-lizard 
wearing American store clothes. Chin Foy Loo, of Shang- 
hai, likes comforts, position, wealth, and convenience just 
as much as John Smith of Hoboken— provided, of course, 
that they are Chinese comforts, position, wealth, and con- 

Use pictures liberally, then, but let them be literally true 
to the needs of the country in which they are to circulate. 

441. Building the Export' Catalogue. — Quite naturally 
the catalogue is the principal piece to be used in going after 
foreign trade. 

Walter F. Wyman, manager of the Export Department, 
the Carter's Ink Company, Boston, who has written much 
on the subject, in Printers' Ink for December 27, 
1917, gave the fundamentals to be followed in preparing an 
export catalogue. He said in part: "While a handsome 
catalogue may be only of passing assistance to the sales- 
man's personal attack, it is usually the attention-arrester, 
the desire-creater, and the action-compeller in mail 
work. . . . 

"Out of the thousands of American manufacturers who 
are directly exporting their products in volumes, large and 
small, there are perhaps two score whose export catalogues 
are salesmen in the highest sense. These 'salesmen' create 
confidence in the firm's ability not only to make goods, but 
also to create a presumption that the firm behind them will 



« « 


be thoroughly desirable in the entire business relation- 
ship. ... 

** 'Make it easy to buy' is the motto which should always 
be before the builder of an export catalogue, ' ' was the con- 
cluding plea of Mr. Wyman, who argues throughout for the 
catalogue as a salesman. 

Mr. Wyman referred to the export catalogues of the fol- 
lowing concerns as being soundly principled : 

Simonds Mfg. Company, Fitchburg, Mass., saws. 
Henry Disston & Sons, Philadelphia, Pa., saws. 
American Crayon Company, Waltham, Mass. 
Waltham Watch Company, Waltham, Mass. 
Miller Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. 

C. C. Martin, advertising manager National Paper & 
Type Company, New York, in an address before the League 
of Advertising Women, New York, gave some further ideas 
on this subject. He emphasized Mr. Wyman 's statement, 
that firms were judged largely by the appearance of the 
catalogue, when he said: *'A handsome catalogue pro- 
duced as it should be and meeting the exacting conditions 
it should meet will at once establish the house in the eyes 
of the foreign buyer.'' 

Mr. Martin believes that prices should be printed in the 
catalogue itself, or an accompanying price list, and should 
be stated in American gold. The exact shipping weight 
of the goods net, the case weight, and the code name, or 
word for a product, should be clearly stated. Discounts 
should be mentioned plainly and the character of the speci- 
fication, such as f.o.b. factory, or steamer, and so on, as well 
as specifications of measurements and dimensions, should be 
given in the metric system. 

Terms of sale, and whether there is an extra charge for 
export packing, should be given in unmistakable terms. 

If your product can be used under varying conditions, 
make this point clear. Some foreign countries are primi- 
tive in their methods. 

This statement from Mr. Martin might also be followed 
advantageously by American direct advertisers: ''No cat- 



alogue should be sent abroad without a letter and the two 
pieces should be mailed so they will arrive simultaneously." 
In America, as well as in some foreign countries, patented 
containers permit the mailing of the letter by first-class 
mail and the catalogue by third-class mail at the same time 
and in one bundle. An examination of the advertising 
pages of any advertising publication will give you the 
names and addresses of manufacturers of these devices. 

Those interested in Mr. Martin's further remarks on the 
subject will find them reported in Printers* Ink, April 24, 
1919, and in Associated Advertising, June, 1919. 

442. Making a Test Campaign. — ''Even a small appro- 
priation like $500 will cover the entire cost of a five-letter 
series with attractive inclosures, the cost of following up 
the inquiries which develop, and modest two-fold, two-color 
price lists in Spanish and English. Based on a careful 
selection of 500 possible buyers, and not including cost of 
credit reports on firms that order (for these come after the 
effort and hence are not part of an 'introductory test'), 
$500 furnishes the means to determine, not whether the line 
is exportable, but whether it can be sold profitably by mail 
endeavor alone," WTites Walter F. Wyman, in World's 

In the same article, he tells of how one Chicago firm, by 
circularizing 1000 prospects, secured 30 trial orders amount- 
ing to less than $1000, but that one of these 30 is now on 
an agency basis carrying a stock of $30,000 and clears an 
annual profit of $10,000. 

Much greater returns will be secured, he adds, as a rule, 
if salesmen are employed to follow up the leads. 

443. Building a Business Entirely by Mail. — Yet it is 
an admitted fact that some of the American mail-order 
houses have built up enormous foreign business entirely by 
mail. Montgomery Ward & Company, Chicago, are espe- 
cially strong in foreign fields. This firm's plans and 
methods will be found written up in the issue of Printers* 
Ink for September 5, 1918, and December 5, 1918. 

Clayton S. Cooper, editorial director W. R. Grace & 




Company, international merchants, in Advertising & Sell- 
ing for January 17, 1920, suggests the house organ as a 
splendid field for extending foreign-trade promotion plans. 
**The medium (house organ) contains the possibility of 
carrying a fund of information which people in foreign 
countries may wish to secure, with particular allusions to 
the ability of the firm to fill orders for these commodities. 
Such publications should be edited with a degree of dignity 
and general effectiveness attending the export correspond- 
ence work. ' ' 

444. Foreign Work in Particular Fields. — China has 
been spoken of as a wonderfully fertile field for American 
foreign-trade work. From Printers' Ink Monthly (Octo- 
ber, 1920) we quote the following Chinese color preferences 
as an aid in developing direct advertising for that country : 

I. Separate colors in order of preference: 1. Gold; 2. Silver; 
3. Red; 4. Yellow; 5. Blue; 6. White; 7. Black. 

II. Colors in combinations; and significance: 
Gold-on-red — especial happiness. 
Gold-on-yellow — imperial. 
Gold-on-white — aristocratic. 
Red-on-white — important notice. 
Red-on-green, or 

Black-on-red — happiness. 

Yellow-on-green — first class. 

White-on-black — historical — used in ancient art. 

Red-on-yellow — royal. 

Red (brilliant) — color for men, male. 

Blue or Green — color for women, female. 

Printers* Ink, August 28, 1913, contains a number of 
suggestions on how to sell in Porto Rico, a near-by export 

Advertising & Selling, during 1920, ran a series of 
articles on exporting to various countries, many of which 
were written by Mr. Cooper, who is referred to in Section 

The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Wash- 
ington, D. C, has published several pamphlets from the pen 

of J. W- Sanger, America's Foreign Trade Ambassador. 
They are available for a few cents each and to date cover 
South America and Cuba. Others are in process. 

The Irving National Bank has issued two cloth-bound 
books, one "Trading with Latin America" and the other 
"Trading with the Far East," which are very helpful. 
The following specific direct-advertising references are 
taken from these two volumes, by special permission of 
Daniel V. Casey, formerly managing editor of System, 
but now connected with the Irving National Bank as 
editor : 

' Latin America: "Advertising matter, of practically every 
kind, is of value. Its use is not confined to newspapers, but 
novelties, signs, electrical displays, etc., — all have a place. 
The particular kind depends exclusively upon the purpose 
for which it is planned. ... As a race the Latin American 
people appreciate souvenirs and do much to obtain them." 

Far East: "Direct advertising offers another and impor- 
tant means of reaching English-speaking prospects in all 
parts of the Far East. Circulars and catalogues can easily 
be adapted for use in the Orient. The language handicap 
does not exist and the problem of correspondence is only a 
little more serious than with the prospect in Arizona or 
Saskatchewan. Not a few American distributors, indeed, 
have found English-speaking residents in the Far East very 
responsive to direct-selling effort directed at their individual 
needs. When they are large-scale buyers for resale or for 
use in the establishments which they control, the task of per- 
suading them is more difficult. In preparing the way, how- 
ever, for the visit of the salesman, direct advertising and 
personal letters can be of great value." 

Dutch East Indies: "Price lists and catalogues are not 
effective in approaching the markets. The merchants prefer 
to do business direct with an agent stationed on the islands, or 
with a visiting salesman." 

Indo-China: "The commercial language is French; that 
commonly used by the natives is Annamese. All corre- 
spondence and descriptive matter shoyld be in French. . . . 
A large percentage of the Annamese are illiterate, and this 
gives to illustrated advertising a special value." 




Japan: "All forms of advertising are effective in Japan. 
. . . Advertising wrappers on the articles sold often bring 
good returns." 

Philippines: "The advertising appeal is much the same 
as in the United States, but advertising matter should be 
prepared with a careful eye to the customs and habits of the 
native purchasers. Some American concerns have their ad- 
vertising prepared in native languages by writers in Manila. 
Illustrated advertising posters may be used to advantage." 

Straits Settlements: "Plenty of printed and illus1;rated 
matter should be sent. This may be supplemented by ju- 
dicious advertising in local newspapers and by the use of 
posters and circulars. Dealers expect the manufactuier to 
bear at least part of the advertising expense." 


Printers' Ink, September 9, 1920, page 33. "Sampling in Ex- 
port Selling," by Walter F. Wyman. 

Mailhag, November, 1920, page 267. "Direct-Mail Advertising 
in Foreign Trade," by Edward E. Hill, Export Manager Gray- 
lawn Farms, Inc., Stock Remedies. 



445. Sampling via Uncle Sam. — In a way, sampling 
would not seem to serve an unusual purpose, but an exam- 
ination of hundreds of campaigns shows that it is not used 
frequently. In Section 191 we referred to the policy of one 
direct-advertising producer on this point. In selling tires 
and tubes, for example, he included a small cross section of 
an inner tube as a " sample. ' ' Other sampling methods we 
have already referred to in Section 261. 

Furniture has been sampled by sending small panels of 
veneer, steel office equipment by sending a small sample 
showing how well the steel was finished with paint and 
varnish. Printers' Ink, August 9, 1917, page 123, tells how 
several firms in the ''hard-to-sample" field, such as Peck 
& Hills Furniture Company, Berkey & Gay Company, Pen- 
rod Walnut & Veneer Company, National Fireproofing 
Company, and others accomplish this purpose. 

Even buildings have in a measure been "sampled" by 
use of photographs. Printers' Ink, January 9, 1919, page 
25, tells how the Turner Construction Company did this. 
Crompton-Richmond Company, New York, has worked out 
a plan of sampling "men's trousers," by attaching a swatch 
of cloth. This campaign and several of the wall-board 
companies' methods of sampling have been described in an 
article by the author published in the issue of Mailhag for 
December, 1920. 

446. Peculiar Businesses Which Have Effectively 
Used Direct Advertising. — ' ' My business is peculiar, ' ' was 
the answer Noah gave to the advertising men- of old while 
he was building the ark — with all due reverence to Biblical 





" 'I 

history. Every business man admits that his business is 
peculiar. . The business of advertising is to take the pecu- 
liarity out of the business and to put familiarity in — not 
the familiarity which breeds contempt — but tlie kind 
which breeds business. 

The following are just a few of the ** peculiar'' busi- 
nesses which hav« used effectively direct adv(jrtising. 
Many more could have been listed, but these will be sug- 
gestive : 

(a) Church of England: What could be more dignified 
than the Church of England? Yet, according to Thomas 
Russell in Printers' Ink for January 23, 1919, this ec- 
clesiastical body used both newspaper advertising and 
form letters to raise $25,000,000. Its letterhead was a 
four-page folder too! The appeal read: 

You cannot be unaware that the Church of Englard will 
do less than its duty if it allows National Reconstruction 
to go on without playing its part, if the million new houses 
required for the resettlement of population after the -war are 
not suppUed with churches, if church schools lag behind other 
schools, if the thousands of clergy lost to the Church by the 
war are not replaced, and if the social work which it ought to 
undertake is neglected. 

You can help to save it from such danger by subscribing 
liberally to the Central- Church Fund — the first fund for 
which the Church, as such, has ever appealed. You caa help 
to make it really eflBcient. You can help to make it, more 
than ever before, the National Church. Relying upon its 
members, it has begun the task, and must not fail. 

By generous subscription to this permanent fund you will 
be promoting the objects named overleaf. No words are 
needed to emphasize their enormous importance to the Na- 
tion as well as to the Church. We appeal most earnestly for 
your support. 

Yours very faithfully, 
W. R. Robertson, General. 

(&) Harvard: Certainly popular opinion places Har- 

vard in the forefront of conservatism, yet the Harvard 
Endowment fund issued a 24-page book, 9 x 12 in size, as 
a part of a campaign to raise a fund of $15,250,000 for 
Harvard, and its managers used for their "list" the 35,000 
living alumni. 

(c) Other Schools: Many other schools, if not all, have 
used some form of direct advertising in securing students, 
and not long ago the Mt. Holyoke College for girls got out 
a ** stunt" appeal to raise money. It was nearly an exact 
duplication of a stock- and bond-selling circular. 

Miss Helen Carter, former president of the Chicago 
Advertising Women's Club, in speaking before the Chi- 
cago Direct Advertising convention, told how she had, by 
a series of letters, produced increased attendance (more 
business) of young men at a Sunday-school class. 

(d) Barbers: Ross D. Breniser in Advertising & 
Selling, May 24, 1919, page 18, recites how several busi- 
nesses utilized the mail-selling idea, the most unusual of 
which was a barber who effectively used direct advertising 
to keep old trade and bring in new. 

(e) Five-and-t en-cent stores: Many of us are prone 
to believe that the five-and-ten-cent store represents the 
lowest limit of service and salesmanship without the neces- 
sity of recourse to advertising. During the current year 
one chain started advertising in a general publication, 
and as far back as 1915 S. S. Kresge Company issued a 
catalogue of 112 pages which was sent to out-of-town cus- 
tomers, according to the Merchants' Trade Journal of 
Topeka, Kansas. 

(V) Circus: Even Ringling Brothers and Barnum & 
Bailey Combined Shows find direct advertising helpful. 
One of their important pieces of promotion literature is 
an advance broadside, 14 x 21 inches in size, consisting of 
8 pages, which is distributed generally. . 

{g) Cremation: Perhaps the most unusual is the use 
of direct advertising to sell the public on the idea of cre- 
mating their dead rather than of adopting the usual form 
of burial. Roy M. Ross told the story of this campaign. 






which was conducted largely through booklets, at the Chi- 
cago Direct Advertising Convention. 

447. Unusual Accomplishments by Direct Advertis- 
ing. — Firms in many different lines, ''peculiar" and 
ordinary, have used direct advertising at times for the 
accomplishment of unusual purposes: 

(a) Selling a state to its inhabitants:. Direct 
Advertising, Vol. VI, No. 4, page 30, tells how the State of 
Maine used direct advertising to sell a $12,000,000 cam- 
paign to farmers within the state. This campaign won 
the decision at the polls. 

(h) Selling a city to the manufacturing public: 
J. M. Davidson, of Winnipeg, Canada, at the New Orleans 
convention of the Associated Advertising Clubs told how 
a series of folders, the first of which was twelve pages, 
printed in two colors, entitled "Winnipeg's Water Works 
— a World's Wonder," was prepared and sent to a list of 
manufacturers. Other folders were devoted to the water- 
power of Winnipeg River, ''Markets Available," ''Trans- 
portation and Sites," and "Living Conditions." 

(c) Selling a city to its school children: C. B. 
McCuaig, in Printers' Ink for September 2, 1920, gives 
the details of how the City of Buffalo was sold to irs school 
children through a series of booklets. 

(d) Selling Texas steers by mail: One of the 
speakers at the San Francisco departmental meeting of 
the Direct Mail Association described a catalogue which 
in eight years had built up an annual business selling 
entirely by mail $100,000 worth of cattle. In this in- 
stance a peculiar method of getting added publicity is em- 
ployed: A copy is sent to every congressman and sen- 
ator at Washington, as well as to Y. M. C. A.'s and sim- 
ilar organizations. 

(e) Selling attendance at a convention: R. L. 
Jenne, in Mailhag for July, 1918, on page 80, tells how 
various conventions have secured a large representative 
attendance by the use of folders, letters, and other direct 
advertising. One result will prove the value: "Out of 

a possible 400 members, the attendance for the previous 
year had been 28. A series of three letters and a folder, 
at a total cost of $158, brought an attendance of 130, and 
by staging a special drive for payment of dues after the 
convention opened, more than $400 was collected and some 
150 tickets were sold for the banquet at a profit of 50 
cents each to the organization." 

(/) Capitalizing a famous stunt: Some years ago 
the National Biscuit Company, always a large user of 
direct advertising, sent a man around the world with a 
box of Uneedas as a "stunt." The trip was purposed to 
prove that despite the many climatic changes the biscuits 
would be as good upon his return as they were when he 
set out. Following his return, the company produced a 
special piece of direct advertising and mailed it out gen- 
erally to capitalize this "stunt." 

(g) Upbuilding an industry: The Earnshaw Knitting 
Company in order to build its business issues an elaborate 
house organ, "The Infant's Department," which aids all 
manufacturers of infants' wear. Details will be found in 
Printers' Ink, May 8, 1919, page 63. 

(h) Finding your customers: Oftentimes a manufac- 
turer does not know who is the final user of his products. 
This was the case with the Black Cat Textiles Company in 
1917. It succeeded in locating: 80 per cent of its customers 
— formerly sold through jobbers — in one campaign of let- 
ters and folders, described by H. M. Appel in Postage for 
May, 1917, page 207. 

That this may be carried a step further and direct ad- 
vertising actually used to find prospects will be found de- 
scribed in Postage for January, 1916, page 57. There were 
seven letters in the series to find who used cotton goods and 
these brought 55 replies, 35 of whom were actual users. 

Of course, as a rule, publication advertising would be 
the better way to locate your prospects. 

(0 Solving labor problems : The Thomes, in Mailhag 
for September, 1920, explain how the Bradley Knitting 
Company of Delevan, Wis., by a 6 x 9, 32-page book printed 





in four colors, sold its city and factory to factory-workers. 
The book was called ''More Than a Living." 

Jerome P. Fleishman, in Advertising & Selling for 
February 21, 1920, explained how the Needle Trades Asso- 
ciation of Baltimore with a booklet helped to sell the idea 
of working in a factory. 

(j)CooPEiLA.TiVE DIRECT ADVERTISING: The latter inci- 
dent cited in the preceding paragraph is one of a (ioopera- 
tive campaign. Another example is the cooperative cam- 
paign of the Metal Lath Manufacturers, written up by the 
author in Mailhag for December, 1918, page 210. 

(k) Reaching students: Many firms, such as the 
Vacuum Oil Company, for example, make special direct 
advertising drives among college students, regardless of 
sex. The names of other users of this form of appeal will 
be found in Printers' Ink for December 30, 1915, j)age 10. 

{I) Selling a play to the public : Earl Carroll, a New 
York playwright and producer, during the Fall of 1920 
produced in New York a play called "The Lady of the 
Lamp.'* It was a meritorious production but the public 
did not respond. Finally, in desperation, Mr. Carroll took 
his last $1000 and inserted an advertisement in the New 
York newspapers. This advertisement was an open letter 
to the public telling them the situation and offering to re- 
fund at the box office, immediately following the perform- 
ance, the full price of the ticket used by any patron who 
was dissatisfied in any way with the play. 

The interesting thing from our viewpoint is that Mr. 
Carroll realized his *'last $1000" splurged in the news- 
paper would not save his play no matter how closely the 
newspapers were read. He, therefore, just before the cur- 
tain rose for the last act, passed to everybody in the house 
a printed postal card, ready to be filled in and signed, rec- 
ommending the play to a friend. Attached to this postal 
card was a tag reading: "Kindly address this card to your 
friends and return it to the usher, who will mail it for 

Two days later in a public announcement Mr. Carroll 

thanked the public for "the fine big audiences these two 
days past," says Printers' Ink for November 11, 1920. 

(m) Doing what salesmen failed to do: Prof. Ed- 
ward Hall Gardner, of the University of Wisconsin, author 
of "Effective Letters," told an interestig story at the 
Detroit Direct Advertising Convention. It is an example 
both of using "treat 'em rough" copy, and accomplishing 
by a letter what salesmen could not do. 

The following letter was sent out by the manufacturer of 
a line of merchandise that had recently been subjected to 
a heavy price decline. Every one in the industry knew 
that the decline was "coming, and as is always the case in 
such instances, some people were more scared than hurt. 
That was why the merchants to whom it was addressed had 
not bought when the salesman called. Up to October, 1920, 
$200,000 worth of business could be credited to this letter: 

Doctors agree that many people died from the "flu" 
simply because they feared until their fear was actually 
transformed into a reality. For the same reason some mer- 
chants will probably be listed on a business casualty hst 
of their own making. There is no logical reason to fear 
business conditions now or any other time. While there are 
circumstances over which we have no control, there are 
many others which we can control. In most cases we can 
make our own circumstances. 

One thing is certain. This is no time nor place for the 
coward in business; the man of courage is wanted; the man 
who has confidence in himself; the man who is ready to go 
forward in the face of obstacles. 

Now is the psychological time to campaign while the other 
fellow hesitates. Reports from all parts of the country show 
that the demand for merchandise is big where merchants go 
after the business in the right way. 

We have some valuable ideas on this subject which we 
would like to talk over with you in person. It would be 
well worth your while to make a trip to Chicago. Let us 
know whether you will be able to come and when. 

(n) Selling by telegraph: Edward E. Sullivan, a 
Haverhill, Mass., footwear manufacturer, sent the following 






iJ ' 


|{ j; 

night letter by telegraph to 250 shoe dealers, at a cost of 
$160, and produced orders for over $15,000 worth of slip- 
pers — selling expense of 1 per cent : 

Carrying in stock ladies' white canvas buckle Colonials 
and Kewpie turn pumps one dollar fifteen leather lined 
heavy edge and one half louis wood heel and spool leather 
also louis wood heel dollar fifty. Do you want ten cas(;s of 
each? Wire your order our expense will ship express. 

Upon another occasion Mr. Sullivan sent out 48 tele- 
graphic appeals at a cost of $21.60 and produced $4,230 
in sales — selling cost of Vo of 1 per cent. 

A milling company sold $37,000 worth of business with 
30 night letters by telegraph. A coal company sold 11 car- 
loads of coal (this was in 1916 when coal was not st^arce) 
with 14 night letters. A publishing house got nearly $800 
worth of business, at a selling cost of three per cent, with 
80 night letters. An olive oil company at a cost of $30 
produced $6000 worth of orders by telegraphic appeals. 
These are just examples to show how in order to get timeli- 
ness in your appeal the telegraph may be the proper method 
of distribution. 

(o) The most unusual use of all : The most unusual 
accomplishment that the writer ever heard of was that of the 
Todd Protectograph Company in 1918, which published the 
complete proceedings of a salesmen's convention v7hich 
WAS NEVER actually HELD. In othcr words, while to all 
intents and appearances the Todd forces were having a 
three-day convention at Rochester, with George, W. Lee, 
sales manager, and Jack W. Speare, advertising manager, 
working like beavers, the first intimation of the mnetmg 
which the salesmen had was when they received a copy of 
the ''proceedings.'' These were complete in every detail — 
EVEN TO THE BANQUET PICTURE. Complete details will be 
found both in Postage for February, 1919, page 39, and 
Mailhag for March, 1919, page 275, as well as in an issue 
of Sales Management about the same time. This was a war- 
time conservation measure that stands out vividly as the 
**most unusual use of direct advertising on record. 





448. Experienced Advertiser Says There Are Only Two 
Methods of Reaching the Farmer.— George B. Sharpe, of 
whom it has been said that no advertising man is better 
posted in ways and means of reaching farmers, now as- 
sistant sales manager Cleveland Tractor Company, formerly 
advertsiing manager De Laval Separator Company, presi- 
dent of the Advertising Club of New York, in addressing 
the Cleveland convention of the Direct Mail Advertising 
Association in 1919 said: *'I am not selling direct adver- 
tising — I am not selling any kind of advertising. I am 
not interested in one sort of advertising above another. 
The only thing I am interested in is in finding what sort 
of salesmanship I can use that will give me the most re- 
sults per dollar I spend, so that I haven't any ax to grind. 
We have two kinds of advertising to reach the farmer — 
the farm paper and direct advertising." 

Specifically talking on the subject of preparing copy for 
the farmer, Mr. Sharpe said: *'In the preparation of 
printed matter for the farmer, keep in mind that the farmer 
does not have an office boy to open his mail and lay it on 
his desk. Visualize if you can how the average farmer 
gets his mail. The R. F. D. man pushes it into the little 
tin box on the side of the road. That's one reason I have 
for years recommended folders not over four inches wide." 

449. The Farmer Field an Enormous Market. — There 
are about seven million farms in the United States and in 
all about 35 per cent of the total population of the country 
is located on farms. The problem, therefore, of reaching 
in excess of 35,000,000 people with an income for 1920 of 
over twenty-one billions of dollars is a big one. 






. ; 1' 

Many experienced merchandisers, while not belittling 
the export field, believe that a great many manufacturers 
with the right campaign can dispose of much of their sur- 
plus in the farm field. 

This taken in connection with the unmistakable 'back- 
to-the-land movement" now going on in the United States 
makes it desirable for direct advertisers to give careful con- 
sideration to the farm field. 

450. How Hart, Schaffner & Marx Appeal to Farmers. 
— The problem of writing copy to appeal to farmers is a 
big one and it is an open question which school has the 
better of the argument. One class of advertisers would 
have you believe that the farmer is still a ''hick" and a 
' ' rube ' ' — the typical ' ' stage ' ' farmer, if you please, with a 
handful of whiskers and a mouthful of "By heck and 
b 'gosh ! ' ' The other class would make you feel (jertain 
that most farming operations are carried on in these days 
by a farmer and his help who are clad in the latest New 
York style dinner suits and hi»h hats. 

There lies before me, for example, a good advertising 
book, one of the best, and there is a direct statement therein 
to the effect that farmers are not swayed by things of 
beauty. Next to it is a honu fide confession of a bona fide 
farmer in which he tells why he bought certain things and 
why he did not buy certain other things. He praises a 
cover design foj one of Friend Sharpe's catalogues, stat- 
ing frankly that he hasn't any idea how it was printed 
but it is a real farm scene. It so happens that it is £l beau- 
tiful piece of offset printing. And in his next sentence 
this farmer says: "We farmers do appreciate beau- 
tiful things." 

It will be interesting, therefore, to read how Hart, 
Schaffner & Marx, makers of men's clothing, famous for 
hitting the right copy appeal for individual classes, appeal 
to the farmer. They have used the following letter ef- 
fectively : 

Dear Sir: 

You want the kind of clothes that don^t cost a barrel of 

money, the kind that wear well and give you a decent appear- 
ance when you are in town or at church, or at the fair. 

We recommend Hart, Schaffner & Marx clothes to you 
because this concern makes suits in dressy worsted cloths at 
$18, $20, $25, and $30 that give you your money's worth. 

You will find here good, warm, sensible overcoats at $16.50. 
We also have shirts, ties, sox, underwear, everything for fall 
and winter. 

You can have your money back if you are not satisfied with 
anything you purchase. We make no extravagant claims. 
We prefer to let the goods speak for themselves. 

This letter, of course, goes out over the signature of the 
local Hart, Schaffner & Marx dealer. 

451. An Effective Single Letter Appeal.— The author 
of this book spent nearly eight years in the farm field and 
therefore feels rather strongly on certain things in connec- 
tion with that field. One thing you cannot do is to "bunk" 
the farmer. You can " kid " New York 's oldest inhabitants, 
those to whom the Hudson River is the end of the world, 
westward. You can write your "personal" letters to the 
city man and he believes them, but the farmer takes all 
that you say with a grain of salt. "I've heard talk like 
that before, young feller," has damned many a written and 
verbal flow of literary elegance, long on words but short 
on wisdom. 

Here is a letter that was sent to a list of 2000 farmers; 
it brought 234 replies, and it produced $5790.02 worth of 
traceable business. Each letter was accompanied by a type- 
written indorsement from some other farmer, located as 
nearby geographically as we could find. In the author's 
opinion (and he wrote the following letter) this indorse- 
ment was the straw that broke the camel's back of resist- 
ance and brought home the business : 

Dear Sir: 

You naturally want to get just as good Fertilizers for your 
own farm as you can with as little expense as possible. 

We believe that there are no better Fertilizers on the 
Southern market than Royster's. We have been making 


•?r / 



them for almost 30 years and thousands of satisfied users 
tell us that they are good. Read'on sheet attached what just 
one of the Georgia users says. 

Perhaps you have been using Royster's; if not, we want 
to show you why it is to your interest to do so, and to 
arrange to supply you direct, unless it can be arranged to 
supply you more advantageously in some other way. 

So that we may give your actual needs intelligent and 
careful thought it will be necessary to ask you to fill out the 
paragraph that suits your case — owner or renter, or both — 
and return the attached postal card. Sending this informa- 
tion will not obligate you in any way to buy Royster goods, 
but you will, we honestly believe, want to buy them when we 
show you it will pay you to do so. 

Please note particularly whether or not we have your name 
spelled correctly, and the initials right, also whether or not 
the post-office address is the right one and on what Rural 
Free Delivery route you live. Also that we may figure on 
correct freight rate, please give the point on the railroad at 
which you would want your fertilizers delivered. 

Yours for increased crops at a less expense to you. 

The letter just quoted, you will note, coincides in the 
main with the Hart, Schaffner & Marx letter printed in 
the preceding section, yet the author never read the latter 's 
until a few moments ago, while the letter to the farmers 
of Georgia was written more than seven years ago ! 

The letter to the Georgia farmers had a double duty to 
perform. Farmers hate the credit man. They usually 
resent his looking into their credit at all. Note how we in- 
terwove a request for credit information while seeming to 
ask it only for the farmer's benefit. We knew we had the 
correct name and initials, but a signed statement that they 
were correct, accompanied by a statement that he was a 
landowner or a renter, clinched the matter legally. When 
the answer came from a renter he was told that we would 
require the indorsement of the owner, in the case cf his 
[the renter's] purchase. 

There was no follow-up in this case, though as a rule 
farmers are slow to deliberate and a long and strong follow- 
up is usually desirable. 



452. Why Ohe Farmer Bought and Why He Did Not. 
— Postage for September and October, 1916, had an article 
written by B. Effem, a bona fide farmer, telling actually 
why he bought some products and why he had not bought 
others. Confirming the statements made in Section 453, 
read this from Mr. Effem, reproduced word for word as he 
wrote it: 

*' President H. C. P of the Carriage Manu- 
facturing Company, C Ohio, is perhaps an honorable 

and truthful executive. Just the same, there was a time 
when every mention of buggies would come close to making 

me thump the table and call P a blankety-blank liar. 

Also, I 've not bought a buggy, as originally intended, but a 
little gasoline roadster and P is the cause." 

The cause of Mr. Effem's ire was a five-page single-space 
form letter which read in part as follows: 

Your name is one of a list of twenty I selected from the 
thousands who wrote for our new catalogue. . . . 

Several days ago I wrote you a personal letter and nol 
having received a reply up to this time I feel disappointed, 
and am wondering if my letter ever reached you. 

In making this offer, you may wonder why I have picked 
you from the hundreds of persons sending for my cata- 
logue. . . . 

The letter was filled in and signed with a rubber stamp. 
''See the italics?" says Mr. Effem, ''I could quote more 

from the five pages, but these are ample. Mr. P did 

koT write me a personal letter. He tried to make his form 
letter sound personal." 

When it came to buying an incubator, Mr. Effem admits 
that he would have bought an ''X-Ray" but Mrs. Effem 
liked the catalogue of the ''Old Trusty" better; she said it 
was more "serviceable." Which emphasizes a point Mr. 
Sharpe made at Cleveland (see Section 4^8) that the woman 
on the farm is a mighty factor in selling the farmer. The 
DeLaval Company used one piece in each campaign de- 
signed just to sell the woman. 

Mr. Effem admits he bought a DeLaval separator be- 




cause he liked the cover of the catalo^e, 'and naming an- 
other company said it *' wished itself out of the reckoning 
because of what looked like dead-rot in its catalogue. 
There were full pages devoted to photographic reproduction 
of a diploma won at the Paris Exposition of 1900." 

Those interested in the details of the Old Trusty adver- 
tising will find them on page 69 of Printers' Ink for June 
18, 1914, and details of the» DeLaval campaign on page 3 
of the issue of the same publication for August 5, 1915. 

453. Additional References on Selling Farm Field. — 
Postage for August, 1917, page 41, contains the story of a 
threshing-machine campaign ; and in the issue for Februarj^, 
1919, a story of what direct advertising has done for the 
farm, illustrating booklets of Gordon-Van Tine, Ami^rican 
Radiator Company, Western Electric, and others. 

In Mailhag for December, 1920, page 274, Louis Victor 
Eytinge describes at length the seed catalogue of Stokes 
Seed Farms Company (illustrated). 



454. Two Classes of Men Who Influence Purchases. 
—The late Robert W. Sullivan, formerly with Lowe Broth- 
ers Company and at the time of his death with Wilson & 
Company, Chicago, aptly brought out the fact in his speech 
before the 1918 Chicago convention that there were two 
general classes of men who influenced purchases even 
though they themselves did not always originate or pur- 
chase. He referred to these two classes as practical 
and PROFESSIONAL. The practical class, consists of such men 
as master mechanics, superintendents, foremen, depart- 
ment heads, and similar ''men between." The professional 
class consists of architects, doctors, dentists, lawyers, con- 
sulting engineers, and the like. 

Since these men stand between the point of need and 
point of ordering in many cases, then to get their ex- 
pressed or implied recommendation is vital. 

455. How to Get the Recommendation of Professional 
Men. — In many cases the "favorable opinion" of the pro- 
fessional man is practically an indorsement and in the se- 
curing of either direct advertising can be of inestimable 
value. It is a long, hard row from the inception of a new 
product to the securing of professional indorsement. The 
professional man has his standing as a result of years of 
hard study. He is familiar with the textbooks and old au- 
thorities, he has adopted certain standards, he has fixed 
ways of doing things. He is averse, as a rule, to recom- 
mending, directly or indirectly, anything which is new or 
unknown to him. In a measure he is taking his reputation 
in his own hands when he recommends any new service or 









product, and he is acting properly when he proceeds cau- 

The campaign to reach the professional class must be 
planned out thoroughly, and unless you are prepared for a 
long campaign do not start. As the lat